Begriffe und Rechtsgrundsätze aus dem innerstaatlichen Recht werden im Völkerrecht verwendet, um völkerrechtliche Tatbestände zu erfassen und zu normieren. Während die Verwendung einzelner innerstaatlicher Begriffe und Rechtsgrundsätze in den vergangenen Jahren immer wieder Anlass zu Debatten in der Völkerrechtswissenschaft gegeben hat, fand eine Auseinandersetzung mit der grundsätzlichen Methodik der Übertragung lange Zeit nicht statt. Tatjana Chionos widmet sich der Frage, welche Elemente in diesen Übertragungsprozessen von Bedeutung sind und bildet damit einen methodologischen Rahmen der Übertragung. Dazu bezieht sie neben rechtstheoretischen auch linguistische und (sprach-)philosophische Erwägungen mit ein. Im Zusammenhang der Übertragung innerstaatlicher Rechtsgrundsätze unterzieht sie zudem die völkerrechtliche Rechtsquelle der allgemeinen Rechtsgrundsätze einer näheren Untersuchung.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Scientists project serious increases in society’s exposure to extreme weather events as a result of climate change. Indeed, they have begun to link current disasters to climate change. As a result, international disaster law has begun to acknowledge the importance of taking account of climate change in disaster risk management. Simultaneously, climate negotiations are beginning to address disasters as a form of “loss and damage,” and more broadly under the rubric of climate change adaptation. Both fields of law can be enriched by this trend. This article discusses the growing interconnections of these two fields and future avenues for fruitful collaboration.
Wolf: The Fight to Globalize Labor: Understanding the Role of Activists in the Spread of International Norms
International relations scholars have traditionally focused on state‐centered accounts of international legal norm development between nations while sociolegal scholars have focused on Weberian notions of occupational authority. This study advances a constructivist sociolegal approach emphasizing activist action as playing a unique role in shaping international norms. Specifically, this study investigates labor activists' intervention in U.S. bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) to examine why labor activists chose to initiate FTA disputes as a social movement tactic and how strategic interaction with international legal systems has helped them institutionalize and proliferate the International Labor Organizations' core labor standards. Through semi‐structured interviews with legal, union, and government officials, alongside a content analysis of cases filed under the U.S. FTA system, this study shows the role activists played in advancing “globalized” standards in international law. This study finds that activists spread norms through a gradual mechanism of accretion, which focuses on the creation of standards and international legal standing over the individual outcomes of any given case.
Do the WTO Agreements create a mere multi-party contract, establishing bundles of bilateral legal relations that pairs of WTO Members remain free to shape and reshape on the basis of mutual consent? Or do they establish a community, a common legal system whose rules can only be modified pursuant to the legal regime’s collectively agreed procedures? By establishing a common institutional framework for the negotiation of trade relations, the WTO Agreements set up a forum in which decisions can be made collectively affecting all Members. On the other hand, the early years of the WTO saw a controversy with respect to the character of this forum, if merely an opportunity for bilateral bargains or a legal community whose rules condition the bilateral relations among the Members. This chapter argues that the Appellate Body’s reading of the function of adjudication and the institutional provisions of the WTO Agreements has resulted in a significant communitization of WTO law. Contrary to what some expected, this communitization did not result in a trade-focused regime. Instead, the approach adopted by the Appellate Body to the WTO Agreements puts on equal footing ‘trade’ and ‘non-trade’ goals. Trade-restrictive and even discriminatory measures are permissible as long as they find a justification in a non-trade goal that the community of Members determines to be legitimate. Crucially, the Appellate Body infers the views of this community not only from decisions of WTO bodies but also from other multilateral decisions and documents that, in its view, express a consensus or a common understanding regarding interpretations and legitimate non-trade concerns.
Goldmann: „Ich bin Ihr Freund und Kapitän“. Die deutsch-namibische Entschädigungsfrage im Spiegel intertemporaler und interkultureller Völkerrechtskonzepte
Die deutsche Öffentlichkeit und die deutsche Völkerrechtswissenschaft sind derzeit im Kontext geopolitischer Verschiebungen in einer tiefgreifenden Neujustierung ihres Zugriffs auf die koloniale Vergangenheit begriffen. Vor diesem Hintergrund verhandelt Deutschland derzeit mit der namibischen Regierung über Entschädigungen wegen des Genozids an den Herero und Nama in den Jahren 1904 bis 1907. Allerdings sieht der überwiegende Teil der deutschen Rechtswissenschaft die Bundesregierung nur moralisch, aber nicht rechtlich zu Schadensersatz verpflichtet. Demnach handle es sich bei dem Genozid um einen nach deutschem Recht, nicht nach Völkerrecht zu beurteilenden Vorgang. Selbst wenn man die Anwendbarkeit des damaligen Völkerrechts voraussetze, sei es zumindest nicht in einer Weise verletzt worden, auf die sich die Nachfahren der Opfer berufen könnten. Der Beitrag fordert diese Sichtweise heraus, indem er ihr die Ambivalenz des Kolonialrechts entgegenhält, welches von den Widersprüchen der damaligen Gesellschaft durchzogen ist. Diese Spannungen sollten in der Rückschau nicht überspielt werden. Zudem stellt auch das europäische Völkerrecht nur eine mögliche Perspektive der rechtlichen Aufarbeitung dar. Anhand der Schriften von Hendrik Witbooi und Maharero versucht der Beitrag eine Rekonstruktion ihrer Rechtsauffassungen und stellt diese den Befunden des kolonialzeitlichen Völkerrechts gegenüber. Das hieraus resultierende vielschichtige Bild dürfte einen guten Ausgangspunkt für Verhandlungen über Entschädigungen auf Augenhöhe bilden.
In the context of geopolitical shifts, the German public and German international law scholarship are currently undergoing a far-reaching readjustment of their approach to the colonial past. Against this background, Germany is currently negotiating with the Namibian government about compensation for the 1904-1907 genocide of the Herero and Nama. However, the majority of scholarly voices from Germany considers the federal government to be morally, but not legally, obligated to pay compensation. According to this view, the relevant events are to be judged according to German law, not international law. Even if one presupposes the applicability of the international law of the time, it is argued that it had not been violated, at least not in a way that the descendants of the victims could invoke. The contribution challenges this view by countering it with the ambivalence of colonial law, which is permeated by the contradictions of the society of that time. These tensions should not be overplayed in retrospect. Moreover, European international law is only one possible perspective for legal analysis. On the basis of the writings of Hendrik Witbooi and Maharero, this contribution attempts to reconstruct their legal views and contrasts them with the findings of colonial international law. The resulting multi-layered picture should provide a good level playing field for negotiations on compensation.
- Satvinder Juss, The Indian Death Penalty and the ‘Collective Conscience of Society’
- Tony Meacham, Situating Modern Indian Secularism: A Constitutional Perspective
- S. Pandiaraj, Right to Land as Part of the Right to Culture: An International Law Critique of the Recent Indian Supreme Court Order on the India’s Forest Rights Act 2006
- Adrija Ghosh, Debunking the Validity of Culture-Based Justifications for the Retention of the Marital Rape Exemption in India
- Niaz A. Shah, The ‘Unwilling’ and ‘Unable’ Test in International Law: The Use of Force against Non-State Actors in Pakistan and Afghanistan
- Steve Foster, Reconciling Religious Speech with the Duty to Maintain Equality and Diversity: The Decision in Ngole v Sheffield University
- Fatima Ahdash, Childhood Radicalisation and Parental Extremism: How Should Family Law Respond? Insights from A Local Authority v X, Y and Z
- Azizah Mohd & Nadhilah A. Kadir, Protection of Adopted Children’s Rights to Custody and Maintenance: An Appraisal of the Law Governing Muslims in Malaysia
- Muthanna Saari & Wan Noorzaleha Wan Hasan, The Extent of the Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression for the Parliamentary Immunity and Privilege
- Devashree Tulankar, Indigenous People in South Asia: Issues of Identity and Protection of Cultural Rights in a Changing World
- Bushra Malik & Syed Raza Shah Gilani, The Importance of Customary International Law for the Resurrection and Enforcement of the Norms: The UN Norms on the Responsibilities of the Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regards to Human Rights
- Matthias Vanhullebusch, The War on Terror on the Silk Road: Changing Discourses
- Zia Ullah Ranjah, Protection of the Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief in Pakistan
- Saira Khan, Institutionalised Islamophobia: The Rise of European Nationalism against Freedom of Religion for Muslims
- Ahmed Almutawa & Khalid M. Aldweri, Bahrain’s Pioneering Role in the Protection of the Rights of Temporary Workers in the Gulf Region
- Taslima Yasmin, The Laws against Acid Violence in Bangladesh: Gaps in Implementation
Dorlach & Mertenskötter: Interpreters of International Economic Law: Corporations and Bureaucrats in Contest over Chile's Nutrition Label
This article analyzes the everyday interpretive practices of corporations and bureaucrats that shape the meaning and force of international economic law. To understand how common practices such as public consultation submissions, corporate threat letters, and external legal assistance influence regulators' understanding of their “legally available” policy space, we study the contested introduction of a pioneering nutrition labeling regulation in Chile. The transnational food industry powerfully challenged the regulation's legality under World Trade Organization law. But Chilean health bureaucrats, in coordination with segments of the country's legally highly competent economic bureaucracy, effectively defended the legality of their proposed regulatory measure. Drawing on data from freedom‐of‐information requests and in‐depth interviews, the article argues that the outcomes of such interpretive contests are substantially shaped by participants' knowledge of the entitlements created by international economic law and thus by the international legal expertise they have access to. This often but not always puts transnational corporations at an advantage over national regulators in the strategic interpretation of international economic law.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Recent jurisdictional decisions suggest that sovereign debt will be subject to bilateral investment treaties (BITs) for the foreseeable future. This Article demonstrates that applying BITs to sovereign bonds threatens to undermine the core economic function of those treaties by encouraging inefficient State and creditor behavior. It further argues that this dilemma can be resolved through an interpretative approach that leads to the equal treatment of like creditors.
Thursday, August 20, 2020
- Special Issue: Emerging Issues on Arctic Environmental and Climate Change Governance
- Yoshifumi Tanaka & Beatriz Martinez Romera, Emerging Issues on Arctic Environmental and Climate Change Governance: Introduction
- Yoshifumi Tanaka, Changing Paradigms in the Law of the Sea and the Marine Arctic
- Clive Schofield & Suzanne Lalonde, Rising Seas and Retreating Coasts: Implications for the Arctic
- Meinhard Doelle & Gunnar Sander, Next Generation Environmental Assessment in the Emerging High Seas Regime? An Evaluation of the State of the Negotiations
- Aldo Chircop, The Polar Code and the Arctic Marine Environment: Assessing the Regulation of the Environmental Risks of Shipping
- Zhen Sun, Closing Gaps of Fuel Use Regulation of Arctic Shipping
- Daniel Bodansky & Hugh Hunt, Arctic Climate Interventions
Wednesday, August 19, 2020
This EYIEL special issue examines the interaction between international investment law and competition law. Although issues related to both international investment law and competition law arise regularly in international legal practice and are examined together, scholarly analysis largely treats them as parallel universes. As a result their actual and potential overlap has yet to be sufficiently explored. In this light, International Investment Law and Competition Law discusses a variety of topics at the intersection of investment and competition, including the interaction between competition-related provisions and investment protection standards in free trade agreements; investors’ anti-competitive behaviour and illegal investments; state aid schemes and foreign investors’ legitimate expectations; EU member States’ compliance with investment awards as (illegal) state aid under EU law; State-owned enterprises and competitive neutrality; and interactions between public procurement, investment and competition law.
This article evaluates China’s public justifications for its unilateral maritime law enforcement activities in the South China Sea, including recent incidents affecting Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Malaysia, against the binding international legal requirements of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties to the South China Sea, and the 2016 Permanent Court of Arbitration UNCLOS Annex VII arbitral award In the Matter of the South China Sea Arbitration. China’s unilateral maritime law enforcement activities in the South China Sea do not comply with UNCLOS and applicable international law. China cannot rely on historic rights or the exercise of sovereign control and jurisdiction under its nine-dash line map to conduct unilateral maritime law enforcement activities since the 2016 arbitral award explicitly declared this map to be “without legal effect.” China’s unilateral maritime law enforcement activities in the South China Sea also do not comply with various UNCLOS provisions on coastal State rights and the prohibitions against actions that hamper efforts to reach final delimitation agreements in the South China Sea. The 2020 Summit Declaration of the Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) correctly emphasizes UNCLOS as the legal framework to determine maritime entitlements, sovereign rights, jurisdiction, and legitimate interests over maritime zones in the South China Sea.
- Volume 406
- Rodman Bundy, The Practice of International Law
- Lauro Gama, Les Principes d’UNIDROIT et la loi régissant les contrats de commerce international
Johns: Disciplinary Privilege and the Promise of Decampment: A Response to James Thuo Gathii's 'The Promise of International Law: A Third World View'
These remarks were delivered at the 114th Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law, in which the author served as Annual Grotius Lecture Discussant, responding to James Thuo Gathii’s Grotius Lecture: ‘The Promise of International Law: A Third World View’. They address what Third World approaches to international law (TWAIL), and the structural racism of the discipline of international law that TWAIL scholarship makes apparent, demand of scholars proceeding from other epistemic locations.
Tuesday, August 18, 2020
- Pavlos Eleftheriadis, Corrective Justice Among States
- Aoife O’Donoghue, Syria & Locating Tyranny, Hegemony and Anarchy in Contemporary International Law
- Ekaterina Yahyaoui Krivenko, On the (Im)Possibility of Global Norms in a Divided World: Lessons from the Seventeenth Century
- Seyla Benhabib, The End of the 1951 Refugee Convention? Dilemmas of Sovereignty, Territoriality, and Human Rights
- Special Issue: The Era of Disintegration - Taking Stock of the Dynamics of International Economic Governance
- Francesco Montanaro & Federica Violi, The Remains of the Day: The International Economic Order in the Era of Disintegration
- Alessandra Arcuri, International Economic Law and Disintegration: Beware the Schmittean Moment
- Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, Economic Disintegration? Political, Economic, and Legal Drivers and the Need for ‘Greening Embedded Trade Liberalism’
- Robert Howse, Making the WTO (Not So) Great Again: The Case Against Responding to the Trump Trade Agenda Through Reform of WTO Rules on Subsidies and State Enterprises
- Margaret E Peters, Integration and Disintegration: Trade and Labor Market Integration
- Muthucumaraswamy Sornarajah, Disintegration and Change in the International Law on Foreign Investment
- Lorenzo Cotula, (Dis)integration in Global Resource Governance: Extractivism, Human Rights, and Investment Treaties
- Lorenzo Pellegrini, Murat Arsel, Martí Orta-Martínez, & Carlos F Mena, International Investment Agreements, Human Rights, and Environmental Justice: The Texaco/Chevron Case From the Ecuadorian Amazon
- Massimo D’Antoni, From Monetary to Fiscal to Political Union: A Progression to Integration or a Recipe for Failure?
- Menelaos Markakis, Differentiated Integration and Disintegration in the EU: Brexit, the Eurozone Crisis, and Other Troubles
- Panicos Demetriades & Radosveta Vassileva, Money Laundering and Central Bank Governance in The European Union
- Mutaz M Qafisheh, Human Rights at the Time of Transition: How Security Forces Can be Held Accountable in a Divided Community?
- Bianca Maganza, From Peacekeepers to Parties to the Conflict: An IHL’s Appraisal of the Role of UN Peace Operations in NIACs
- Conrad Nyamutata, Young Terrorists or Child Soldiers? ISIS Children, International Law and Victimhood
- Jack Mawdsley, Applying Core Principles of International Humanitarian Law to Military Operations in Space
- Elizabeth Stubbins Bates, The British Army’s Training in International Humanitarian Law
- Matthias Vanhullebusch, Do Non-State Armed Groups Have a Legal Right to Consent to Offers of International Humanitarian Relief?
- Peter Vedel Kessing, Liability in Joint Military Operations—The Green Desert Case
- Kathleen Cavanaugh, On Torture: The Case of the "Hooded Men"
- Xiaoyu Lu, The Imperative to Narrate: Personal Storytelling and LGBT Norm Translation in China
- James Dawes, Speculative Human Rights: Artificial Intelligence and the Future of the Human
- Elise Baker, Lara Hakki, Julia Jacovides, Kristina Steinmetz, Eric Stover, Victoria Tang, & Fabian Unser-Nad, Joining Forces: National War Crimes Units and the Pursuit of International Justice
- Rebecca Hamlin & Jamie Rowen, From Redress to Prevention: How the International Politics of "No Safe Haven" Became the Politics of "Not in My Backyard"
- Michelle Morais de Sá e Silva, Once Upon a Time, a Human Rights Ally: The State and its Bureaucracy in Right-Wing Populist Brazil
- Clémence Pinaud, Genocidal Rape In South Sudan: Organization, Function, and Effects
This book assesses the environmental jurisdiction of coastal states over the seabed within and beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines, thus mapping out coastal states’ competencies to regulate activities impacting the marine environment of the sea floor. In addition, it offers revealing insights into the domestic legal and policy framework of a particular State in this regard. As Brazil intends to exploit mineral resources farther away offshore, technologically backed by the recognised expertise of its state-owned oil company, Petrobras, questions arise as to the adequacy of the country’s domestic legal framework to sustainably manage the immenseness of the “Brazilian Blue Amazon”. This book critically evaluates the compatibility of Brazil’s national policies and legislation with the Law of the Sea, as well as the country’s legal and institutional preparedness to face the challenges of managing approximately 4,5 million km² of maritime spaces under national jurisdiction.
Monday, August 17, 2020
- Barnaby Joseph Dye & Mathias Alencastro, Debunking Brazilian Exceptionalism in its Africa Relations: Evidence from Angola and Tanzania
- Annie Herro, Demanding Their Rights? Collective Identity and the Tactics of Older Persons’ Organisations at the UN
- Emilian Kavalski, Inside/Outside and Around: Complexity and the Relational Ethics of Global Life
- Tarik Kochi, The End of Global Constitutionalism and Rise of Antidemocratic Politics
- Gordon Mace, Dynamics of Legitimation in Regional Organisations: The OAS and Non State Actors
- Sara Kalm, Citizenship Capital
- Rob Aitken, The Afterlives of Global Capital
Sunday, August 16, 2020
Ippolito, Borzoni, & Casolari: Bilateral Relations in the Mediterranean: Prospects for Migration Issues
This timely book assesses national and supranational bilateral approaches to dealing with the rising tide of migration into the European Union via the Mediterranean Sea. International law and EU migration law specialists critically assess the legal tools adopted to engage with the ‘refugee crisis’. While the EU works to develop a unified approach to Mediterranean transit and origin countries, the authors argue that a crucial role should be accorded to individual states in finding a solution to this complex and sensitive situation.
Historical and political factors playing into migration strategies are discussed, and the legal framework underpinning the bilateral and regional schemes on which the northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean seek to cooperate on migration is also examined. Migration-related issues, such as search and rescue at sea, human rights and policing are explored throughout the book. Comparing the bilateral arrangements Southern EU Member States have made with the Mediterranean countries of origin and the regional bilateralism conducted by the EU, expert authors assess how best to achieve a coherent model.
Alan Doss offers a rare window into the real world of UN peacekeeping missions in Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Doss's story is one of presidents and prelates, warlords and warriors, heroes and villains, achievements and disappointments—and innocent people caught in the midst of deadly violence. As he shares his front-line experiences, he reflects on the reasons for successes and failures and on the qualities that leaders need to successfully guide efforts to rebuild peace and prosperity in devastated societies. Not least, he also considers the UN's future role in conflict prevention and peacekeeping in a climate of increasing resistance to intervention in "other people's wars."