The recent acquittal of the first Guantanamo Bay detainee to stand trial in U.S. federal court on all but one of the 286 charges he faced stemming from the 1998 bombings of two U.S. embassies in Africa has reinvigorated the discussion on indefinite detention under the laws of war. While the issue has been raised in the past, the discussion hasn’t extended beyond stating that the law of war, or law of armed conflict (LOAC) as it is often called, provides a legal basis for detention, including detention for the duration of hostilities. In fact, the Obama Administration has made it clear that some detainees will be held indefinitely “under the laws of war” but has provided no clear guidance as to what that detention would look like.
This article seeks to extend the dialogue to substantive consideration of whether the LOAC rules on detention are sufficiently flexible and comprehensive to provide worthwhile and meaningful individual protections the United States could apply to those who are detained indefinitely.
Historical practice has generally involved detention for much shorter periods of time than many at Guantanamo have already been detained. There are some notable exceptions, however, where fighters were detained for extended periods of time, including more than twenty years in the case of Morocco. Surprisingly, considering the number of armed conflicts that have involved detention, there is no common international practice concerning long-term or indefinite detention upon which states may rely.
The question then becomes, assuming that long-term and potentially indefinite detention of unlawful enemy combatants (or unprivileged enemy belligerents) will occur as justified by the law of war, what should that detention look like? This article argues that the basic provisions and safeguards currently extant in the law of armed conflict are sufficient to satisfy an indefinite detention paradigm. Though many of these provisions are under-utilized or ineffective in the current detention framework, the current structure could be adapted to provide a LOAC detention model that accounts for a contemporary view of individual rights, protections, and privileges. Such an adapted paradigm would be completely appropriate for the indefinite detention of the 48 detainees designated by the U.S. Government to be held at Guantanamo Bay, and would provide all the safeguards and ensure the overall security necessary for that detention until the conflict is over or until the detainees no longer pose a risk.
Saturday, January 8, 2011
Jenks & Jensen: Indefinite Detention Under the Laws of War
Friday, January 7, 2011
New Issue: International Arbitration Law Review
- Richard Kreindler, The 2010 Revision to the IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Commercial Arbitration: A Study in Both Consistency and Progress
- Amy Cohen Klasener, The Duty of Good Faith in the 2010 IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration
- Christopher Newmark, "Efficient, Economical And Fair" — The Mantra of the New IBA Rules
- Nicholas Craig, Arbitration Confidentiality and the IBA Rules on the Taking Evidence in International Arbitration
- Klaus Peter Berger, Evidentiary Privileges Under the Revised IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration
- James H. Carter, Privilege Gets A New Framework
- Amal Bouchenaki, The IBA Rules Lay the Ground for Solutions to Address Electronic-Document-Production Disputes
- Nathan D. O'Malley, Document Production Under Article 3 of the 2010 IBA Rules of Evidence
- Matthias Scherer, The Limits of the IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration: Document Production Based on Contractual or Statutory Rights
- Robert H. Smit, E-Disclosure Under the Revised IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration
- Markus Wirth, Fact Witnesses
- Christopher Harris, Expert Evidence: The 2010 Revisions to the IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration
- Klaus Sachs & Nils Schmidt-Ahrendts, Expert Evidence Under the 2010 IBA Rules
Scheffler: Die Europäische Union als rechtlich-institutioneller Akteur im System der Vereinten Nationen
Das System der Vereinten Nationen ist ein zentrales Forum der EU-Außenpolitik. Die Komplexität der Mitwirkung der EU als überstaatliches Gebilde in den Gremien des VN-Systems wird jedoch häufig unterschätzt. Der Autor unterzieht das Geflecht der relevanten europa- und völkerrechtlichen Regelungen eienr systematischen Analyse und untersucht dabei auch die institutionelle Praxis. Unter Zuhilfenahme eines interdisziplinären Anstzes wird geklärt, inwieweit die EU im VN-System als rechtlich-institutioneller Akteur auftritt und welche Perspektiven sich diesbezüglich im Lichte des Vertrags von Lissabon ergeben.
Kingsbury & Straumann: The Roman Foundations of the Law of Nations
This book makes the important but surprisingly under-explored argument that modern international law was built on the foundations of Roman law and Roman imperial practice. A pivotal figure in this enterprise was the Italian Protestant Alberico Gentili (1552-1608), the great Oxford Roman law scholar and advocate, whose books and legal opinions on law, war, empire, embassies and maritime issues framed the emerging structure of inter-state relations in terms of legal rights and remedies drawn from Roman law and built on Roman and scholastic theories of just war and imperial justice.
The distinguished group of contributors examine the theory and practice of justice and law in Roman imperial wars and administration; Gentili's use of Roman materials; the influence on Gentili of Vitoria and Bodin and his impact on Grotius and Hobbes; and the ideas and influence of Gentili and other major thinkers from the 16th to the 18th centuries on issues such as preventive self-defence, punishment, piracy, Europe's political and mercantile relations with the Ottoman Empire, commerce and trade, European and colonial wars and peace settlements, reason of state, justice, and the relations between natural law and observed practice in providing a normative and operational basis for international relations and what became international law.
This book explores ways in which both the theory and the practice of international politics was framed in ways that built on these Roman private law and public law foundations, including concepts of rights. This history of ideas has continuing importance as European ideas of international law and empire have become global, partly accepted and partly contested elsewhere in the world.
Thursday, January 6, 2011
New Issue: Journal of World Intellectual Property
- Poku Adusei, Exploiting Patent Regulatory “Flexibilities” to Promote Access to Antiretroviral Medicines in Sub-Saharan Africa
- Carol Fleischhaker, Piercing the Power of the Patch: How Trademark Law Could Diminish the Power of Gang Insignia
- Daniel Kraus & Markus Rüssli, Access and Benefit Sharing User Measures in Switzerland
- Amit Shovon Ray & Sabyasachi Saha, Patenting Public-Funded Research for Technology Transfer: A Conceptual–Empirical Synthesis of US Evidence and Lessons for India
Pichon: Internationaler Strafgerichtshof und Sicherheitsrat der Vereinten Nationen
Das Werk setzt sich mit dem Verhältnis des Internationalen Strafgerichtshofs (IStGH) zum VN-Sicherheitsrat (SR) auseinander. Dabei werden u.a. die sog. Referral- and Deferral-Kompetenz des Sicherheitsrats und das Aggressionsverbrechen aus Sicht des Römischen Statuts und der VN-Charta analysiert.
Eine entscheidende Rolle spielt hierbei das Prinzip der Unabhängigkeit von Gerichten. Anhand der gewonnenen Ergebnisse werden zudem die relevanten SR-Resolutionen überprüft. Im Fokus der Arbeit steht SR-Resolution 1593 (2005), auf deren Grundlage der IStGH einen Haftbefehl gegen den amtierenden sudanesischen Staatspräsidenten al-Bashir erlassen hat.
Casado Raigón & Cataldi: L’évolution et l’état actuel du droit international de la mer
Cet ouvrage offre 45 contributions qui ont eu comme auteurs d’éminents juristes et maritimistes, provenant aussi bien d’Europe que d’autres continents, et qui tous ont eu, à un moment de leur vie, un lien particulier avec le professeur Daniel Vignes, sans aucun doute l’une des figures les plus emblématiques du Droit de la mer des cinq dernières décennies.
New Issue: Lloyd's Maritime and Commercial Law Quarterly
- Francesco Berlingieri, Revisiting the Rotterdam Rules
- Andrew Scott, The territorial scope of British employment legislation
New Issue: Global Policy
- Special Section - The global economy after the financial crisis
- Martin Wolf, Introduction to the Special Section: The Global Economy After the Financial Crisis
- Danny Quah, The Global Economy’s Shifting Centre of Gravity
- José Antonio Ocampo, Global Economic Prospects and the Developing World
- Deepak Nayyar, The Financial Crisis, the Great Recession and the Developing World
- John S. Dryzek, André Bchtiger & Karolina Milewicz, Toward a Deliberative Global Citizens’ Assembly
- Rorden Wilkinson, Measuring the WTO’s Performance: An Alternative Account
- Christopher T. Marsden, Network Neutrality and Internet Service Provider Liability Regulation: Are the Wise Monkeys of Cyberspace Becoming Stupid?
- Kristian Coates Ulrichsen, Rebalancing Global Governance: Gulf States’ Perspectives on the Governance of Globalisation
- Aleh Cherp, Jessica Jewell & Andreas Goldthau, Governing Global Energy: Systems, Transitions, Complexity
- Survey Articles
- Shi Yinhong, China, ‘Global Challenges’ and the Complexities of International Cooperation
- S. Jay Olshansky, Simon Biggs, W. Andrew Achenbaum, Gerald C. Davison, Linda Fried, Gloria Gutman, Alexandre Kalache, Kay-Tee Khaw, Alvaro Fernandez, Suresh I. S. Rattan, Renato Maia Guimarães, Colin Milner & Robert N. Butler, The Global Agenda Council on the Ageing Society: Policy Principles
- Henning Meyer & Stephen Barber, Making Transatlantic Economic Relations Work
- Practitioner Commentary
- Responses to Articles
- Robert Wade, Why Justin Lin’s Door-Opening Argument Matters for Development Economics
- Robert Howse & Ruti Teitel, Posner’s Missing Concept of Law
- Rorden Wilkinson, Global Governance, for Whom?
- Review Essay
Wednesday, January 5, 2011
Hoffmann: Squaring the Circle? – International Humanitarian Law and Transnational Armed Conflicts
Even though the law of armed conflict traditionally recognizes only the dichotomy of international and non-international armed conflict applicable in the normative framework regulating armed hostilities, reality presents situations that do not readily fit into these categories. Foreign State involvement is almost habitual in contemporary conflicts and a significant number of conflicts rage between States and non-State actors not necessarily remaining within the confines of a country.
The present paper attempts to examine the legal classification of ‘transnational armed conflicts’, i.e. armed hostilities with a transboundary character that involve non-State actors and thus seemingly escape the classic division of international and non-international armed conflict. After a perusal of legal doctrine and State practice, it concludes that contemporary international humanitarian law is capable of regulating such conflicts and calls for an overhaul of the present system are premature.
New Issue: Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights
- Ellen Dorsey, Mayra Gómez, Bret Thiele & Paul Nelson, Column: Falling Short of Our Goals: Transforming the Millennium Development Goals into Millennium Development Rights
- Ronli Sifris, Conceptualising Involuntary Sterilisation as ‘Severe Pain or Suffering’ for the Purposes of Torture Discourse
- Jessica Duggan-Larkin, Can an Intergovernmental Mechanism Increase the Protection of Human Rights? The Potential of Universal Periodic Review in Relation to the Realisation of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
New Volume: Annuaire français de droit international
- Jorge Viñuales, Michel Virally ou penser le phénomène juridique
- Santiago Villalpando, Le codificateur et le juge face à la responsabilité internationale de l’État : interaction entre la CDI et la CIJ dans la détermination des règles secondaires
- Hélène Tigroudja, Les accords du 17 novembre 2008 établissant le cadre juridique de la présence américaine en Irak et de la coopération entre les deux États
- Nicolas Haupais, Les enjeux juridiques de la « privatisation de la guerre »
- Marie Cornu & Manlio Frigo, L’accord portant création du Louvre Abou Dabi, musée universel : une double invention culturelle et juridique
- Muriel Ubeda Saillard, Les aspects opérationnels de l’exercice de la compétence personnelle à l’égard des nationaux à l’étranger
- Alain Bockel, Gaza : le processus de paix en question
New Issue: ICSID Review: Foreign Investment Law Journal
- 50 Years of Bilateral Investment Treaties Conference 2009
- Preface - Organizing Committee
- Ludolf von Wartenberg, Welcoming Address 1
- Roland Koch, Welcoming Address 2
- Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani, Welcoming Address 3
- Hans-Joachim Otto, Welcoming Address 4
- Cornel Wisskirchen, Welcoming Address 5
- Robert Hunter, Introduction to the Conference
- Session 1: Original Intent, Development and Economic Significance of BITs
- Lucy Reed, Introductory Remarks
- Sompong Sucharitkul, Fifty Years of Bilateral Investment Treaties with Germany: The Experience from Thailand's Perspective
- James X. Zhan, The Spread of BITs and their Changing Face
- Joachim Steffens, Expectations of Governments and Investors vs. Practice: The Government View on BITs
- L. Yves Fortier, Expectations of Governments and Investors vs. Practice: A View from the Bench
- Session 2: Current Substantive and Procedural Approaches to BITs around the World
- Patricia Nacimiento, Introductory Remarks
- Rudolf Dolzer, The European Approach to BITs
- Zhang Yuejiao, The Asian Approach to Bilateral Investment Treaties for the Protection and Promotion of Foreign Investment
- Session 3: Europeanization and Regionalism as a Challenge to BITs
- Stephan Hobe, Introductory Remarks
- August Reinisch, Investment Protection and Dispute Settlement in Preferential Trade Agreements: A Challenge to BITs?
- Ulrich Wölker, The EU as a Player in the BIT Arena: Current and Future Legal Challenges
- Christoph G. Benedict, The Multilateralization of Investment Protection under the Lisbon Treaty: Fears and Hopes of Investors
- Session 4: The Future of Bilateral Investment Protection
- Christian Tietje, Introductory Remarks
- Omar E. García-Bolívar, Sovereignty vs. Investment Protection: Back to Calvo?
- Maurice Mendelson, Investment and BITs in Clinical Isolation? Conflicting Legal Obligations of Host States
- Karl-Heinz Bockstiegel, An Arbitrator's Perspective on BITs and their Relation to Other International Law Obligations
- Session 5: Will the Concepts of "Investment" and "Investor" Be Redefined?
- Robert Hunter, Introductory Remarks
- M. Sornarajah, Portfolio Investments and the Definition of Investment
- Christoph Schreuer, Nationality of Investors: Legitimate Restrictions vs. Business Interests
- Ulrich Klemm, Investment through Third Countries: State Practice and Needs of Investors
- Brigitte Stern, The Contours of the Notion of Protected Investment
- Session 6: To Protect or not to Protect: Is there "Non-Protected" Investment?
- Karl-Ernst Brauner, Introductory Remarks
- Bernardo M. Cremades, Investment Protection and Compliance with Local Legislation
- Giorgio Sacerdoti, Corruption in Investment Transactions: Policy Initiatives, Legal Principles and Arbitral Practice
Darcy & Powderly: Judicial Creativity at the International Criminal Tribunals
- Joseph Powderly, Judicial Interpretation at the ad hoc Tribunals: Method from Chaos?
- Fabián Raimondo, General Principles of Law, Judicial Creativity and the Development of International Criminal Law
- William A. Schabas, Judicial Activism and the Crime of Genocide
- L.J. van den Herik, Using Custom to Reconceptualize Crimes Against Humanity
- Shane Darcy, The Reinvention of War Crimes by the International Criminal Tribunals
- Niamh Hayes, Creating a Definition of Rape in International Law: the Contribution of the International Criminal Tribunals
- Robert Cryer, The ad hoc Tribunals and the Law of Command Responsibility: A Quiet Earthquake
- Mohamed Shahabuddeen, Judicial Creativity and Joint Criminal Enterprise
- Gideon Boas, Omission Liability at the International Criminal Tribunals - A Case for Reform
- Caroline Fournet, The Judicial Development of the Law of Defences by the International Criminal Tribunals
- Gillian Higgins, The Development of the Right to Self Representation before the International Criminal Tribunals
- Wayne Jordash & John Coughlan, The Right to be Informed of the Nature and Cause of the Charges: A Potentially Formidable Jurisprudential Legacy
- Göran Sluiter, Procedural Lawmaking at the International Criminal Tribunals
- Hakan Friman, Trying Cases at the International Criminal Tribunals in the Absence of the Accused?
- Fidelma Donlon, The Role of the Judges in the Definition and Implementation of the Completion Strategies of the International Criminal Tribunals
Tuesday, January 4, 2011
New Issue: Journal of Conflict & Security Law
- Christian Henderson, The 2010 United States National Security Strategy and the Obama Doctrine of ‘Necessary Force’
- Micaela Frulli, Exploring the Applicability of Command Responsibility to Private Military Contractors
- Rebecca J. Barber, The Proportionality Equation: Balancing Military Objectives with Civilian Lives in the Armed Conflict in Afghanistan
- Craig A. Brannagan, The Copenhagen Process on the Handling of Detainees in International Military Operations: A Canadian Perspective on the Challenges and Goals of Humane Warfare
- Melanie O’Brien, The Ascension of Blue Beret Accountability: International Criminal Court Command and Superior Responsibility in Peace Operations
New Issue: Chinese Journal of International Law
- Yann-huei Song, The Application of Article 121 of the Law of the Sea Convention to the Selected Geographical Features Situated in the Pacific Ocean
- Comments, Essays and Notes
- Sun Jin, The Linkage Requirement in Enforcement Immunity
- Wang Chen, Issues on Consensus and Quorum at International Conferences
- Seokwoo Lee & Jon M. Van Dyke, The 1951 San Francisco Peace Treaty and Its Relevance to the Sovereignty over Dokdo
- Courts and Tribunals
- Sienho Yee, Notes on the International Court of Justice (Part 4): The Kosovo Advisory Opinion
- Philippe Gautier, The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea: Activities in 2009
- Development and History
- Eric Yong Joong Lee, The Complete Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula: Some Considerations under International Law
- Lin Chun Hung, ASEAN Charter: Deeper Regional Integration under International Law?
Waibel: Two Decades Lost: Reinvigorating the Weak Cousin of WTO Law
This chapter argues that current international financial law is largely toothless and dangerously underdeveloped. The sea change in international finance since 1990 seems to have bypassed the public international law of finance and international financial lawyers. Despite dazzling growth in global capital markets, international financial law has barely changed over the last decades. Because of close interrelation between the international trade and monetary sphere, international financial law is the weak cousin of WTO law.
Bellamy, Davies, & Glanville: The Responsibility to Protect and International Law
- Alex J. Bellamy, Sara E. Davies & Luke Glanville, Introduction
- Edward C. Luck, Sovereignty, Choice and the Responsibility to Protect
- Ekkehard Strauss, A Bird in the Hand is Worth Two in the Bush – On the Assumed Legal Nature of the Responsibility to Protect
- Jutta Brunnée & Stephen J. Toope, The Responsibility to Protect and the Use of Force: Building Legality?
- Alex J. Bellamy & Ruben Reike, The Responsibility to Protect and International Law
- Dorota Gierycz, The Responsibility to Protect: A Legal and Rights-based Perspective
- Jennifer M. Welsh & Maria Banda, International Law and the Responsibility to Protect: Clarifying or Expanding States’ Responsibilities?
- Hilary Charlesworth, Feminist Reflections on the Responsibility to Protect
- Sheri P. Rosenberg, Responsibility to Protect: A Framework for Prevention
- Michael Contarino & Selena Lucent, Stopping the Killing: The International Criminal Court and Juridical Determination of the Responsibility to Protect
- Alex J. Bellamy, Sara E. Davies & Luke Glanville, Conclusion
New Volume: Italian Yearbook of International Law
- Symposium: “International Law in Italian Courts: Ten Years of Jurisprudence”
- G. Cataldi & M. Iovane, International Law in Italian Courts 1999-2009: An Overview of Major Methodological and Substantive Issues
- Jurisdictional Immunities of Foreign States and International Organizations
- A. Atteritano, Immunity of States and Their Organs: The Contribution of Italian Jurisprudence over the Past Ten Years
- P. Pustorino, The Immunity of International Organizations from Civil Jurisdiction in the Recent Italian Case Law
- R. Pavoni, A Decade of Italian Case Law on the Immunity of Foreign States: Lights and Shadows
- P. Palchetti, Some Remarks on the Scope of Immunity of Foreign State Officials in the Light of Recent Judgments of Italian Courts
- M. Frulli, Some Reflections on the Functional Immunity of State Officials
- A. Reinisch, Comments on a Decade of Italian Case Law on the Jurisdictional Immunity of International Organizations
- International Terrorism
- M. Mancini, Defining Acts of International Terrorism in Time of Armed Conflict: Italian Case Law in the Aftermath of September 11, 2001 Attacks
- M. Sheinin, Defining Acts of International Terrorism in Time of Armed Conflict: A Critical Comment on Italian Case Law
- Treatment of Migrants
- F. Lenzerini, The Evolution of Italian Jurisprudence Concerning the Relationship between the Constitutional Right of Asylum and the Recognition of Refugee Status
- B. Nascimbene, Comments on the Past Ten Years of Italian Jurisprudence on the Right of Asylum
- G. Katrougalos, Comparative Perspectives of Constitutional Asylum: A Short Commentary to Federico Lenzerini’s Paper
- Execution of ECHR Obligations and ECtHR Judgments
- E. Cannizzaro, The Effect of the ECHR on the Italian Legal Order: Direct Effect and Supremacy
- A. Nollkaemper, The Effect of the ECHR and Judgments of the ECtHR on National Law: Comments on the Paper of Enzo Cannizzaro
- G. Tesauro, Courts and Human Rights
Monday, January 3, 2011
Bates: The Evolution of the European Convention on Human Rights
The European Convention on Human Rights underwent a spectacular evolution over the first fifty years of its life. In recent times the European Court of Human Rights has been compared to a quasi-constitutional court for Europe in the field of human rights, and for some time the Convention has been viewed as a European Bill of Rights. The 'coming of age' of the ECHR system in the late 1990s was marked by the entry into force of Protocol 11, creating a new, full time Court.
By contrast those who first proposed a European human rights guarantee were driven by an ambition to put in place a collective pact to prevent the re-emergence of totalitarianism in 'free' Europe. They were motivated by grisly memories of human rights abuse associated with World War Two, and the protection of 'human rights' was seen in that light. When the Convention was opened for signature in 1950 it was viewed by many with scepticism and disappointment. The Convention system took many years to get established. In the mid-1960s doubts were expressed as to whether the Court had a future and in the 1970s the Convention system of control faced a number of serious challenges.
This book examines the story of the evolution of the Convention over its first 50 years (1948-1998). It reflects on the Convention's origins and charts the slow progress that it made over the 1950s and 1960s, before, in the late 1970s, the European Court of Human Rights delivered a series of landmark judgments which proved to be the foundation stones for the European Bill of Rights that we know today.
New Issue: Journal of International Economic Law
- Lorand Bartels & Christian Häberli, Binding Tariff Preferences for Developing Countries Under Article II Gatt
- Pasha L. Hsieh, China’s Development of International Economic Law and WTO Legal Capacity Building
- Suzanne A. Spears, The Quest for Policy Space in a New Generation of International Investment Agreements
- Michael Ming Du, Autonomy in Setting Appropriate Level of Protection under the WTO Law: Rhetoric or Reality?
- Rudolf Adlung & Peter Morrison, Less than the Gats: ‘Negative Preferences’ in Regional Services Agreements
New Issue: Stanford Journal of International Law
- A Race to the Bottom? A Symposium on Preferential Trade Agreements and Discrimination in International Trade
- Alan O. Sykes, The Law, Economics and Politics of Preferential Trade Agreements: An Introduction
- Warren H. Maruyama, Preferential Trade Arrangements and the Erosion of the WTO's MFN Principle
- T.N. Srinivasan, Global Trading System: Decline of Nondiscrimination and Rise of Preferential Trade Arrangements and Agreements
- Edward D. Mansfield & Helen V. Milner, Regime Type, Veto Points, and Preferential Trading Arrangements
New Issue: International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law
- Barbara Kwiatkowska, In Memoriam: Shabtai Rosenne (24 November 1917-21 September 2010)
- Alexander Proelss, Monika Krivickaite, Anita Gilles, Helena Herr, & Ursula Siebert, Protection of Cetaceans in European Waters—A Case Study on Bottom-Set Gillnet Fisheries within Marine Protected Areas
- Ilias Bantekas, Bilateral Delimitation of the Caspian Sea and the Exclusion of Third Parties
- Nina Maier, Legal Implementation of Integrated Ocean Policies: The EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive
- Inmaculada González García, The Anglo-Spanish Dispute over the Waters of Gibraltar and the Tripartite Forum of Dialogue
- Yann-huei Song, A Marine Biodiversity Project in the South China Sea: Joint Efforts Made in the SCS Workshop Process
New Issue: American Journal of International Law
- Eric A. Posner & Alan O. Sykes, Economic Foundations of the Law of the Sea
- Editorial Comment
- Mahnoush H. Arsanjani & W. Michael Reisman, Interpreting Treaties for the Benefit of Third Parties: The "Salvors' Doctrine" and the Use of Legislative History in Investment Treaties
- Current Developments
- Jacob Katz Cogan, The 2009 Judicial Activity of the International Court of Justice