- Jennifer Kirby, Evolution and the Discoverability of In-House Counsel Communications
- Johannes Koepp & Agnieszka Ason, An Anti-Enforcement Bias? The Application of the Substantive Public Policy Exception in Polish Annulment Proceedings
- Gordon Smith, Comparative Analysis of Joinder and Consolidation Provisions Under Leading Arbitral Rules
- Bas van Zelst, Class Actions and Arbitration: Alternative Approaches Based on the (Ever Evolving) Dutch Experiences with Collective Redress
- Florencia Villaggi, Recent Developments in the Arbitration Legislation in Argentina
- Oleg Skvortsov & Leonid Kropotov, Arbitration Changes in Russia: Revolution or Evolution?
Saturday, April 14, 2018
- Daniel R. Mekonnen, The Case for Crimes against Humanity in Eritrea
- Maria Giovanna Pietropaolo, A Human Rights-Based Approach to Humanitarian Assistance
- Jeremy Sarkin, Refocusing Transitional Justice to Focus Not Only on the Past, But Also to Concentrate on Ongoing Conflicts and Enduring Human Rights Crises
- Niaz A Shah, The Right to a Fair Trial and the Military Justice System in Pakistan
Thursday, April 12, 2018
- Research Articles
- Joanne Gowa & Raymond Hicks, “Big” Treaties, Small Effects: The RTAA Agreements
- Carlo Koos, Decay or Resilience?: The Long-Term Social Consequences of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in Sierra Leone
- Martha Wilfahrt, Precolonial Legacies and Institutional Congruence in Public Goods Delivery: Evidence from Decentralized West Africa
- Fernando Bizzarro, John Gerring, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Allen Hicken, Michael Bernhard, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Michael Coppedge, & Staffan I. Lindberg, Party Strength and Economic Growth
Boothby & Heintschel von Heinegg: The Law of War: A Detailed Assessment of the US Department of Defense Law of War Manual
In 2015, the United States Department of Defense published its long-awaited Law of War Manual making a significant statement on the position of the US government on important military matters. Whilst readers recognise the Manual's legal and strategic importance, they may question whether particular statements of law are legally accurate or complete. This book offers a unique in-depth review of the complete Manual, including revisions, on a paragraph-by-paragraph, line-by-line and word-by-word basis. The authors offer their personal assessment of the DoD's declared view as to the law that regulates the conduct of warfare, a subject of unparalleled current importance.
- Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen & Tanja Aalberts, Introduction: The Changing Practices of International Law
- Tanja Aalberts & Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen, Sovereignty Games, International Law and Politics
- Margareta Brummer, Abandonment, Construction and Denial: The Formation of a Zone
- Malcolm Langford, Daniel Behn & Ole Kristian Fauchald, Backlash and State Strategies in International Investment Law
- Moritz Baumgärtel, ‘Part of the Game’: Government Strategies against European Litigation Concerning Migrant Rights
- Itamar Mann, The Disaggregated Law of Global Mass Surveillance
- Jaye Ellis, Legalization in International Environmental Law
- Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen & Tanja Aalberts, Search and Rescue as a Geopolitics of International Law
- Tanja Aalberts & Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen, Conclusion: The Dark Side of Legalization
- Robert Howse, Geir Ulfstein, Hélène Ruiz-Fabri & Michelle Zang, Introduction
- Gabrielle Marcea & Reto Marco Malacrida, The WTO Adjudicating Bodies
- Pieter Jan Kuijper, The Court of Justice of the European Union
- Halvard Haukeland Fredriksen, The EFTA Court
- Donald C. Pogue, The United States Court of International Trade
- Maureen Irish, The Federal Courts of Canada
- Paula Wojcikiewicz Almeida, The Case of MERCOSUR
- Miguel Antonio Villamizar, The Andean Court of Justice
- Rilka Dragneva, The Case of the Economic Court of the CIS
- James Thuo Gathii, The COMESA Court of Justice
- Illy Ousseni, The WAEMU Court of Justice
- Michael Ewing-Chow & Ranyta Yusran, The ASEAN Trade Dispute Settlement Mechanism
- Theresa Squatrito, A Comparative Analysis of Formal Independence
- Michelle Zang, Judicial interaction of international Trade Courts and Tribunals
- Ole Kristian Fauchald, Access to Trade Tribunals – Comparative Perspectives
- Andreas Follesdal, Towards a More Just WTO: Which Justice, Whose Interpretation?
- Robert Howse, Geir Ulfstein, Hélène Ruiz-Fabri & Michelle Zang, Conclusions
Wednesday, April 11, 2018
The rapid proliferation of international investment treaties brought the concern over the legitimacy of the system of investor-State dispute settlement, which resulted in proposals for its radical redesign. Against this background, this seminar examines how ethical and the rule of law concerns can be better addressed within the existing system. The first panel focuses on ethical issues, including arbitrator and counsel ethics, third-party-funding and transparency. The second panel discusses the rule of law issues, such as reconciling different interpretations of treaties, societal values and conflict of law issues to promote legal certainty and consistency of international investment law.
- Kristine Plouffe-Malette, La moralité publique comme exception : l’apport potentiel des enseignements de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme pour une interprétation renouvelée au sein de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce
- Guillaume Grégoire, La Banque centrale européenne et la crise des dettes souveraines : politique monétaire, politique économique ou état d’exception ?
- Serge Christian Ekani, Intégration, exequatur et sécurité juridique dans l’espace OHADA. Bilan et perspective d’une avancée contrastée
- Quoc Chien Ngo & Van Anh Ly, Le chalandage de traités à l’épreuve des accords d’investissement de nouvelle génération
- Béatrice Boyer-Allirol & Elena Barbu, Est-il pertinent de durcir le droit européen de l’environnement ?
- Steven Freeland, Kirsty Hutchison, & Val Sim, How Technology Drives Space Law Down Under: The Australian and New Zealand Experience
- Ewen Macpherson, Is the World Ready for Drones?
- Luping Zhang, The Role of the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) in the World Trade Organization (WTO) in the Aircraft Manufacturing Industry: In the Time of the Bombardier Case
- S.G. Sreejith, Legality of the Gulf Ban on Qatari Flights: State Sovereignty at Crossroads
- Martin Strom, European Union Competition Law Developments in the Aviation Sector: July to December 2017
The aim of the study is to ascertain the role and function of arbitration within the compulsory procedures entailing binding decision under Part XV of UNCLOS, through a systematic scrutiny of the rules of procedure of the arbitration tribunals established in accordance with Annex VII of the UNCLOS and an analysis of the relevant jurisprudence of these tribunals.
- Chia-yi Lee, Oil and Terrorism: Uncovering the Mechanisms
- Christian Crandall, Owen Cox, Ryan Beasley, & Mariya Omelicheva, Covert Operations, Wars, Detainee Destinations, and the Psychology of Democratic Peace
- Eldad Shahar, Boaz Hameiri, Daniel Bar-Tal, & Amiram Raviv, Self-censorship of Conflict-related Information in the Context of Intractable Conflict
- Pellumb Kelmendi & Andrew Radin, UNsatisfied? Public Support for Postconflict International Missions
- Chiara Felli, Werner Güth, Esther Mata-Pérez, & Giovanni Ponti, Ultimatum Concession Bargaining: An Experimental Study
- Vita Roy, Managing Resource-related Conflict: A Framework of Lootable Resource Management and Postconflict Stabilization
- Michael A. Allen, The Influence of Regional Power Distributions on Interdependence
- Yuhki Tajima, Political Development and the Fragmentation of Protection Markets: Politically Affiliated Gangs in Indonesia
- Isak Svensson & Desirée Nilsson, Disputes over the Divine: Introducing the Religion and Armed Conflict (RELAC) Data, 1975 to 2015
Genin: Incarner le droit international : Du mythe juridique au déclassement international de la Belgique (1914-1940)
La Guerre de 1914-1918, par son caractère global, ses innovations technologiques, ou encore son degré de violence, marque une étape significative de l’histoire contemporaine. La Belgique, premier pays du front Ouest à être envahi, se situe aux premières loges de cette nouvelle phase historique. La neutralité « perpétuelle, permanente et garantie » de ce territoire est violée, en transgression du droit international public. Ce point d’ancrage semble propice à l’étude d’un milieu ayant peu attiré l’attention des historiens : les juristes belges de droit international. Cette étude est à même de mieux nous informer sur les caractéristiques de ce milieu professionnel en soi, concerné au premier chef par l’acte inaugural de la guerre, sur ses pratiques, ses codes, ses réseaux internationaux, le positionnement des juristes, mais aussi, en négatif, de nous renseigner sur un aspect méconnu de l’image de la Belgique et de sa position dans la hiérarchie internationale, à savoir sa contribution au droit international. L’évolution de ce milieu et de ce qu’il représente, à l’aune de la Guerre de 1914-1918, reconnue pour avoir accéléré la juridicisation des relations internationales, constitue l’essentiel de l’angle d’approche adopté par notre recherche. Ces réflexions nous mènent à la problématique générale de cet ouvrage, que l’on peut énoncer comme suit : dans quelle mesure les juristes belges de droit international public, de 1914 à 1940, ont tissé des réseaux internationaux, ont été des indicateurs de l’évolution de la Belgique dans la hiérarchie internationale et, surtout, ont été influencés par l’expérience de la Guerre de 1914-1918, en tant que génératrice d’une mémoire influant sur les modes d’expressions et de représentations de ce groupe social ?
The assessment of sufficient gravity has played a pivotal role in recent proceedings before the International Criminal Court (ICC). Under the ICC Statute, situations are investigated and individuals are prosecuted if a case is of a sufficient gravity. However, the ICC Statute nowhere defines gravity, nor are there any indications regarding the elements that are relevant in the assessment of sufficient gravity. The Appeals Chamber has not offered any interpretation of the gravity threshold, while the references provided by the ICC Pre-Trial and Trial Chambers have been scant and inconclusive. Accordingly, the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) has enjoyed great discretion on whether to open an investigation or to initiate proceedings on the basis of its assessment of the sufficient gravity threshold. For instance, in 2006 the OTP refused to open an investigation on alleged international crimes committed in Iraq due to a lack of sufficient gravity. Similarly, in 2014 the OTP refused to open an investigation regarding the boarding of the Mavi Marmara vessel by the Israeli Defense Force as the situation was not considered sufficiently grave: although this decision was reversed by the ICC Pre-Trial Chamber, on 29 November 2017 the Prosecution confirmed its assessment regarding the lack of sufficient gravity. The conference discusses the issue of sufficient gravity under the ICC Statute in a comprehensive manner. The conference brings together experts of international criminal law and of other areas of international law in order to answer some questions about gravity never explored before.
Tuesday, April 10, 2018
- Jutta Brunnée & Stephen J Toope, Self-Defence Against Non-State Actors: Are Powerful States Willing But Unable to Change International Law?
- Erika de Wet, Complicity in Violations Of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law by Incumbent Governments Through Direct Military Assistance On Request
- Daniel Ghezelbash, Violeta Moreno-Lax, Natalie Klein, & Brian Opeskin, Securitization of Search and Rescue at Sea: The Response to Boat Migration in the Mediterranean and Offshore Australia
- James A Sweeney, The Elusive Right to Truth in Transitional Human Rights Jurisprudence
- Anil Yilmaz Vastardis & Rachel Chambers, Overcoming the Corporate Veil Challenge: Could Investment Law Inspire the Proposed Business and Human Rights Treaty?
- Lan Ngoc Nguyen, UNCLOS Tribunals and the Development of the Outer Continental Shelf Regime
- Shorter Articles and Notes
- Harriet Moynihan, Aiding and Assisting: The Mental Element Under Article 16 of the International Law Commission's Articles on State Responsibility
- Sam Adelman, Editorial: Beyond the Paris Agreement – ambitions, hopes, fears and flaws
- Kathleen Birrell & Lee Godden, Benefits and sharing: realizing rights in REDD+
- Annalisa Savaresi, Traditional knowledge and climate change: a new legal frontier?
- Rowena Maguire & Bridget Lewis, Women, human rights and the global climate regime
- Sumudu Atapattu, The Paris Agreement and human rights: is sustainable development the ‘new human right’?
- Benjamin Mason Meier, Ipsita Das & Pamela Jagger, A ‘burning opportunity’ for human rights: using human rights as a catalyst for policies to mitigate the health risk of household air pollution
- Stephen Kim Park, Investors as Regulators: Green Bonds and the Governance Challenges of the Sustainable Finance Revolution
- Israel D. King, The Legality of Attacking War-Sustaining Economic Objects
- Dakota S. Rudesill, MIRVs Matter: Hydra-Headed Missiles in a New START II Treaty
- Konstantin Ash, “The War Will Come to Your Street”: Explaining Geographic Variation in Terrorism by Rebel Groups
- Carlo Koos, Which Grievances Make People Support Violence against the State? Survey Evidence from the Niger Delta
- Johannes Karreth, The Economic Leverage of International Organizations in Interstate Disputes
- Clayton Webb, Power Politics or Public Pandering? An Empirical Investigation of Economic Sanctions and Presidential Approval
- Gabriele Spilker, Thomas Bernauer & Víctor Umaña, What Kinds of Trade Liberalization Agreements Do People in Developing Countries Want?
- Yesola Kweon, Economic Competitiveness and Social Policy in Open Economies
- Shawn L. Ramirez & Arianna J. Robbins, Targets and Tactics: Testing for a Duality within Al Qaeda’s Network
- Tyson Roberts, Economic Policy, Political Constraints, and Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries
Torture represents a direct attack on the essence of human dignity. Its mere mention evokes a prolific and sordid history: Europe in the Middle Ages, with beds of nails, witch hunts, and burnings; the brutal methods used by military dictatorships against political dissidents in 1970s Latin America; and the gruesome photographs from Abu Ghraib, Guantanamo Bay, and other Bush-era places of detention. While leaders in the West had once hoped that torture would disappear by the end of the twentieth century—and that our children would read about this unfathomable practice in history books and not in the daily papers—research indicates that torture is still routinely used in the majority of twenty-first-century nations.
In his six years as the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture, Manfred Nowak was tasked with reviewing thousands of complaints of torture and detention, investigating facts and circumstances surrounding the global practice of torture, and drawing up recommendations aimed at combating torture. Now, in Torture, readers can get a firsthand glimpse of how modern-day torture is investigated and understood by those working on the frontlines of researching, addressing, and preventing it.
Nowak recounts his experience visiting countries, reviewing documents, collecting evidence, and conducting interviews with perpetrators, witnesses, and victims of torture. He offers vignettes of the many states he visited, comparing their diverse experiences, and he explores the rise of new twenty-first-century practices of torture, questioning whether capital punishment, corporal punishment, solitary confinement, and contemporary forms of slavery qualify as torture. Ultimately, Torture offers vital insights for human-rights scholars and professionals as it tries to make the unfathomable more comprehensible and to clarify the causes and dynamics of torture.
Call for Papers: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights at Seventy: A Review of Successes and Challenges
In recent decades, international legal constraints have shifted far beyond the national border. International lenders’ structural adjustment programs require states to slash budgets, privatize public enterprises and cut pensions. Trade agreements have shifted from locking in low tariffs to forbidding policies that today’s rich countries used to climb up the developmental ladder. This suite of neoliberal policies has been labeled the “golden straitjacket” for their supposed promise of unlocking economic growth. [NP] ‘Judge Knot’ explores a corollary to the straitjacket: investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS), where foreign investors can sue host states out of national courts before transnational tribunals over government regulation. Since 1990, corporations have launched hundreds of cases against states over environmental conservation, financial stabilization and public service provision. In an era of Donald Trump, Brexit, Bernie Sanders, and Jeremy Corbyn, criticism of this system has grown enormously. Yet meaningful reform has been difficult. Even though neoliberal economics is on the wane, its legal underpinnings remain attractive to the corporations that demand investment law and the arbitrators who supply it.
Building off of an unprecedented set of interviews with the arbitrators who actually decide the cases, the interdisciplinary ‘Judge Knot’ brings together the best of political science, law and development economics scholarship to offer a historical institutionalist account of investment arbitration in an era of unprecedented judicialization of international affairs. The book offers concrete alternatives to ISDS that leverage what works about the system and discard what doesn’t, so that international law can be more supportive of democracy and development goals.
This draft chapter examines the use of dissenting opinions in WTO and GATT dispute settlement. Although WTO dispute settlement panelists and individual Appellate Body members sitting on a division hearing an appeal have the power to issue dissents, dissents have been discouraged both in the structure of the applicable rules and in practice. Nonetheless, panelists and Appellate Body members have issued dissents from time to time, with certain types of cases garnering more disagreement than others. This chapter first identifies the relevant rules applicable to separate opinion-writing at the GATT panel and WTO panel and Appellate Body levels and discusses whether those rules or other indicia suggest an anti-dissent or a more neutral message. Part II of the chapter notes some methodological difficulties in precisely quantifying the incidence of dissents in the WTO era. It goes on to identify and describe the dissents issued by WTO panels and divisions of the Appellate Body, as well as to discuss other decisions that, while not traditional dissents, provide a broader perspective on dissenting and writing separately in the WTO context. Part III offers some brief observations about the nature and incidence of dissents in GATT and WTO jurisprudence, and Part IV concludes.
Monday, April 9, 2018
Iura Novit Curia in International Arbitration addresses a question that has attracted the attention of both scholars and practitioners for some time, namely that of whether arbitral tribunals may develop their own legal reasoning independently of the agreement and pleadings of the parties, something that may be looked upon as an oxymoron, given that arbitration itself is considered to be nothing but the result of manifestations of party autonomy – at least according to mainstream understanding of arbitration. The national reports included in this book, all drafted by distinguished academics and practitioners, are based on a questionnaire that can be found following this collection. These reports represent 15 major jurisdictions: Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Russia, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA. The book also includes a general report, as well as a chapter by Friedrich Rosenfeld assessing how the principle iura novit curia is dealt with in international law.
- The Classics’ Corner
- Enrique Pecourt García, The Rules of International Judicial Jurisdiction in Spanish Law
- General Articles
- Nathalie Ros, Sustainable Development Approaches In The New Law Of The Sea
- Carlos R. Fernández Liesa, Relations Between The European Union And Russia In The Light Of The Notion Of Empire
- Montserrat Pintado, Hegemony in International Society. Conceptual And Methodological Proposal Towards A New Analytical Framework
- Valentina Milano, Uncovering Labour Exploitation: Lights And Shadows On The Latest European Court Of Human Rights’ Case Law On Human Trafficking
- Agora: Spain and the law of the sea: 20 years under the Law of the Sea Convention
- Xavier Pons Rafols, Spain in the United Nations: Sixtieth Anniversary
- Mariano J. Aznar, Why This?
- José Antonio De Yturriaga Barberán, Spain at UNCLOS
- Carlos Jiménez Piernas, The Ratification By Spain
- Related Agreements and Spain: Fish Stocks and Marine Biological Diversity Susana Borrás
- Miguel García García-Revillo, Spain and the Bodies Established by LOSC: The Commission on the Limits, the ISBA and the ITLOS
- Irene Blázquez Navarro, A Comprehensive New Approach: The National Maritime Security Strategy
- Javier Díez-Hochleitner, Maritime Zones Under Sovereignty and Navigation
- Paz Andrés Sáenz De Santamaría, Contiguous Zone
- Antonio Pastor Palomar, Exclusive Economic Zone and Fisheries Zones
- José Manuel De Faramiñán, Continental Shelf and Its Extension
- Inmaculada González García, Archipelagos and Islands
- Víctor L. Gutiérrez, Delimited Maritime Zones
- Esperanza Orihuela Calatayud, Pending Delimitations
- Alejandro Del Valle Gálvez, Maritime Zones Around Gibraltar
- Ana Gema López Martín, Navigation Through The Strait Of Gibraltar
- Rafael Casado Raigón, Fisheries
- Montserrat Abad Castelos, Non-Living Marine Resources
- Elena Conde Pérez, Marine Scientific Research
- Jesús Carrera Hernández, Protecting Underwater Cultural Heritage
- Carlos Espaliú Berdud, Security and Military Questions
- José Manuel Sobrino Heredia, Piracy
- Paula García Andrade, Migrants by Sea
- Xavier Pons Rafols, Fight Against Illicit Fisheries
- Isabel Lirola Delgado & Julio Jorge Urbina, Police at Sea
- Marta Abegón, Ana María Maestro Cortizas & Beatriz Vazquez, A Selected Spanish Bibliography on the Law of the Sea
While the proliferation of ICs has been described in details, we know surprisingly little about who the actual judges sitting at the helm of contemporary judicialized international law and ruling (on) the world are. What has once been termed the “invisible college of international law” remains to a large extent invisible to this day. But it is now a much larger college as the proliferation of ICs has resulted in a corresponding multiplication of the number of international judges. Today, more than three hundred men and women hold the office of international judge. Most are found in Europe, at the two regional courts of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights, but many other regional and global courts also employ a significant number of international judges. Besides some mainly descriptive studies of the international judiciary, we have very little analysis of who these people are and what commonalities they have, notably in terms of education, knowledge, and know-how. This paper remedies this gap in scholarship and presents a first systematic study of the configuration of the international judiciary.
International courts and tribunals now operate globally and in several world regions, playing significant roles in international law and global governance. However, these courts vary significantly in terms of their practices, procedures, and the outcomes they produce. Why do some international courts perform better than others? Which factors affect the outcome of these courts and tribunals? The Performance of International Courts and Tribunals is an interdisciplinary study featuring approaches, methods and authorship from law and political science, which proposes the concept of performance to describe the processes and outcomes of international courts. It develops a framework for evaluating and explaining performance by offering a broad comparative analysis of international courts, covering several world regions and the areas of trade, investment, the environment, human rights and criminal law, and offers interdisciplinary accounts to explain how and why international court performance varies.
Sunday, April 8, 2018
International Criminal Investigations: Law & Practice is the first of its kind – a resource book on selected topics assessing more than twenty years of international criminal investigations, while addressing the practicalities and challenges of such investigations. It explores, from the perspective of expert practitioners, a thematic approach to important issues such as investigative strategies, planning and interview techniques for specific witnesses, financial investigations, while incorporating the personal experiences of those who have served as pioneers in this field. A necessary addition to the literature on international criminal law in practice, this volume meaningfully contributes to increased knowledge of the science and art involved in international criminal investigations.
The aim of this article is to flesh out the implications of seeing universal jurisdiction as a claim to authority. While the idea that jurisdiction is an exercise of authority may seem obvious, the article invites attention to the ‘claim’ inherent within it, particularly where the exercise of jurisdiction intrudes upon or displaces competing claims. Legal scholars and practitioners tend to focus on the legal source of authority to exercise universal jurisdiction. The consequence is a tendency to think in binary terms: a court either has jurisdiction, in which case the matter will proceed (without further attention to the question of jurisdiction), or it does not, in which case the whole matter is at an end. Jurisdictional thinking invites attention to the need for those asserting such a claim to take responsibility for these claims to authority, encouraging responsiveness to the normative communities such claims put into relation and the potential need to rethink conventional modes of operation. The article proceeds in two parts. Part I examines the deficiencies in the dominant ‘legal source’ narrative on universal jurisdiction. Part II assesses the value of understanding the legal-political dimension of universal jurisdiction as a claim to authority that must be understood, and justified, with attention to its purpose and the community (or communities) it is intended to serve.