Friday, December 2, 2016
Workshop: International/EU Law Scholarship and Teaching Facing Digital Technologies and Innovative Approaches
Petersen: The International Court of Justice and the Judicial Politics of Identifying Customary International Law
It is often observed in the literature on customary international law that the identification practice of the International Court of Justice for customary norms deviates from the traditional definition of customary law in Art. 38 (1) lit. b of the ICJ Statute. However, while there are many normative and descriptive accounts on customary law and the Court’s practice, few studies try to explain the jurisprudence of the ICJ. This study aims at closing this gap. I argue that the ICJ’s argumentation pattern is due to the institutional constraints that the Court faces. In order for its decisions to be accepted, it has to signal impartiality through its reasoning. However, the analysis of state practice necessarily entails the selection of particular instances of practice, which could tarnish the image of an impartial court. In contrast, if the Court resorts to the consent of the parties or widely accepted international documents, it signals impartiality.
Thursday, December 1, 2016
POLISH YEARBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
Call for papers (Volume XXXVI)
Polish Yearbook of International Law (PYIL) is currently seeking articles for its next volume (XXXVI), which will be published in June 2017. Authors are invited to submit complete unpublished papers in areas connected with public and private international law, including European law. Although it is not a formal condition for acceptance, we are specifically interested in articles that address issues in international and European law relating to Central and Eastern Europe. Authors from the region are also strongly encouraged to submit their works.
Submissions should not exceed 12,000 words (including footnotes) but in exceptional cases we may also accept longer works. We assess manuscripts on a rolling basis and will consider requests for expedited review in case of a pending acceptance for publication from another journal.
All details about submission procedure and required formatting are available at the PYIL’s webpage.
Please send manuscripts to email@example.com. The deadline for submissions is 31 January 2017.
For some time, critics of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) have urged its arbitrators and litigants (particularly respondent states) to draw from other sources of international law, particularly human rights law, to promote interpretations of international investment agreements (IIAs) that cohere with other international legal regimes, including human rights values. Some have hoped that the use of human rights law would not only lessen the fragmentation of international law encouraged by self-regarding mechanisms such as ISDS but would also promote the "re-balancing" of IIAs to permit greater scope for sovereigns to regulate. This essay examines the ways European human rights law has been cited in publicly available investor-state awards. It finds considerable reliance on such citations in the largest known database of such awards. But close examination of such citations, including in the recent Philip Morris v. Uruguay case dealing with tobacco regulation, casts doubt on whether this reliance is likely to produce the results that some anticipate. Investor-claimants are as likely to cite to European human rights law as are respondent states. It is not at all clear from the results to date that recourse to human rights has either 'humanized' international investment law or made it more coherent.
- Assessing the gravity threshold under the ICC Statute: Criteria and methods in the light of the Gaza Freedom Flotilla Case
- Introduced by Emanuele Cimiotta and Chiara Ragni
- Marco Longobardo, Factors relevant for the assessment of sufficient gravity in the ICC. Proceedings and the elements of international crimes
- Chantal Meloni, The ICC preliminary examination of the Flotilla situation: An opportunity to contextualise gravity
The fall of communism in the late 1980s and the end of the Cold War seemed to signal a new international social order built on pluralist democracy, the rule of law, and universal human rights. But the window of opportunity for creating this more just, more equal, and more secure world slammed shut just as quickly as it opened. Rather than celebrate the triumph of democracy over autocracy, or political freedom over totalitarian rule, the West exulted in the victory of capitalism over communism. Neoliberal policies of deregulation and privatization that minimized the role of the state were imposed on the transitional societies of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as economically weak and politically fragile nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Twenty-five years later, the world reaps the fruits of that market-driven state foundation: inequality; poverty; global economic, food, financial, social, and ecological crises; transnational organized crime and terrorism; proliferating weapons; fragile states.
Human Rights or Global Capitalism is not simply concerned with the success or failure of neoliberal policies per se or judging whether they are good or bad. Rather, it examines the application of those policies from a human rights perspective and asks whether states, by outsourcing to the private sector many services with a direct impact on human rights—education, health, social security, water, personal liberty, personal security, equality—abdicate their responsibilities to uphold human rights and thereby violate international human rights law. Manfred Nowak explores these examples and outlines the ways in which neoliberal policies contravene the obligations of states to protect the human rights of their people.
Wednesday, November 30, 2016
The popularity of his monumental and definitive works established Shabtai Rosenne as the undisputed expert on the International Court of Justice’s law and practice of his time. Irrefutably the leading work on the court, previous editions of Rosenne’s Law and Practice of the International Court have influenced generations of legal scholars, practitioners, judges, and students alike. The Fifth Edition, by Malcolm N. Shaw, combines his expertise as both an academic and practitioner to bring this monumental resource up-to-date while retaining Rosenne’s distinctive voice, erudition, and rigorous objectives.
- Daniel Dormoy, Sanctions ciblées et respect des droits de l’homme : quelques réflexions sur la responsabilité des organisations internationales et de leurs États membres
- Géraud de Lassus Saint-Geniès, L’Accord de Paris sur le climat : quelques éléments de décryptage
- Ousseni Illy, « L’État en faillite » en droit international
- Sandra Lando, La perspective de genre dans la jurisprudence interaméricaine d’application de la Convention Belém do Pará
- Iñaki Navarrete, Démanteler les obstacles invalidants : handicap mental et réparations habilitantes à la Cour interaméricaine des droits de l’homme
- Danial Rezai Shaghhaji, Les crimes de jus cogens, le refus de l’immunité des hauts représentants des États étrangers et l’exercice de la compétence universelle
- Patrick C R. Terry, « Absolute Friends » : US Espionage against Germany and Public International Law
- Markku Suksi, The Use of Election Observation Reports in Regional Human Rights Jurisprudence
- Meghan Campbell, Women's Rights and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women: Unlocking the Potential of the Optional Protocol
- Stener Ekern, Towards a Mayan Theory of Human Rights: Sacred Equilibria and the Consequences of Disrespect
- Pier-Luc Dupont, Human Rights and Substantive Equality in the Adjudication of Ethnic Practices
- Antônio Cançado Trindade, Preface: International Tribunals and the Pursuance of Jurisprudential Harmonisation in their Common Mission of Realisation of Justice
- Philip Leach, Rachel Murray & Clara Sandoval, The Duty to Investigate Right to Life Violations across Three Regional Systems: Harmonisation or Fragmentation of International Human Rights Law?
- Chloe Cheeseman, The Death Penalty as Addressed by Regional and International Human Rights Bodies: Exploring Jurisprudential Cross-Fertilisation and Harmonisation
- Elizabeth Wicks, International Trends in the Recognition of Abortion Rights
- Alastair Mowbray, The European Court of Human Rights’ Recourse to External Legal Materials When Interpreting and Applying the Right to Private Life
- Frans Viljoen, Minority Sexual Orientation as a Challenge to the Harmonised Interpretation of International Human Rights Law
- Magdalena Forowicz, Concepts of Substantive Gender Equality: Looking for Coherence among the Regional and International Perspectives
- Rory O’Connell, Judges of the World, United? Collective Aspects of the Right to Work in Regional Human Rights Systems
- Jacinta Miller, The Influence of International Human Rights Law on the Right to Health Jurisprudence of the European Region
- David Keane & Joshua Castellino, Is the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination the De Facto Minority Rights Treaty?
- Aoife Nolan & Ursula Kilkelly, Children’s Rights under Regional Human Rights Law: A Tale of Harmonisation?
- Dominic McGoldrick, Affording States a Margin of Appreciation: Comparing the European Court of Human Rights and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights
- Larissa van den Herik & Helen Duffy, Human Rights Bodies and International Humanitarian Law: Common but Differentiated Approaches
- Françoise J. Hampson, The Use Made by the Organs of the European Convention on Human Rights of Reference to the Views of Other Human Rights Bodies in Addressing the Scope of the Extraterritorial Applicability of the Convention
- Nadia Bernaz, State Obligations with Regard to the Extraterritorial Activities of Companies Domiciled on their Territories
- Dinah Shelton, Inherent and Implied Powers of Regional Human Rights Tribunals
- Simon Walker, International Human Rights Law: Towards Pluralism or Harmony? The Opportunities and Challenges of Coexistence: The View from the UN Treaty Bodies
- Malcolm D. Evans, Co-Existence and Confidentiality: The Experience of the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture
- Elvira Domínguez-Redondo, Human Rights through the Backdoor: The Contribution of Special Procedures to the Normative Coherence and Contradictions of International Human Rights Law
- Michael O’Boyle, A European Respect for the Opinions of Mankind?
- Dossier spécial: Actualités du jus contra bellum
- Texte collectif, Appel de juristes de droit international contre une invocation abusive de la légitime défense pour faire face au défi du terrorisme (en français, anglais, portugais et arabe)
- O. Corten, L’argumentation des États européens pour justifier une intervention militaire contre l’« État islamique » en Syrie : vers une reconfiguration de la notion de légitime défense ?
- Ph. Fabri, La licéité de l’intervention de la coalition internationale menée par l’Arabie Saoudite au Yémen au regard des principes de l’interdiction du recours à la force et de non-intervention dans les guerres civiles
- M. Kamto, L’expulsion des étrangers en droit international à la lumière de la codification par la Commission du droit international
- S. Karagiannis, L’obligation de notifier les (risques de) dommages environnementaux selon la Convention des Nations Unies sur le droit de la mer
- C. De Koker, & T. Ruys, Foregoing Lex Specialis ? Exclusivist v. Symbiotic approaches to the Concurrent Application of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law
- Y.Hamuli Kabumba, Faire face au silence des textes de la Cour pénale internationale concernant les éléments contextuels des crimes contre l’humanité. Avec quelles sources ?
- Ch. Renglet, La politique foncière israélienne dans le désert du Néguev : une violation du droit à la terre du peuple autochtone bédouin ?
- J. J. Andela, Peut-on parler aujourd’hui de l’émergence d’un droit international des jeunes ?
- J. Cl. Zambo-Mveng, Le droit extérieur à la Convention des Nations Unies sur le droit de la mer dans les arrêts du T.I.D.M.
- Fr. Montanaro, Les politiques en matière d’énergie photovoltaïque en Europe, au carrefour entre le droit de l’Union européenne et le Traité sur la Charte de l’énergie
- Bardo Fassbender, International Constitutional Law: Written or Unwritten?
- Zeng Lingliang, Conceptual Analysis of China’s Belt and Road Initiative: A Road towards a Regional Community of Common Destiny
- Kristen E. Boon, U.N. Sanctions as Regulation
- Steven Wheatley, The Emergence of New States in International Law: The Insights from Complexity Theory
- Siu Chung Dixon Tse, Discovering the Knowledge Requirement of Superior Responsibility in Hong Kong’s War Crimes Trials (1946-1948) through Sentencing Practice Analysis
Tuesday, November 29, 2016
The Security Council has unlimited legal authority to impose itself on the world and it is guided by the interests of the P-5. The combination of absolute legal authority and the substantive goals of the Great Powers gives the Security Council an imperial character. But it is fractured by the requirement for P-5 consensus. The SC is therefore a compromised hegemon. To international interventionsts, liberal or otherwise, the paralysis that comes from Great-Power disagreement looks like a defect of the Council that impedes its ability to rule the world. But to people who see centralized global power structures as a problem rather than a solution, Council inactivity may be a respite from being ‘governed’ from above.
Lecture Series: The European International Law Tradition: The German, Austrian and Italian Contribution
On 12 July 2016 the arbitral tribunal constituted under Annex VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) issued its award In the Mater of the South China Sea Arbitration between the Philippines and China. According to Article 11 of Annex VII the award of the arbitral tribunal shall be “final”. The provision reiterates the general statement in Article 296(1) UNCLOS that any decision rendered by a court of tribunal having compulsory jurisdiction under Part XV, section 2, of UNCLOS shall be “final”. In its award the tribunal decided a number of general questions of the law of the sea, including the meaning of the term “rocks” in Article 121(3) of UNCLOS and the relationship between UNCLOS and customary international law. This paper examines what “finality” of an arbitral award means with regard to decisions on such general questions or, in other words, in what way such decisions can be considered “final”.
Using data drawn from the catalogues of the main publishers of international law books, this short essay focuses on the imagery used in the design of international law books and the way it contributes to the aesthetics of international legal argumentation. This essay zeroes in on the paintings that are reproduced on the cover of international law books with a view to unravelling some of the dynamics of the aesthetics of international legal argumentation. It argues that the greatest driver in the choice for the imagery of a book cover is the game which the author wants to play with the reader. It is argued that authors commonly use the cover page of their international law books, not only to illustrate their work but, more fundamentally, to attract readers into a game where the readers themselves create an explanatory narrative around the book.
- Contemporary Armed Conflicts and Their Implications for International Humanitarian Law
- Jose Serralvo, Government Recognition and International Humanitarian Law Applicability in Post-Gaddafi Libya
- Bogdan Ivanel, Puppet States: A Growing Trend of Covert Occupation
- Carrie A. Comer & Daniel M. Mburu, Humanitarian Law at Wits’ End: Does the Violence Arising from the “War on Drugs” in Mexico Meet the International Criminal Court’s Non-International Armed Conflict Threshold?
- Noam Zamir, The Armed Conflict(s) Against the Islamic State
- Annyssa Bellal, Beyond the Pale? Engaging the Islamic State on International Humanitarian Law
- Elad David Gil, Trapped: Three Dilemmas in the Law of Proportionality and Asymmetric Warfare
- Ezequiel Heffes, Generating Respect for International Humanitarian Law: The Establishment of Courts by Organized Non-State Armed Groups in Light of the Principle of Equality of Belligerents
- Other Articles
- Clare Frances Moran, Defences for War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity? Duress and the Rome Statute
- Bérénice Boutin, Kate Pitcher & Onur Güven, Year in Review 2015
Monday, November 28, 2016
- The Global Forum
- Amitav Acharya, The Future of Global Governance: Fragmentation May Be Inevitable and Creative
- Franz Baumann, United Nations Management —An Oxymoron?
- Stephen McLoughlin, From Reaction to Resilience in Mass Atrocity Prevention: An Analysis of the 2013 UN Report The Responsibility to Protect: State Responsibility and Prevention
- SungYong Lee, Roger Mac Ginty & Madhav Joshi, Social Peace vs. Security Peace
- Sara Kahn-Nisser, The Ripple Effect: Peer ILO Treaty Ratification, Regional Socialization, and Collective Labor Standards
- Carole-Anne Sénit, Agni Kalfagianni & Frank Biermann, Cyberdemocracy? Information and Communication Technologies in Civil Society Consultations for Sustainable Development
- Oliver Fox & Peter Stoett, Citizen Participation in the UN Sustainable Development Goals Consultation Process: Toward Global Democratic Governance?
- Hans Agné, Accountability's Effect: Reaction Speed and Legitimacy in Global Governance
The laws that govern the allocation and use of resources can not only annihilate individual property rights but also destroy community. Locals’ participation in decisions about property is therefore vital. This article argues that local populations currently have a limited voice in foreign investment decisions, and that the international investment regime contributes to this unfair result. The interpretation of investment tribunals, according to international investment treaties, relies on reasoning that promotes the calculability of investments and the trust of foreign investors above all. Often, this interpretation threatens other property rights and community values. This article illustrates these dangers using the cases of Aguas del Tunari v. Bolivia and Chevron v. Ecuador. It concludes by suggesting that international law can be part of a solution to these problems; but for that, we need to give local populations a meaningful role in foreign investment governance.
- Judith Bueno de Mesquita; Gen Sander & Paul Hunt, Rehabilitation and the Right to Health in Times of Transition
- Elizabeth Lira, Reflections on Rehabilitation as a Form of Reparation in Chile after Pinochet’s Dictatorship
- Clemens N. Nathan, Rehabilitation for the Jewish Victims of the Holocaust
- Roger Duthie & Clara Ramírez-Barat, Education as Rehabilitation for Human Rights Violations
- Andrzej Jakubowski; Francesca Fiorentini & Ewa Manikowska, Memory, Cultural Heritage and Community Rights
- Special Issue: Jurisdiction and Admissibility in the South China Sea Arbitration
- Editorial Comment
- Sienho Yee, The South China Sea Arbitration Decisions on Jurisdiction and Rule of Law Concerns
- Chris Whomersley, The South China Sea: The Award of the Tribunal in the Case Brought by Philippines against China—A Critique
- Sreenivasa Rao Pemmaraju, The South China Sea Arbitration (The Philippines v. China): Assessment of the Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility
- Stefan Talmon, The South China Sea Arbitration: Observations on the Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility
- Abraham D. Sofaer, The Philippine Law of the Sea Action against China: Relearning the Limits of International Adjudication
- Natalie Klein, Expansions and Restrictions in the UNCLOS Dispute Settlement Regime: Lessons from Recent Decisions
- Michael Sheng-ti Gau, The Agreements and Disputes Crystalized by the 2009-2011 Sino-Philippine Exchange of Notes Verbales and their Relevance to the Jurisdiction and Admissibility Phase of the South China Sea Arbitration
- Walter Rudolf, Nachruf auf Werner Meng
- Eibe Riedel, Reflections on the UN Human Rights Covenants at Fifty
- Helmut Goerlich, 800 Jahre Magna Charta Libertatum Revisited – Mythos und mehr
- Robert Uerpmann-Wittzack,Die UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention in der Praxis des Ausschusses für die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderungen
- Robert Uerpmann-Wittzack & Alina Prechtl, Das Gebot der Rechtsbehelfserschöpfung vor dem UN-Ausschuss für die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderung: Die Entscheidung in der Sache S.C./Brasilien
- Special Issue: A Nordic Approach to International Law?
- Astrid Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Introduction: A Nordic Approach to International Law?
- Gregor Noll, Nostalghia: A Nordic International Law
- Marlene Wind, Do Scandinavians Care about International Law? A Study of Scandinavian Judges’ Citation Practice to International Law and Courts
- David Thor Björgvinsson, The Effect of the Judgments of the ECtHR before the National Courts – A Nordic Approach?
- Martti Koskenniemi, Diplomats, Professors, and Then Some: Notes for a History of International Law in 20th Century Finland
- Astrid Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Nordic Judges of the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Court of Justice
- Julie Gjørtz Howden, Communities of Interest in the Nordic Management of International Watercourses
- Cecilia M. Bailliet, A Nordic Approach to Promoting Women’s Rights within International Law: Internal v. External Perspectives
- Special Issue: Lawyering in The Hague: Collected Papers from the Maastricht Seminar for ICC Counsel
- Fabián O. Raimondo, Introduction. Lawyering in The Hague: Collected Papers from the Maastricht Seminar for ICC Counsel
- Herman von Hebel, Remarks at the Maastricht Seminar for the List of Counsel before the International Criminal Court
- Fabián O. Raimondo, Lawyering in The Hague: An Introduction to the Roles of Counsel Practising at the ICC
- Dmytro Suprun, Legal Representation of Victims before the ICC: Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives
- Luc Walleyn, Victims’ Participation in ICC Proceedings: Challenges Ahead
- Xavier-Jean Keïta, Disclosure of Evidence in the Law and Practice of the ICC
- Michael G. Karnavas, Defence Counsel Ethics, the ICC Code of Conduct and Establishing a Bar Association for ICC List Counsel
- Conrad J.P. van Laer, Open Access for International Criminal Lawyers
Sunday, November 27, 2016
- Karin Arts & Atabongawung Tamo, The Right to Development in International Law: New Momentum Thirty Years Down the Line?
- Marco Longobardo, State Responsibility for International Humanitarian Law Violations by Private Actors in Occupied Territories and the Exploitation of Natural Resources
- Hanne Cuyckens, Is Israel Still an Occupying Power in Gaza?
- Jochem Vlek, Lis Pendens, Choice of Court Agreements and Abuse of Law Under Brussels Ibis
- Giorgio Risso, Financial Torts and Investor Protection: Is the Europeanisation of Third State Cases a Viable Solution?
- Jure Vidmar, Some Observations on Wrongfulness, Responsibility and Defences in International Law