- Christina Fattore & Brian Fitzpatrick, Perceived inequality and support for trade liberalization in Latin America
- Swati Gola, Medical tourism in India – in whose interest?
- Sheng Lu, Impact of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) on US textile and apparel manufacturing: A quantitative evaluation
- Benjamin Liebman, Does the WTO government procurement agreement influence steel imports?
Saturday, December 17, 2016
- Law, Property, Markets and State: Fisheries Governance in Less-Developed Contexts
- Jennifer F. Brewer & Nicholas S. J. Watts, Mending the Net: Property and Markets in Fisheries Policy for Less-Developed Contexts
- David Tecklin, Sensing the Limits of Fixed Marine Property Rights in Changing Coastal Ecosystems: Salmon Aquaculture Concessions, Crises, and Governance Challenges in Southern Chile
- Jeremy M. Raynal, Arielle S. Levine & Mia T. Comeros-Raynal, American Samoa's Marine Protected Area System: Institutions, Governance, and Scale
- Christine M. Beitl, The Changing Legal and Institutional Context for Recognizing Nature's Rights in Ecuador: Mangroves, Fisheries, Farmed Shrimp, and Coastal Management since 1980
- Holly M. Hapke, State-Led Development and the Cultural Economy of Trade in a South Indian Fishery
- Daniel Boyd Kramer, Celia Hallan, Kara Stevens & Mark Axelrod, Getting Beyond Consumption Without Conscience and Production Without Prudence: The Governance of Globalizing Small-Scale Fisheries
- Geoffrey Wandesforde-Smith, Looking for Law in All the Wrong Places? Dying Elephants, Evolving Treaties, and Empty Threats
- Special Issue: Non-State Actors and Responsibility in Cyberspace: State Responsibility, Individual Criminal Responsibility and Issues of Evidence
- Russell Buchan & Nicholas Tsagourias, Special Issue: Non-State Actors and Responsibility in Cyberspace: State Responsibility, Individual Criminal Responsibility and Issues of Evidence
- Tim Maurer, ‘Proxies’ and Cyberspace
- Kubo Mačák, Decoding Article 8 of the International Law Commission’s Articles on State Responsibility: Attribution of Cyber Operations by Non-State Actors
- Russell Buchan, Cyberspace, Non-State Actors and the Obligation to Prevent Transboundary Harm
- Nicholas Tsagourias, Non-State Actors, Ungoverned Spaces and International Responsibility for Cyber Acts
- David P. Fidler, Cyberspace, Terrorism and International Law
- Kai Ambos, Individual Criminal Responsibility for Cyber Aggression
- Elies van Sliedregt, Command Responsibility and Cyberattacks
- M. Vagias, 'The Territorial Jurisdiction of the ICC for Core Crimes Committed Through the Internet'
- Marco Roscini, Digital Evidence as a Means of Proof before the International Court of Justice
- Dan Saxon, Violations of International Humanitarian Law by Non-State Actors during Cyberwarfare: Challenges for Investigations and Prosecutions
- Jean d’Aspremont, Cyber Operations and International Law: An Interventionist Legal Thought
- Language and Linguistic Challenges in International Arbitration and Mediation
- Tsai-yu Lin, Forward to the Special Issue on “Language and Linguistic Challenges in International Arbitration and Mediation”
- Stephan Wilske, Linguistic and Language Issues in International Arbitration─Problems, Pitfalls and Paranoia
- Chang-fa Lo, Beyond Semantics and Semiotics─Arguing for a Clearer Set of Arbitration Rules on the Issues of Translation and Language Interpreting
- Joshua Karton, Reducing the Impact of Mistranslated Testimony in International Arbitral Hearings
- Rajesh Sharma, Is There Any Role for Linguists Among Lawyers in Arbitration?
- Sally A. Harpole, Language in Arbitration Procedure: A Practical Approach for International Commercial Arbitration
- Alexandra Carter & Shawn Watts, The Role of Language Interpretation in Providing a Quality Mediation Process
The article investigates the role of scholarly expertise in and around the international criminal courts. Building on the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu, the article analyses the influence of different forms of scholarship by situating them in the wider ‘field’ of international criminal law. Structured by opposing poles of social worth organized around different perceptions of what is considered valuable knowledge, scholarship on international criminal law took competing forms. A dominant form of scholarship is oriented towards societal impact and caters to legal practice, while more critical perspectives adhere to norms of disinterest and autonomy embedded in academia. Formatted by the larger field of practice in which they exist and by their relative proximity to the opposing poles of societal and academic power and prestige, these perspectives structure the professional rules that govern the field and thus affect the development of its law by defining what is perceived as relevant knowledge.
Existing legal scholarship does not offer an effective or comprehensive definition of sovereignty. Sovereignty, however, matters. Indeed, many have lived and died for it; the term likewise appears with remarkable frequency in both academic and popular discourse. But, sovereignty is not what it used to be. The evolution of globalization generally, and transformations in global commerce specifically, have sutured together the peoples of the world — conventional nation-states and Indigenous groups alike — permanently altering the sovereignty of each. These developments make it that much more imperative to incorporate a functional definition of sovereignty into legal scholarship. But, given the complexities of sovereignty, the tools of law alone are insufficient to generate such a definition. Here anthropology provides unique and powerful insight to supplement those shortcomings. An evidence-based model through the collaborative lenses of law and anthropology shows that sovereignty and culture have become fused in a mechanism driven by the regulation of cross-border capital. This model empowers the policy makers of conventional states and Indigenous groups to more explicitly, efficiently, and effectively integrate different forms of value — both economic and social.
Friday, December 16, 2016
- Jesse Kreier, Seref Coskun, & Hiromi Yano, Anti-Circumvention in the Multilateral System: Plus ça Change
- Paola Arnolt, Anti-Circumvention of Anti-Dumping Measures: Law and Practice of Argentina
- Daniel Moulis, Anti-Circumvention of Anti-Dumping Measures: Law and Practice of Ten World Trade Organization Members – Australia
- Ana Caetano, Circumvention of Anti-Dumping Measures: Law and Practice of Brazil
- Edwin Vermulst, Circumvention of Anti-Dumping Measures: Law and Practice of the European Union
- Juhi Dion Sud, Circumvention of Anti-Dumping Measures: Law and Practice of India
- Gustavo A. Uruchurtu, Anti-Circumvention of Anti-Dumping Measures: Mexico
- Thinus Jacobsz, Circumvention of Anti-Dumping Measures: Law and Practice of South Africa
- Serdar Baskın, Circumvention of Anti-Dumping Measures: Law and Practice of Turkey
- Margaret Spicer, Peggy Clarke, & Gary Horlick, Anti-Circumvention of Anti-Dumping Measures: Law and Practice of the United States
- Folkert Graafsma & Joris Cornelis, Anti-Circumvention: A Comparison
- Stéphanie Noël & Weihuan Zhou, Replacing the Non-Market Economy Methodology: Is the European Union’s Alternative Approach Justified Under the World Trade Organization Anti-Dumping Agreement?
- Nicolaj Alexander Kuplewatzky, An Appeal for Targeted Regulatory Protection of Human Rights in the European Union’s External Trade Relations in Light of Front Polisario
- Sandra L. Bell, The US Prohibition on Imports Made with Forced Labour: The New Law Is a ‘Force’ to Be Reckoned With
- Andreas Kulick, Reassertion of control – an introduction
- Martins Paparinskis, Masters and guardians of international investment law: how to play the game of reassertion
- Mavluda Sattorova, Reassertion of control and contracting parties' domestic law responses to investment treaty arbitration: between reform, reticence and resistance
- Friedrich Rosenfeld, Early dismissal of claims in investment arbitration
- Freya Baetens, Keeping the status quo or embarking on a new course? Setting aside, refusal of enforcement, annulment and appeal
- Andreas Kulick, State-state investment arbitration as a means of reassertion of control: from antagonism to dialogue
- Eleni Methymaki & Antonis Tzanakopoulos, Masters of puppets? Reassertion of control through joint investment treaty interpretation
- Rumiana Yotova, Systematic integration: an instrument for reasserting the states' control in investment arbitration?
- Fernando Lusa Bordin, Reasserting control through withdrawal from investment agreements: what role for the law of treaties?
- Paul Barker, Legitimate regulatory interests: case law and developments in IIA practice
- Diane Desierto, State control over available remedies in investment arbitration
- Eric de Brabandere, States' reassertion of control over international investment law: (re)defining 'fair and equitable treatment' and 'indirect expropriation'
- Nikos Lavranos, How the European Commission and EU member states are reasserting their control over their investment treaties and ISDS rules
- Michael Waibel, Arbitrator selection: towards greater state control
- Stephen Wilske & Melanie Eckardt, Arbitrator (issue) challenge: what's the real issue?
This book tackles one of the most contentious aspects of international criminal law – the modes of liability. At the heart of the discussion is the quest for balance between the accused's individual contribution and the collective nature of mass offending. The principle of legality demands that there exists a well-defined link between the crime and the person charged with it. This is so even in the context of international offending, which often implies 'several degrees of separation' between the direct perpetrator and the person who authorises the atrocity. The challenge is to construct that link without jeopardising the interests of justice.
This monograph provides the first comprehensive treatment of complicity within the discipline and beyond. Extensive analysis of the pertinent statutes and jurisprudence reveals gaps in interpreting accessorial liability. Simultaneously, the study of complicity becomes a test for the general methods and purposes of international criminal law. The book exposes problems with the sources of law and demonstrates the absence of clearly defined sentencing and policy rationales, which are crucial tools in structuring judicial discretion.
- Derecho Internacional Privado
- Jonathan M. Brodsky, Jurisdicción internacional, aplicación de fuentes y Tratados de Montevideo. Algunas reflexiones a propósito del decisorio "Sicamericana SA"
- José C. Fernández Rozas, Un hito más en la construcción del Derecho Internacional Privado de la Unión Europea: regímenes económicos matrimoniales y efectos patrimoniales de las uniones registradas
- Martín J. Urrea Salazar, ¿Derecho Internacional Privado Europeo?
- Derecho Internacional Publico
- María Teresa Alcolado Chico, La aportación de los Estados de Sudamérica a la técnica de la entrega vigilada
- Ricardo Arredondo, Los Derechos Humanos como herramienta de política exterior. El caso argentino
- Leopoldo M.A. Godio, Las actividades militares y su concepción en los Tribunales Internacionales Permanentes. Un análisis a 30 años de la decisión referida a las actividades militares y paramilitares en y contra Nicaragua
- Sebastián Melano, Evolución histórica de los derechos de los pueblos originarios en el plano interamericano. Primeras aproximaciones
- Jorge Pueyo Losa & María Teresa Ponte Iglesias, Hacia un fortalecimiento de las organizaciones regionales de ordenación pesquera desde una dinámica de conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad marina
- Margarita Robles Carrillo, Los principios rectores de la cooperación internacional en el ciberespacio. Alcance y contenido del consenso entre los Estados
- Fernando Villamizar Lamus, Los casos Whaling in the Antarctic (Australia V Japón – Nueva Zelanda interviniente) y territorial and maritime dispute (Nicaragua V. Colombia) y cómo se pretende limitar la jurisdicción obligatoria de la Corte Internacional de Justicia
- Julio F. Villarreal, "Soft law" ¿Conceptualismo y praxis aporística?
- Derecho de la Integracion
- Roberto Ruiz Piracés, Chile y Argentina: de una "Sociedad geográfica" a una "Sociedad estratégica"
- Jorge A. Quevedo Flores & Luis A. Parrilla Benítez, Implicaciones de la economía social de mercado en el proceso de Integración Latinoamericano. Desarrollo y cohesión social en la Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños (CELAC)
- Enrique N. Ulate Chacón, La Justicia Comunitaria Centroamericana. Competencia y procedimientos
- Kerstin Lingen & Robert Cribb, Justice in Time of Turmoil: War Crimes Trials in Asia in the Context of Decolonization and Cold War
- Neil Boister, Colonialism, Anti-Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism in China: The Opium Question at the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal
- Beatrice Trefalt, The French Prosecution at the IMTFE: Robert Oneto, Indochina and the Rehabilitation of French Prestige
- Milinda Banerjee, Decolonization and Subaltern Sovereignty: India and the Tokyo Trial
- Anja Bihler, The Legacy of Extraterritoriality and the Trial of Japanese War Criminals in the Republic of China
- Robert Cribb, The Burma Trials of Japanese War Criminals, 1946–1947
- Wolfgang Form, Colonization and Postcolonial Justice: US and Philippine War Crimes Trials in Manila After the Second World War
- Ann-Sophie Schoepfel, Justice and Decolonization: War Crimes on Trial in Saigon, 1946–1950
- Lisette Schouten, Netherlands East Indies’ War Crimes Trials in the Face of Decolonization
- Dean Aszkielowicz, Australia’s Pursuit of the Taiwanese and Korean ‘Japanese’ War Criminals
- Valentyna Polunina, From Tokyo to Khabarovsk: Soviet War Crimes Trials in Asia as Cold War Battlefields
- Adam Cathcart, Resurrecting Defeat: International Propaganda and the Shenyang Trials of 1956
- Jan Fichtner, Perpetual decline or persistent dominance? Uncovering Anglo-America’s true structural power in global finance
- Holger Niemann & Henrik Schillinger, Contestation ‘all the way down’? The grammar of contestation in norm research
- Stefano Recchia, Authorising humanitarian intervention: a five-point defence of existing multilateral procedures
- Christopher J. Finlay, Bastards, brothers, and unjust warriors: Enmity and ethics in Just War Cinema
- Joanna Tidy, Visual regimes and the politics of war experience: Rewriting war ‘from above’ in WikiLeaks’ ‘Collateral Murder’
- Lloyd Cox & Steve Wood, ‘Got him’: Revenge, emotions, and the killing of Osama bin Laden
- Deepa Prakash & Asli Ilgit, More than a feeling: Emotional responses to international criticism in Erdoğan’s Turkey
- Jonathan W. Kuyper & Theresa Squatrito, International courts and global democratic values: Participation, accountability, and justification
- Evgeny Roshchin, The Hague Conferences and ‘international community’: a politics of conceptual innovation
- Carlos Cerda Dueñas, El Principio de Responsabilidades Comunes pero Diferenciadas
- Juan José Álvarez Rubio, Una renovada dimensión de los conflictos internos: la Ley 5/2015 de Derecho civil vasco y la interacción entre bloques normativos
- Paz Andrés Sáenz de Santamaría, La Unión Europea y el Derecho de los tratados: una relación compleja
- Esther Barbé, Contestación normativa y Consejo de Seguridad: la agenda de mujeres, paz y seguridad o de la resolución 1325 a la resolución 2242
- Alfonso Luis Calvo Caravaca, Aplicación judicial del Derecho extranjero en España. Consideraciones críticas
- Javier Carrascosa González, Ley aplicable a la filiación por naturaleza: de la ley nacional a la ley de la residencia habitual del hijo
- Rafael Casado Raigón, La investigación científica en los espacios marinos reconocidos por el Derecho internacional
- Esperanza Orihuela Calatayud, La obligación aut dedere aut iudicare y su cumplimiento en España
- Ana María Salinas de Frías, Lucha contra el terrorismo internacional: no solo del uso de la fuerza pueden vivir los Estados
- Elena Conde Pérez, Retos jurídicos de las actividades de bioprospección marina: especial referencia a las zonas polares
- Francisco Jiménez García, "Combatientes terroristas extranjeros" y conflictos armados: utilitarismo inmediato ante fenómenos no resueltos y normas no consensuadas
- José Luis Rodríguez-Villasante y Prieto, El Derecho internacional humanitario ante los desafíos que plantean los actores no estatales
- Marco Sassòli, Actores no estatales y desafíos para el Derecho internacional humanitario
- Angel Espiniella Menéndez, Crítica al régimen especial de rechazos en la frontera de Ceuta y Melilla
- Carmen Ruiz Sutil, El rechazo en frontera o la denominada "devolución en caliente" y su regulación en la LOEX
- Francisco Javier Forcada Miranda, Carencias, necesidades y conflictos de la sustracción internacional de menores y el novedoso marco legal español
- Rosario Espinosa Calabuig, Traslado o retención ilícitos de menores tras la reforma de 2015: rapidez, especialización y … algunas ausencias
Thursday, December 15, 2016
- Jean-Pierre Cot, Expectations Attached to Conciliation Reconsidered
- Lauri Mälksoo, Conciliation within the Framework of Dispute Settlement Procedures: An East European Perspective
- Giuseppe Palmisano, Diplomatic and Jurisdictional Aspects in Conciliation Procedures: Conciliation between Dispute Settlement and Conflict Prevention
- Daniel Thürer, Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes: About the Essence and Role of Conciliation
- Riccardo Pisillo Mazzeschi, Prevention and Resolution of Conflicts in the OSCE and the Role of the Court of Conciliation and Arbitration
- Christian Tomuschat, Conciliation within the Framework of the OSCE Court of Conciliation and Arbitration. An Assessment from the Viewpoint of Legal Policy
- Edouard Planche, UNESCO Mediation and Conciliation Procedure for Promoting the Return and Restitution of Cultural Property
- August Reinisch, Elements of Conciliation in Dispute Settlement Procedures Relating to International Economic Law
- Stuart Bruce, The Project for an International Environmental Court
- Rüdiger Wolfrum, Conciliation under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
- Ulf Linderfalk, The Jan Mayen Case (Iceland/Norway)
The Kluwer Journal of International Arbitration (JOIA) is pleased to announce a forthcoming Special Issue on “Dispute Resolution in Asia.”
This Special Issue will focus on the use of international arbitration as means of resolving cross-border disputes in Asia. Slowly but steadily, Asia has established its presence on the international arbitration world map. The main drivers of this process have been attributed to the growing economic strength and geopolitical importance of the region, as well as the ever-increasing legal sophistication and infrastructure of Asian jurisdictions. Asia’s economic development leads to growing numbers of international arbitrations involving Asian parties, while at the same time providing these parties with inherently stronger bargaining powers in shaping the arbitral process. As new arbitration institutions have been set up in an attempt to capture this market, the leading arbitration institutions in Asia continue to be trendsetters in initiating rule revisions. At the same time, Asian states have introduced varying degrees of reforms to their arbitration laws. As Asia continues on its steady transition to maturity, there will no doubt be challenges. For instance, how will Asia ensure a consistent pattern of excellence across the region? Will Asian jurisdictions be able to address the increasing concerns of time and costs in arbitration? How can one support the growth of a pool of international arbitrators with credible knowledge of Asia?
Submissions to this Special Issue may include (but are not limited to) a review or critique of recent innovations, challenges, reforms, or decisions concerning international arbitration in one or more Asian jurisdictions. We invite all those with an interest in the theme of “Dispute Resolution in Asia” to contribute to this special issue. The general author guidelines of the journal apply and can be found here. Manuscripts should be submitted to EditorJOIA@kluwerlaw.com, for consideration on or before 15 February 2017.
Professor Dr Maxi Scherer (General Editor JOIA)
Darius Chan (Special Issue Editor)
Victoria Narancio (Assistant Editor)
In exploring the Obama war powers legacy, this essay examines the systemic forces inside the executive branch that influence modern presidential decision-making and, barring a total reimagining of the executive branch, will operate on administrations to come. These mechanisms and norms fall broadly within two categories: (1) features that favor continuity and hinder presidents from effecting change, including both novel assertions of executive power and attempts to dial back that power; and (2) features that incrementally aggrandize such power claims. Together, these two sets of forces operate as a one-way ratchet, slowly expanding and ultimately entrenching executive branch power.
- Audrey Damiens, Brèves remarques sur la réforme du droit des contrats, du régime général et de la preuve des obligations et le droit international privé
- Jean-Sylvestre Bergé & Stéphane Grumbach, La sphère des données et le droit : nouvel espace, nouveaux rapports aux territoires
- Dominic McGoldrick, The Development and Status of Sexual Orientation Discrimination under International Human Rights Law
- Ryszard Wilson Piotrowicz & Liliana Sorrentino, Human Trafficking and the Emergence of the Non-Punishment Principle
- Annika Jones, Insights Into an Emerging Relationship: Use of Human Rights Jurisprudence at the International Criminal Court
- Dilek Kurban, Forsaking Individual Justice: The Implications of the European Court of Human Rights’ Pilot Judgment Procedure for Victims of Gross and Systematic Violations
- Stephen Allen, The Scope of Third-Party Responsibility for Serious Human Rights Abuses under the European Convention on Human Rights: Wrongdoing in the British Indian Ocean Territory
The article proposes to think counterfactually about international law. For example, what if the ICJ had decided South West Africa on the merits or had it not done so in Nicaragua? What if a different conception of the sources of international law had emerged in the drafting of the Statute of the PCIJ or during decolonization in the 1960s? Writing counterfactual (hi)stories of international law, the article submits, has the potential of, first, exposing the contingency of outcomes that is glossed over in the rush towards making sense of what actually happened. Second, it supports the understanding of what actually happened in a context-sensitive fashion that complements grand theories’ emphasis on systemic variables. Third, counterfactual thinking forms part of comparative assessments and exposes normative blind spots. Counterfactual thinking thus contributes to the freedom from necessity, from grand theory, and from reality. In short, by asking how it could be otherwise, counterfactual thinking questions the present shape of international law. Inspired by thriving practices of counterfactual thinking in history, social science and critical theory, the article develops a nuanced argument in favour of thinking counterfactually about international law. It draws the contours of what counterfactual thinking is about, discusses merits, offers guidance on how to do it, and provides at least one more detailed example — what if the International Trade Organization had been established around 1949?
Arbitrators are lead actors in global dispute resolution. They are to global dispute resolution what judges are to domestic dispute resolution. Despite its global significance, arbitral decision making is a black box. This Article is the first to use original experimental research to explore how international arbitrators decide cases. We find that arbitrators often make intuitive and impressionistic decisions, rather than fully deliberative decisions. We also find evidence that casts doubt on the conventional wisdom that arbitrators render “split the baby” decisions. Although direct comparisons are difficult, we find that arbitrators generally perform at least as well as, but never demonstrably worse than, national judges analyzed in earlier research. There may be reasons to prefer judges to international arbitrators, but the quality of judgment and decision making, at least as measured in these experimental studies, is not one of them. Thus, normative debates about global dispute resolution should focus on using structural safeguards and legal protections to enhance quality decision-making, regardless of decision maker identity or title.
Under the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention, States have sovereign rights over the resources of their continental shelf out to 200 nautical miles from the coast. Where the physical shelf extends beyond 200 nautical miles, States may exercise rights over those resources to the outer limits of the continental shelf. More than 80 States may be entitled to claim sovereign rights over their continental shelf where it extends beyond 200 nautical miles from their coast, and the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf is currently examining many of these claims.
This book examines the nature of the rights and obligations of coastal States in this area, with a particular focus on the options for regulating activities on the extended continental shelf. Because the extended continental shelf lies below the high seas, the area poses unique legal challenges for coastal States that are different from those faced in respect of the shelf within 200 nautical miles. In addition, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea imposes some specific obligations that coastal States must comply with in respect of the extended continental shelf.
The book discusses the development of the concept of the extended continental shelf. It explores a range of issues facing the coastal State in regulating matters such as environmental protection, fishing, bioprospecting, exploitation of non-living resources and marine scientific research on the extended continental shelf. The book proposes a framework for navigating the intersection between the high seas and the extended continental shelf and minimising the potential for conflict between flag and coastal States.
- Kristy A. Belton, Ending Statelessness Through Belonging: A Transformative Agenda?
- Tim Meijers & Marlies Glasius, Trials as Messages of Justice: What Should Be Expected of International Criminal Courts?
- Book Symposium: The Heart of Human Rights
- The Editors, Introduction
- Pietro Maffettone, On Constitutional Democracy and Robust International Law
- David Miller, Human Rights and Status Egalitarianism
- Andrea Sangiovanni, Are Moral Rights Necessary for the Justification of International Legal Human Rights?
- Jesse Tomalty, Justifying International Legal Human Rights
- Lorenzo Zucca, The Fragility of International Human Rights Law
- Allen Buchanan, Human Rights: A Plea for Taking the Law and Institutions Seriously
- Review Essay
- Jennifer C. Rubenstein, The Lessons of Effective Altruism
Wednesday, December 14, 2016
In this article we argue that the conventional command-and-control theories related to regulatory requirements fall away in the face of transnational regulatory governance. We therefore seek a new explanatory model that prioritizes and recognizes the discursive nature of international regulatory proceedings. Importantly, we contend that the way regulatory problems are discussed, and thus the way they are communitized, affects the way parties ultimately reconcile. We conclude that collaborative and less confrontational regulatory exchanges tend to be significantly more successful than formal and inquisitive ones.
- Ludwig Adamovich, Fünf Jahre nach der verfassungsrechtlichen Lösung des Ortstafelstreits in Kärnten
- Swetlana Czerwonnaja & Martin Malek, Deportation und Verbannung der Krimtataren
- Ines Gruber, Politische Entwicklung der Auslandsungarn
- Peter Hilpold, Sprachenrechte in Österreich – Neue Herausforderungen vor dem Hintergrund der aktuellen Fluchtbewegungen
- Gerhart Holzinger, Die Lösung des Kärntner Ortstafelstreits – fünf Jahre danach
- Peter Kaiser, Gemeinsam/Skupno
- Rudolf Vouk, Fünf Jahre „Ortstafellösung“ – war’s das schon?
- M. Simon Thomas, Interlegality at a Teniente Político’s Office: A Legal Anthropological Perspective
- L.F. Ávila Linzán, Subordinación cultural, interpretación constitucional y justicia indígena: Casos “La Cocha”
- L. Viaene & G. Fernández-Maldonado, La brecha entre el compromiso y el cumplimiento con los derechos de los pueblos indígenas. Reflexiones sobre los avances y retrocesos en materia de justicia indígena en Ecuador
- A.M. Russo, El “derecho transconstitucional de la diversidad”: La “especialidad indígena” en el desarrollo interamericano del derecho de propiedad
- R. Toniatti, El paradigma constitucional de la inclusión de la diversidad cultural: Notas para una comparación entre los modelos de protección de las minorías nacionales en Europa y de los pueblos indígenas en Latinoamérica
- M. Morales Antoniazzi, La interamericanización a la luz del pluralismo dialógico: Un aporte al ius constitutionale commune
- V.E. Ibañez Rosaz, El constitucionalismo y los ordenamientos jurídicos nacionales vs. la desconstitucionalización y el nivel supranacional. Un análisis del control de convencionalidad en el marco del control de constitucionalidad
- C. Pizzolo, Diálogo o monólogo: La Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos y el control de convencionalidad. El caso Argentino
- A. Mensa González, La relación de la Corte IDH con los tribunales constitucionales y cortes supremas: Actualidad Latinoamericana
- G. D’ignazio, Integración regional y tutela de los derechos humanos: ¿“Fragmentos” de un constitucionalismo transnacional Iberoamericano?
- G. Martinico, When Courts Respectfully Disagree. How National Courts Disobey the ECtHR
- M. González Pascual, Social Rights Protection and Financial Crisis in Europe. Th e Right to Housing in Spain: A Cautionary Tale
Lijnzaad & the Council of Europe: The Judge and International Custom / Le juge et la coutume internationale
- Thorbjorn Jagland, Foreword
- Liesbeth Lijnzaad, Preface
- Edwige Belliard, Introduction
- Peter Tomka, Customary International Law in the Jurisprudence of the World Court: The Increasing Relevance of Codification
- Tullio Treves & Ximena Hinrichs, The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and Customary International Law
- Jiří Malenovský, The Judge and International Custom: Perspective of the European Union and its Court of Justice
- Ineta Ziemele, Customary International Law in the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights
- Eduardo Vio Grossi, Customary International Law in the Case Law of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights
- Bernard Stirn, International Custom in French Public Law
- Andreas Paulus, Customary Law before the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany
- Liesbeth Lijnzaad, Customary International Law before Dutch Courts: Nyugat and Beyond
- Dmitry Dedov, The Development of the Public Order Concept in Russian Case Law
- Ernest Petrić, Customary International Law in the Case Law of the Constitutional Court of Slovenia
- Lord Collins of Mapesbury & Tom Cross, The Law of International Custom in the Case Law of the House of Lords and the United Kingdom Supreme Court
- Michael Wood, The Current Work of the International Law Commission and the Role of Judges in Relation to International Custom
Vesper-Gräske: Zur Hierarchie der Völkerrechtsverbrechen nach dem Statut des Internationalen Strafgerichtshofs
Das Buch befasst sich mit einer Grundlagenfrage des Völkerstrafrechts. Es erörtert, ob und inwiefern zwischen den Kernverbrechen des IStGH-Statuts – Völkermord, Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit und Kriegsverbrechen – eine Rangordnung hinsichtlich der Schwere dieser Verbrechen besteht.
Hierbei werden die jeweiligen Gewichte der Völkerrechtsverbrechen herausgearbeitet und zueinander in Relation gesetzt. Darüber hinaus findet eine Analyse der Wertungen des IStGH-Statuts sowie einzelner nationaler Regelungen von Vertrags- und Nichtvertragsstaaten in Hinblick auf eine Verbrechenshierarchie statt. Die Untersuchung gelangt zu dem Ergebnis, dass eine Hierarchie der Völkerrechtsverbrechen grundsätzlich zu bejahen ist.
Shaffer & Halliday: With, Within, and Beyond the State: The Promise and Limits of Transnational Legal Ordering
While some theorize the autonomy of transnational legal orders from nation-state law, we develop theory regarding the transnational interaction of lawmaking and practice among different levels of social organization that is intricately tied to state law. Our theoretical framework provides a way to assess empirically how legal norms interact at the transnational, national, and local levels in terms of their construction, conveyance, and practice. For us, the term “transnational” thus does not suggest the disappearance of the state, the withdrawal of the state as a major actor, or processes autonomous of state law, as contended by others. Rather, the term “transnational” has three core attributes. First, it highlights that states (through state officials) are just one among many actors engaged in transnational legal ordering. Second, it points to the ways transnational legal ordering transcends and often transforms states through their participation in transnational legal processes. Third, it underscores that one needs to assess the interaction of state and non-state actors at different levels of social organization, including international organizations and transnational networks, national institutions, and local practice, to understand transnational legal ordering. This interaction determines the extent to which legal norms settle across levels of social organization and give rise to transnational legal orders.
- Foreign Fighters and Foreign Terrorist Fighters: An International Law and Human Rights Perspective
- Elżbieta Karska & Karol Karski, Introduction: The Phenomenon of Foreign Fighters and Foreign Terrorist Fighters
- Simon Chesterman, Dogs of War or Jackals of Terror? Foreign Fighters and Mercenaries in International Law
- José L. Gómez del Prado, Whether the Criteria Contained in the 1989 International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries Notably Motivation Apply to Today’s Foreign Fighters?
- Haykel Ben Mahfoudh, Protect, Respect and Remedy: A Framework for Accountability for Human Rights Violations Committed by Foreign Fighters
- Dara Conduit & Ben Rich, Foreign Fighters, Human Rights and Self-Determination in Syria and Iraq: Decoding the Humanitarian Impact of Foreign Fighters in Practice
- Letta Tayler, Foreign Terrorist Fighter Laws: Human Rights Rollbacks Under UN Security Council Resolution 2178
- Zubeda Limbada & Lynn Davies, Addressing the Foreign Terrorist Fighter Phenomenon from a Human Rights Perspective
- Karen Engle, Zinaida Miller, & D.M. Davis, Introduction
- Karen Engle, A Genealogy of the Criminal Turn in Human Rights
- Samuel Moyn, Anti-Impunity as Deflection of Argument
- Vasuki Nesiah, Doing History with Impunity
- D.M. Davis, The South African Truth Commission and the AZAPO Case: A Reflection Almost Two Decades Later
- Zinaida Miller, Anti-Impunity Politics in Post-Genocide Rwanda
- Fabia Fernandes Carvalho Veçoso, Whose Exceptionalism? Debating the Inter-American View on Amnesty and the Brazilian Case
- Helena Alviar García & Karen Engle, The Distributive Politics of Impunity and Anti-Impunity: Lessons from Four Decades of Colombian Peace Negotiations
- Natalie R. Davidson, From Political Repression to Torturer Impunity: The Narrowing of Filártiga v. Peña-Irala
- Dianne Otto, Impunity in a Different Register: People’s Tribunals and Questions of Judgment, Law, and Responsibility
- Mahmood Mamdani, Beyond Nuremberg: The Historical Significance of the Post-Apartheid Transition in South Africa
Young scholars and PhD candidates interested in empirical methods in international law are invited to submit expressions of interest for this workshop on the use of "authorities" in international dispute settlement. The workshop will not involve the publication of papers, although works-in-progress will be discussed by the participants. By bringing together young and established scholars using empirical methods, this workshop aspires to provide inspiration and practical guidance.
The workshop, funded by the British Academy, is organised by Dr Michael Waibel and will take place on 20 March 2017, at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law at the University of Cambridge. Expressions of interest shall be sent to Damien Charlotin (firstname.lastname@example.org) by 10 January 2017 with a description of your research interests and how they relate to the theme of the workshop, plus a CV with a list of publications. The organizer will let applicants know by 20 January 2017 about the outcome of their application.
- Robert Beckman, ‘Deliberate Ambiguity’ and the Demise of China’s Claim to Historic Rights in the South China Sea
- Tran Thang Long, Impacts of the Award of the Arbitral Tribunal in the Case between the Philippines and China
- Anh Duc Ton, Innocent Passage of Warships: International Law and the Practice of East Asian Littoral States
- State Law of the Sea Practice in Asian Pacific States
- Seokwoo Lee, Hee Eun Lee, Hyo Jin Lee, & Kyu Rang Kim, The Gap between Korean Law and the People’s Perception of the Abandonment of Duties
- Jun Zhao, China’s Initiative to Revive the Maritime Silk Road for Trade and Development
- Chen-Ju Chen, State Practice of Taiwan Regarding Underwater Cultural Heritage Preservation
- Tran H.D. Minh, Recent Practice on Enforcement of Vietnam’s Customs Law in Its EEZ
- Anastasia Telesetsky, United States Humpback Whale Conservation Management
- Current Legal Developments
- Clive R. Symmons, First Reactions to the Philippines v China Arbitration Award Concerning the Supposed Historic Claims of China in the South China Sea
- Keyuan Zou, Historic Rights in the South China Sea Arbitration Case
- Lorenzo Schiano di Pepe, Arbitral Tribunal Constituted under Annex VII of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Permanent Court of Arbitration Case No. 2015–28, The Italian Republic v. The Republic of India Concerning the “Enrica Lexie” Incident, Provisional Measures, Order of 29 April 2016
- Zhen Sun, Tenth Anniversary of the Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combatting Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia
- Leonardo Bernard, The Impact of ICJ’s Preliminary Decision on the Nicaragua v Colombia Case to the Asia Pacific Region
Tuesday, December 13, 2016
- J. Wouters, Introduction: Universality and Regional Diversity in the Human Rights Arena
- A. Förster, The Concept of Human Rights – Dissolving the Universality- Plurality Puzzle
- C.B. Pavese, Converging Perspectives, Cross-cutting Approaches: Assessing Voting Cohesion in UNHRC Regional Groups
- A-L- Chané & A. Sharma, Universal Human Rights? Exploring Contestation and Consensus in the UN Human Rights Council
- T.J. Gunn & A. Lagresa, The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation: Universal Human Rights, Islamic Values, or Raisons d’état?
Reordering the World is a penetrating account of the complexity and contradictions found in liberal visions of empire. Focusing mainly on nineteenth-century Britain—at the time the largest empire in history and a key incubator of liberal political thought—Duncan Bell sheds new light on some of the most important themes in modern imperial ideology.
The book ranges widely across Victorian intellectual life and beyond. The opening essays explore the nature of liberalism, varieties of imperial ideology, the uses and abuses of ancient history, the imaginative functions of the monarchy, and fantasies of Anglo-Saxon global domination. They are followed by illuminating studies of prominent thinkers, including J. A. Hobson, L. T. Hobhouse, John Stuart Mill, Henry Sidgwick, Herbert Spencer, and J. R. Seeley. While insisting that liberal attitudes to empire were multiple and varied, Bell emphasizes the liberal fascination with settler colonialism. It was in the settler empire that many liberal imperialists found the place of their political dreams.
Treaty shopping, also known under the terms of nationality planning, corporate (re-)structuring or corporate maneuvering, implies a strategic change of nationality or strategic invocation of another nationality with the aim of accessing another (usually more favourable) investment treaty for purposes of investment arbitration. When deciding on whether an investment claim based on treaty shopping should be upheld or dismissed, investment arbitral tribunals have been increasingly faced with significant questions, such as: What is treaty shopping and how may legitimate nationality planning be distinguished from treaty abuse in international investment law? Should a claimant that is controlled by a host-State national be considered a protected investor, or should tribunals pierce its corporate veil? Does an investor have to make the investment in good faith, and does it have to make a contribution of its own to the investment it is claiming protection for? When does a corporate restructuring constitute an abuse of process, and which is the role of the notion of dispute in this respect? How efficient are denial of benefits clauses to counter treaty shopping?
Treaty Shopping in International Investment Law examines in a systematic manner the practice of treaty shopping in international investment law and arbitral decisions that have undertaken to draw this line. While some legal approaches taken by arbitral tribunals have started to consolidate, others remain unsettled, painting a picture of an overall inconsistent jurisprudence. This is hardly surprising, given the thousands of international investment agreements that provide for the investor´s right to sue the host State on grounds of alleged breaches of investment obligations. This book analyses and discusses the different ways by which arbitral tribunals have dealt with the value judgment at the core of the distinction between objectionable and unobjectionable treaty shopping, and makes proposals de lege ferenda on how States could reform their international investment agreements (in particular with respect to treaty drafting) in order to make them less susceptible to the practice of treaty shopping.
Hidden Power reveals criminal mafias determining political outcomes to suit their own agendas, and tells how they do it — by influencing elections, changing constitutions, fomenting terrorism, waging war, negotiating peace deals and working behind the scenes in pivotal historical moments such as the Second World War and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Drawing on unpublished government documents and mafia memoirs, James Cockayne reveals a century of forgotten political-criminal collaboration in New York, Sicily and the Caribbean and explains how such links persist globally, from the drug wars in Mexico, to smuggling routes in West Africa, to political instability in Russia, Ukraine and Central Asia. Forcing us to rethink our distinctions between politics, conflict and crime, Hidden Power reveals a world in which states and mafias compete — and collaborate — for power.
- William G. Bassler, The enforceability of emergency awards in the United States: or when interim means final
- David Collins, The line of equilibrium: improving the legitimacy of investment treaty arbitration through the application of the WTO’s general exceptions
- Marc J. Goldstein, Living (or not) with the partisan arbitrator: are there limits to deliberations secrecy?
- Matthew Blome, Contractual waiver of Article 52 ICSID: a solution to the concerns with annulment?
- Joel Dahlquist, Beside the point—on obiter dicta in investment treaty arbitration
- Recent Developments
- Alexey Yadykin, Martin C. Mekat, & Noah Rubins, The Russian arbitration reform
- Arjit Oswal & Balaji Sai Krishnan, Public policy as a ground to set aside arbitral award in India
- Stephen R. Tully, Challenging awards before national courts for a denial of natural justice: lessons from Australia
- Case Notes
- Isha Jain, The legal implications of Indian parties resorting to foreign arbitration: decoding the decision in Addhar
- Amokura Kawharu, Rehearings of jurisdiction issues: a fresh look at the judicial task
Human security provides one of the most important protections; a person-centred axis of freedom from fear, from want and to live with dignity. It is surprising given its centrality to the human experience, that its connection with human rights has not yet been explored in a truly systematic way. This important new book addresses that gap in the literature by analysing whether human security might provide the tools for an expansive and integrated interpretation of international human rights. The examination takes a two-part approach. Firstly, it evaluates convergences between human security and all human rights – civil, political, economic, social and cultural – and constructs an investigative framework focused on the human security-human rights synergy. It then goes on to explore its practical application in the thematic cores of violence against women and undocumented migrants in the law and case-law of UN, European, Inter-American and African human rights bodies. It takes both a legal and interdisciplinary approach, recognising that human security and its relationship with human rights cuts across disciplinary boundaries. Innovative and rigorous, this is an important contribution to human rights scholarship.
- Andrea Betti, “Slay This Monster”: the United States and Opposition to the Rome Statute on the International Criminal Court
- Evan W. Sandlin, Competing Concerns: Balancing Human Rights and National Security in US Economic Aid Allocation
- Richard P. Hiskes, The Honor of Human Rights: Environmental Rights and the Duty of Intergenerational Promise
- Jilles L. J. Hazenberg, Transnational Corporations and Human Rights Duties: Perfect and Imperfect
Monday, December 12, 2016
- Harmen van der Wilt, Expanding Criminal Responsibility in Challenging Transnational and International Organised Crime
- Andreas Schloenhardt & Rebekkah Markey-Towler, Non-Criminalisation of Victims of Trafficking in Persons — Principles, Promises, and Perspectives
- Tsvi Kahana & Anat Scolnicov, Introduction
- Jean Thomas, Our rights, but whose duties? Re-conceptualizing rights in the era of globalization
- David Schneiderman, On suffering and societal constitutionalism: at the border of international investment and arbitration
- José E. Alvarez, Beware: boundary crossings
- Mark Tushnet, Dialogue and constitutional duty
- Vicki C. Jackson, Positive obligations, positive rights and constitutional amendment
- Helen Hershkoff, Privatizing public rights: common law and state action in the United States
- Johan van der Walt, Abdications of sovereignty in state action and horizontal effect jurisprudence
- Tsvi Kahana, Hybrid state accountability and hybrid rights: positive rights, exclusion, and state action in Canada
- Anat Scolnicov, Human rights and derivative rights: the European Convention on Human Rights and the rights of corporations
- A. C. L. Davies, Judicial review and Human Rights Act review in contracted-out public services: options for litigation in English law
- Stephanie Palmer, Privatization and human rights in the United Kingdom
- Paul B. Miller, Principles of public fiduciary administration
- Megan Dersnah & Ron Levi, Human rights indicators and boundaries of accountability and opportunity
How does a nation become a great power? A global order was emerging in the nineteenth century, one in which all nations were included. This book explores the multiple legal grounds of Meiji Japan's assertion of sovereign statehood within that order: natural law, treaty law, international administrative law, and the laws of war. Contrary to arguments that Japan was victimized by 'unequal' treaties, or that Japan was required to meet a 'standard of civilization' before it could participate in international society, Howland argues that the Westernizing Japanese state was a player from the start. In the midst of contradictions between law and imperialism, Japan expressed state will and legal acumen as an equal of the Western powers – international incidents in Japanese waters, disputes with foreign powers on Japanese territory, and the prosecution of interstate war. As a member of international administrative unions, Japan worked with fellow members to manage technical systems such as the telegraph and the post. As a member of organizations such as the International Law Association and as a leader at the Hague Peace Conferences, Japan helped to expand international law. By 1907, Japan was the first non-western state to join the ranks of the great powers.
The concept of sustainable development is created to coordinate the relationship between resource uses and environmental protection. Environmental protection is necessary to achieve the goal of sustainable resource uses and economic benefits deriving from resources can provide the conditions in which environmental protection can best be achieved. Sustainable Development and the Law of the Sea offers international legal perspectives on ocean uses including fisheries management, sustainable use of marine non-living resources, and marine protected areas in the context of sustainable development. Pushing that sustainability is a requirement for ocean use as well as for the establishment and development of the world marine legal order, the volume provides a useful reference for policy-makers and the international legal community and for all those interested in ocean governance.
- Hendrik Hegemann & Martin Kahl, (Re-)Politisierung der Sicherheit?
- Thomas Sommerer, Transnationale Zivilgesellschaft zwischen Dissidenz und Partizipation
- Antonio Arcudi, Die Responsibility to Protect im Kreuzfeuer der Kritik
- Franziskus von Lucke, Thomas Diez, & Zehra Wellmann, Klimakämpfe: Eine komparative Studie der Versicherheitlichung von Klimawandel
- Thomas Risse & Wiebke Wemheuer-Vogelaar, IB in Deutschland: jung, internationalisiert und eklektisch
- Alexander Wendts »Quantum Mind and Social Science: Unifying Physical and Social Ontology«
- Mathias Albert, Theoretischer Quantensprung oder ein Quäntchen IB?
- Stephan Stetter, Säen und Ernten: Quantentheorie sozial- und (welt-)gesellschaftstheoretisch weitergedacht
- Oliver Kessler, The Carpet Crawlers: Quanten in den Internationalen Beziehungen
- Ottoman International Law
- Lâle Can & Michael Christopher Low, The “Subjects” of Ottoman International Law
- Will Smiley, Freeing “The Enslaved People of Islam”: The Changing Meaning of Ottoman Subjecthood for Captives in the Russian Empire
- Aimee M. Genell, The Well-Defended Domains: Eurocentric International Law and the Making of the Ottoman Office of Legal Counsel
- Will Hanley, What Ottoman Nationality Was and Was Not
- Michael Christopher Low, Unfurling the Flag of Extraterritoriality: Autonomy, Foreign Muslims, and the Capitulations in the Ottoman Hijaz
- Faiz Ahmed, Contested Subjects: Ottoman and British Jurisdictional Quarrels in re Afghans and Indian Muslims
- David Gutman, Travel Documents, Mobility Control, and the Ottoman State in an Age of Global Migration, 1880–1915
- Umut Özsu, Ottoman International Law?
- Justice Arden, Water for All? Developing a Human Right to Water in National and International Law
- Christof Heyns, Dapo Akande, Lawrence Hill-Cawthorne, & Thompson Chengeta, The International Law Framework Regulating the Use of Armed Drones
- Edward Guntrip, Self-Determination and Foreign Direct Investment: Reimagining Sovereignty in International Investment Law
- Richard Lappin, The Right to Vote for Non-Resident Citizens in Europe
- Abimbola A. Olowofoyeku, Bias in Collegiate Courts
- Shorter Article and Notes
- Stefan Talmon, The Chagos Marine Protected Area Arbitration: Expansion of the Jurisdiction of UNCLOS Part XV Courts and Tribunals
- Eric C Ip, Comparative Subnational Foreign Relations Law in the Chinese Special Administrative Regions
- Muhammet A. Bas & Andrew J. Coe, A Dynamic Theory of Nuclear Proliferation and Preventive War
- Christian Houle, Mark A. Kayser, & Jun Xiang, Diffusion or Confusion? Clustered Shocks and the Conditional Diffusion of Democracy
- Jack Paine, Rethinking the Conflict “Resource Curse”: How Oil Wealth Prevents Center-Seeking Civil Wars
- Meredith Wilf, Credibility and Distributional Effects of International Banking Regulations: Evidence from US Bank Stock Returns
- Timm Betz & Andrew Kerner, Real Exchange Rate Overvaluation and WTO Dispute Initiation in Developing Countries
- Karolina M. Milewicz & Duncan Snidal, Cooperation by Treaty: The Role of Multilateral Powers
- Review Essay
- Jordan Branch, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in International Relations
- Thijs Etty, Veerle Heyvaert, Cinnamon Carlarne, Dan Farber, Bruce Huber, & Jolene Lin, A Celebration of the Fifth Anniversary of Transnational Environmental Law
- Anniversary Issue
- Jacqueline Peel, Foreword
- Sébastien Jodoin & Sarah Mason-Case, What Difference Does CBDR Make? A Socio-Legal Analysis of the Role of Differentiation in the Transnational Legal Process for REDD+
- Christina Voigt & Felipe Ferreira, ‘Dynamic Differentiation’: The Principles of CBDR-RC, Progression and Highest Possible Ambition in the Paris Agreement
- Philippe Cullet, Differential Treatment in Environmental Law: Addressing Critiques and Conceptualizing the Next Steps
- Patrícia Galvão Ferreira, ‘Common But Differentiated Responsibilities’ in the National Courts: Lessons from Urgenda v. The Netherlands
- Lisa Benjamin, The Responsibilities of Carbon Major Companies: Are They (and Is the Law) Doing Enough?
- Paula Castro, Common But Differentiated Responsibilities Beyond the Nation State: How Is Differential Treatment Addressed in Transnational Climate Governance Initiatives?
- Maria Antonia Tigre, Cooperation for Climate Mitigation in Amazonia: Brazil’s Emerging Role as a Regional Leader
- Anna Huggins & Md Saiful Karim, Shifting Traction: Differential Treatment and Substantive and Procedural Regard in the International Climate Change Regime
Sunday, December 11, 2016
The Wroclaw Commentaries address legal questions as well as political consequences related to freedom of, and access to, the arts and (old/new) media; questions of religious and language rights; the protection of minorities and other vulnerable groups; safeguarding cultural diversity and heritage; and further pertinent issues. Specialists from all over Europe and the world summarise and comment on core messages of legal instruments, the essence of case-law as well as prevailing and important dissenting opinions in the literature, with the aim of providing a user-friendly tool for the daily needs of decision or law-makers at different juridical, administrative and political levels as well as others working in the field of culture and human rights.
Call for Papers: Exploring the Human Element of the Oceans: The Gender Implications of the Law of the Sea
Exploring the human element of the oceans:
the gender implications of the law of the sea
25-26 May 2017
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy
Call for Papers
The School of Law, University of Milano-Bicocca is organising a two-days conference on the gender implications of the law of the sea, to be held in Milan (Italy) on 25-26 May 2017.
The conference stems from an empirical consideration: international law of the sea, including maritime law, has been traditionally silent about the role played by women at sea, and this is very much the case still today. Regulation is scant and scholarly research almost non-existent. The growing interest of scholars in the analysis of law of the sea and maritime law from a more human-oriented approach, in an attempt to integrate the human element into the law of the sea rules, has led to multiple interconnections between these two fields and international human rights law. However, none of these efforts have broached the impact of gender and women at sea. Yet, the issue is far from idle: women are increasingly accessing maritime careers and states and private actors are faced with the ensuing issues. In particular, the contribution of women in small- and medium-scale commercial fisheries is paramount, although often unrecognised and unregulated. The role of women as active agents and participants has been overlooked and international law of the sea still largely qualifies as a “male affair”. At the same time, women constitute also a vulnerable group in international law of the sea, as they are more likely to be subject to trafficking, torture, and sexual abuses at seas, whether they end up there as seafarers, members of national navies, passengers or victims of trafficking.
Furthermore, after the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action set the agenda for reaching women’s rights, gender equality has been placed at the frontline on the 2000 Millennium Development Goals. The MDG call upon the UN, the international community and civil society to adopt action and policies of gender mainstreaming tailored to achieve the equality commitments. At the institutional level, the need to recognise and strengthen the capacity of women in the maritime sector is currently addressed by the International Maritime Organization, the International Labour Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization, and has been recently recalled also by the Secretary General of the United Nations in his 2014 and 2015 Reports to the General Assembly on Oceans and Law of the Sea.
The purpose of the conference is therefore to open up this field of research to the academic and professional communities, by mapping the existing international legal framework and discussing whether existing norms provide adequate protection for both women and men at sea and sufficient tools to strengthen their capacity to engage in a productive manner in this field. Questions that the conference intends to explore include: Is international law of the sea gender neutral, or does it reflect a male perspective that eventually marginalises women? What can be said about the role of international human rights law in providing protection to women at sea? Should a reevaluation or re-interpretation of the system be taken into account in order to integrate a gender perspective? What are the most relevant areas in the law of the sea and maritime law where women play a major role or face particular hardships? How can their role be strengthened and women themselves be empowered?
The conference convenors welcome contributions on the gender implications of the law of the sea. We are particularly interested in international, comparative and EU perspectives on the following topics:
- International law of the sea and gender. Is the law of the sea gender neutral? Could/should feminist legal theory engage more with the topic? Would law of the sea benefit from such an analytical approach?
- Torture, sexual abuses and trafficking at sea. Human trafficking, forced labour and slavery are endemic phenomena in the fisheries sector in some geographical areas; men and women, often due to their ethnicity, are sold and forced to work under physical and psychological threat. Women are the most vulnerable subject to torture, rape and sexual abuses. Do existing international norms adequately address the issue? What is peculiar about torture and sexual abuses when they occur at sea? Does international human rights law constitute a sufficient ground to tackle issues faced by women at sea or does it reinforce the depiction of women as victims rather than active participants within the international law of the sea framework?
- The fisheries sector. Women constitute a major force in the small-scale sector of fisheries and aquaculture, yet their contribution is often deemed as informal, making women invisible. Furthermore, women are particularly vulnerable to international policies and deals that push towards the large-scale commercial sector. In its recent General Recommendation no. 34, the CEDAW Committee has called on State parties to integrate a gender perspective in their development policies and strategies, including the aquaculture and fishery sector. Does the current international legal framework provide adequate protection? What can we say about the role played by CEDAW? What about rural women and their contribution in the small-scale fishery industry?
- Empowerment. Is there adequate access for women to the maritime sector? What tools, if any, are in place to favour their integration? What can international law say about the lack of women as members of national navies?
- Participation. How can women participate as policy makers and stakeholders in the maritime sector? Does the process of policy making adequately engage with women? Does the current legal framework reflect roles and participation of women in the maritime sector or does it ignore its gender implications?
Proposed papers should include an abstract of no more than 500 words and a CV with list of publications and should be submitted to both email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org by 31 January 2017. Notification of the selected papers will be made by 28 February 2017.
A selection of conference papers will be published in an edited volume. To this end, selected applicants will be required to submit a final version of the paper by 30 November 2017.
Should you have any enquiry regarding the conference, call for papers or programme, please contact Irini Papanicolopulu at email@example.com.