On the basis of a systematic accumulation of primary evidence, over a 15-year period, the book describes African trade policy behavior. Through the analysis of original data, African Participation at the World Trade Organization: Legal and Institutional Aspects, 1995-2010 concludes that there is wide scope for improvement in African participation in the WTO. Based on the current transitions in the global economy, the author encourages African Members of the WTO to break from the "inertia of a special and differential exemption orientation", align the trade policy behavior of African Capitals with the Geneva "Frontline"; and, ensure adequacy of deployed resources to three core areas of WTO work: dispute settlement; administration of existing Agreements; and, multilateral negotiations. Finally, the conclusion identifies a detailed and pragmatic roadmap for African policy makers to maximize the benefits of global trade integration and WTO Membership.
Saturday, November 2, 2013
Friday, November 1, 2013
- Andrew Lang, The Role of the International Court of Justice in a Context of Fragmentation
- Jill Morgan, Digging Deep: Property Rights In Subterranean Space and the Challenge of Carbon Capture and Storage
- Volker Roeben, Governing Shared Offshore Electricity Infrastructure in the Northern Seas
- Michael Cardwell & Fiona Smith, Renegotiation of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture: Accommodating the New Big Issues
- Shorter Articles
- Simon P Camilleri, Recital 12 of the Recast Regulation: A New Hope?
- Justine Pila, The European Patent: An Old and Vexing Problem
How do people living in a refugee camp engage with legal practices, discourses, and institutions? Critics argue that refugee camps leave people in “legal limbo” depriving them of the “right to have rights” despite the presence of international humanitarian actors and the entitlements enshrined in international law. For that reason, refugee camps have become a highly visible symbol of failed human rights campaigns. In contrast, I found in an ethnography of the Buduburam Refugee Camp in Ghana, West Africa, that although people living as refugees faced chronic insecurity and injustice, they engaged extensively with several different facets of the law. I illuminate three interrelated dimensions of their experiences: (1) their development as international legal subjects; (2) their alienation from domestic legal institutions; and (3) their agency within the legal field. The article contributes to the research agenda on law in humanitarian settings an empirically grounded account of the subjective dimensions of legal alienation and mobilization in a refugee camp. More broadly, it contributes to international human rights debates by theorizing a mixed outcome of international human rights campaigns: the emergence of wards of international law, people deeply embedded in the international legal system, but alienated from local law.
Many contemporary theories approach international law-making with a shift in emphasis from the sources of law towards the communicative practices in which a plethora of actors use, claim and speak international law. Whereas earlier approaches would look at the sources as the singular moment of law-making, it is now generally understood that the broader process of speaking the language of international law contributes to its making. The contribution proceeds by sketching the move from sources to communicative practice against the backdrop of the 'linguistic turn', which proposes that law is made 'in action' (II.). It then dedicates sections to principal contemporary theories, starting off with the New Haven School as a pioneering approach to thinking of international law-making as a process of authoritative decision-making (III.). Its heritage is refined in the theory of transnational legal process (IV.). In contrast to these voices from New Haven, systems theory abstracts from the political strategies of concrete actors and is therefore in a good position to recognize law as an autonomous enterprise (V.). Practice theory then combines, first, sociological thought on the heels of Pierre Bourdieu and, second, philosophical insights of pragmatism (VI.). Governance theory then suggests paying more attention to regulatory networks as sites of law-making and to private actors whose normative output gains bite in the market place (VII.). The concluding outlook discusses the Global Administrative Law project and research centered on international public authority as responses to the normative challenges that come with the multiplication of forms and fora of international law-making (VIII.).
- Editorial Comments
- Francois Rigaux, Causality and Emergence under International Law
- Shibo Jiang, International Disaster Response Law and Policy in China: Evolution, Problem and Resolution
- Asad G. Kiyani, Al-Bashir & the ICC: The Problem of Head of State Immunity
- Jaemin Lee, An Important First Stride, but Beware of the Pitfalls: A Critical Analysis of the ISDS Mechanism of the 2012 Korea–China–Japan Trilateral Investment Treaty
- Tatjana Papić, Fighting for a Seat at the Table: International Representation of Kosovo
- L. N. Galenskaya, International Legal Regulation of Trans-border Co-operation
- Lung Wan Pun, Application and Conclusion of Treaties in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China: Sixteen Years of Practice
Thursday, October 31, 2013
A central challenge for international financial regulatory systems today is how to manage the impact of global systemically important financial institutions (G-SIFIs) on the global economy, given the interconnected and pluralistic nature of regulatory regimes. This paper focuses on the Financial Stability Board (FSB) and proposes a new research agenda for the FSB's emerging regulatory forms. In particular, it examines the regulatory architecture of the New Governance (NG), a variety of approaches that are supposed to be more reflexive, collaborative, and experimental than traditional forms of governance. A preliminary conclusion is that NG tools may be effective in resolving some kinds of problems in a pluralistic regulatory order, but they are unlikely to be suitable for all problems. As such, this article proposes that analyses of the precise conditions in which NG mechanisms may or may not be effective are necessary. It concludes with some recommendations for improving the NG model.
The field of post-conflict justice includes many well-known international criminal law and rule of law initiatives, from the International Criminal Court to rule of law programs aimed at legal development and reform in Afghanistan and Iraq. Less visible but nonetheless vital to the field are the international staff (known as “internationals”) who carry out these transitional justice enterprises, and the networks and communities that connect them to each other. By sharing information, collaborating on joint action, and debating proposed legal rules within their networks and communities, internationals help to develop and implement the core norms and practices of post-conflict justice. This is particularly important because these fundamental norms and practices are still evolving dramatically. But at times, these networks and communities are dysfunctional. Then, internationals’ ability to engage in robust dialogue and work together is compromised, to the detriment of the effectiveness of their work and of the maturation of the field as a whole.
This article examines these networks and communities from the perspective of internationals themselves. It is based on my interviews with fifty internationals about their perceptions of their post-conflict justice work and their connections with others in the field. The article focuses on two communities of practice for in-depth analysis: internationals working for international criminal tribunals and internationals carrying out rule of law work within post-conflict states. Using the information provided by interviewees, the article identifies factors that influence how these communities form and function; it then analyzes the role such communities play in facilitating the development of shared norms and practices. The paper concludes with an exploration of the boundaries of these communities and their intersections with other groups, such as defense attorneys in international criminal law and national actors in rule of law work.
UCL is hosting a symposium on the occasion of the re-publication of Hersch Lauterpacht's An International Bill of Rights of Man.
The book, first published in 1945, is one of the seminal works on international human rights law. Its author, Sir Hersch Lauterpacht, is widely considered to be one of the great international lawyers of the 20th century. It continues to influence those studying and working in international human rights law today. It includes Professor Lauterpacht's study of natural law and natural right; and Professor Lauterpacht's own draft Bill of Human Rights.
This republication once again makes this book available to scholars and students in the field. It features a new introduction by Professor Philippe Sands, QC, examining the world in which An International Bill of the Rights of Man was originally published and the lasting legacy of this classic work.
Wednesday, October 30, 2013
Strawbridge: U.S. Implementation of Adverse WTO Rulings: A Closer Look at the Tuna-Dolphin, COOL, and Clove Cigarettes Cases
- Yossi Dahan, Hanna Lerner, & Faina Milman-sivan, Shared Responsibility and the International Labour Organization
- Keith A. Petty, Humanity and National Security: The Law of Mass Atrocity Response Operations
- Pierre Vandernoot, Légion d'honneur à Me Pierre Lambert
- Sandrine Turgis, Strasbourg à l’ère du numérique : la pratique développée par la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme autour de l’accès au droit par internet
- Mutoy Mubiala, Vers la création d’une Cour mondiale des droits de l’homme ?
- Victor Guset, Le volet linguistique de la liberté d’expression selon la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme : le long chemin d’une consécration encore inachevée
- Peggy Ducoulombier, La liberté des États parties à la Charte sociale européenne dans le choix de leur engagement : une liberté surveillée
- Quentin Van Enis, Les mesures de filtrage et de blocage de contenus sur l’internet : un mal (vraiment) nécessaire dans une société démocratique ? Quelques réflexions autour de la liberté d’expression
- Luc Donnay, L’obligation incombant au juge de poser une question préjudicielle à la Cour de justice, élément vaporeux du procès équitable (obs/s. Cour eur. dr. h., Ullens de Schooten et Rezabek c. Belgique, 20 septembre 2011)
- Nicolas Bernard, La lancinante question de l’expulsion des Roms (et autres considérations) (obs/s. Comité eur. drts. sociaux, Médecins du Monde-International c. France, 11 septembre 2012)
- Jean-Pierre Marguénaud, L’accès à des traitements expérimentaux gratuits refusé aux cancéreux en phase terminale (obs/s. Cour eur. dr. h., Hristozov et autres c. Bulgarie, 13 novembre 2012)
- Jacques van Compernolle, Le secret professionnel de l’avocat à l’épreuve des dispositifs de lutte contre le blanchiment des capitaux : quand les chemins de Luxembourg et de Strasbourg se rencontrent (obs/s. Cour eur. dr. h., Michaud c. France,, 6 décembre 2012)
- Gérard Gonzalez, L’éléphant dans le magasin de porcelaine : entrée remarquée des manifestations de la liberté européenne de religion sur le lieu de travail (obs/s. Cour eur. dr. h., Eweida e.a. c. Royaume-Uni, 15 janvier 2013)
The conference is part of a major initiative by the Center to further research, scholarship, and debate on the role of fact-finding in the human rights field. This conference will bring together leading practitioners and scholars to facilitate a critical and constructive discussion about the key challenges and opportunities in international fact-finding, a subject that is fundamental to human rights, but has thus far received far too little scholarly attention or critical analysis.
Conference panels will address a range of key topics, including: Human rights fact-finding: politics and imperialism; Victims and witnesses in human rights fact-finding: empowerment or extraction?; Fact-finding for advocacy, enforcement, and litigation: purposes and cross purposes; Understanding and improving fact-finding through interdisciplinary expertise and methodologies; Fact-finding case studies: cross-cutting themes; Fact-finding with crowd sourcing, social media, and big data; and Does human rights fact-finding need international guidelines?
- African and International Law: Taking Stock and Moving Forward
- J. Thuo Gathii, Introduction
- J. Harrington L. Bingham, Never-ending Story: The African Commission Evolving through Practice in Malawi Africa Association, et al v. Mauritania
- U. Ewelukwa Ofodile, Foreign Investment in Land and the Clash of Regimes Mapping the Role of International Investment Law and International Human Rights Law
- M. Chidi Nmaju, A Review of the Shortcomings and Consequences of the African Union’s Peace Ideals: the Interventions in Libya and Côte d’Ivoire
- L. Lavrysen, No ‘Significant Flaws’ in the Regulatory Framework: E.S. v. Sweden and the Lowering of Standards in the Positive Obligations Case-Law of the European Court of Human Rights
- G. De Beco, Reflections on Non-judicial Mechanisms (National and International)
- Gary B Born & Sabrina Lee, The Emergency Arbitrator Procedures Under the New HKIAC Rules
- Neil Kaplan, Investment Arbitration’s Influence on Practice and Procedure in Commercial Arbitration
- Joel Rheuben & Luke Nottage, Now that the (Radioactive) Dust has Settled: Resolution of Claims from the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster
- Nicole Deitelhoff, Scheitert die Norm der Schutzverantwortung? Der Streit um Normbegründung und Normanwendung der R2P
- Christopher Verlage, Die Sicherheitsratsresolution 1973 zum Fall Libyen – Ein Meilenstein für die völkerrechtliche Verankerung der Responsibility to Protect
- Christopher Daase D, ie Legalisierung der Legitimität – Zur Kritik der Schutzverantwortung als emerging norm
- Caroline Fehl, Responsibility to Pretend? Symbolische Politik und die nicht-militärische Dimension der R2P
- Wolfgang Seibel, Libyen, das Prinzip der Schutzverantwortung und Deutschlands Stimmenthaltung im UN-Sicherheitsrat bei der Abstimmung über Resolution 1973 am 17. März 2011
- Julian Junk, Humanitäre Appelle, humanitäre Interventionen? Medienberichterstattung, Regierungshandeln und das internationale Eingreifen im Sudan
- Lothar Brock, Dilemmata des internationalen Schutzes von Menschen vor innerstaatlicher Gewalt. Ein Ausblick
- Mayeul Hiéramente, Wahlen in Zeiten der Strafverfolgung. Die Situation in Kenia und der Internationale Strafgerichtshof
Tuesday, October 29, 2013
- Helen Trouille, How Far Has the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Really Come since Akayesu in the Prosecution and Investigation of Sexual Offences Committed against Women? An Analysis of Ndindiliyimana et al.
- Lachezar Yanev & Tijs Kooijmans, Divided Minds in the Lubanga Trial Judgment: A Case against the Joint Control Theory
- Matthew Gillett, The Anatomy of an International Crime: Aggression at the International Criminal Court
- Ken Gee-kin Ip, Fulfilling the Mandate of National Reconciliation in the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) – An Evaluation through the Prism of Victims’ Rights
- Iris Haenen, The Parameters of Enslavement and the Act of Forced Marriage
- Shakeel Ahmad, A Legal Assessment of the US Drone Strikes in Pakistan
- Marc-André Anzueto, À la croisée de la paix et de la justice : la CICIG une avancée dans la lutte contre l'impunité?
- Maria Luisa Cesoni & Damien Scalia, Justice pénale internationale et Conseil de sécurité : une justice politisée
- Maxime C.-Tousignant, L'instrumentation du principe de complémentarité de la CPI : une question d'actualité
- Joseph Kazadi Mpiana, L'Union africaine face à la gestion des changements anticonstitutionnels de gouvernement
- Di Gore Simmala, La participation de la victime à la procédure devant le Tribunal spécial pour le Liban
- Notes et commentaires
- Mouna Haddad, L'invocation devant le juge belge de la Convention relative aux droits de l'enfant
- Talya Bobick & Alastair Smith, The impact of leader turnover on the onset and the resolution of WTO disputes
- Lodewijk Smets, Stephen Knack, & Nadia Molenaers, Political ideology, quality at entry and the success of economic reform programs
- Thomas Bernauer, Anna Kalbhenn, Vally Koubi, & Gabriele Spilker, Is there a “Depth versus Participation” dilemma in international cooperation?
- Tana Johnson, Looking beyond States: Openings for international bureaucrats to enter the institutional design process
The legal doctrine that assign blame for international crimes are numerous, unclear, ever-changing and often conceptually problematic. In this Essay, I question the prudence of retaining the radical doctrinal heterogeneity that, in large part, produces this state of disarray. Instead of tolerating different standards of participation across customary international law, the ICC statute and national systems of criminal law, I argue for a universal concept of participation that would apply whenever an international crime is charged, regardless of the jurisdiction hearing the case. Although I have argued elsewhere that a unitary theory of perpetration should serve this role, I here attempt to remain agnostic about the content of the universal system for which I advocate. In so doing, I isolate the question of universality from the theory of responsibility that would fill it, querying why so much energy is invested in generating treaties to harmonize definitions of international crimes, when no comparable initiative exists for the modes of participation these crimes couple with. I conclude this call for a universal notion of participation in atrocity by suggesting that the current disarray in this domain is more a challenge for academics and states than litigators and judges.
Scholarship on international law has undergone an empirical revolution. Throughout the revolution, however, shortcomings of the observational data that studies have used have posed serious barriers to reliable causal inference. During the same period, political scientists and legal scholars studying domestic law have increasingly employed experimental methods because they make it easier to make credible causal claims. Despite the simultaneous emergence of those trends, there have been relatively few attempts to use experimental methods to study international law. This should change. In this paper we present the first argument that the study of international law could uniquely benefit from the use of experimental research methods. To make this argument, we present data we have collected that illustrates why observational studies will often be unable to provide answers to many of the most important questions to legal scholars. After doing so, we provide guidance on how laboratory, survey, and field experiments can be used by legal scholars to research international law.
- Tom Grant, Argument and Decision in a Developed System
- Carlos Espósito, Of Plumbers and Social Architects: Elements and Problems of the Judgment of the International Court of Justice in Jurisdictional Immunities of States
- Andrea Bianchi, Gazing at the Crystal Ball (again): State Immunity and Jus Cogens beyond Germany v Italy
- Geir Ulfstein, Awarding Compensation in a Fragmented Legal System: The Diallo Case
- Annemarieke Vermeer-Künzli, Diallo: Between Diplomatic Protection and Human Rights
- André Nollkaemper, Wither Aut Dedere? The Obligation to Extradite or Prosecute after the ICJ’s Judgment in Belgium v Senegal
- Andreas Zimmermann, Business as Usual? The International Court of Justice’s 2012 Judicial Practice: Facing New Procedural and Jurisdictional Questions
- Sean D. Murphy, What a Difference a Year Makes: The International Court of Justice’s 2012 Jurisprudence
- Stavros Brekoulakis, Systemic Bias and the Institution of International Arbitration: A New Approach to Arbitral Decision-Making
- Maxi Scherer, Effects of Foreign Judgments Relating to International Arbitral Awards: Is the ‘Judgment Route’ the Wrong Road?
Monday, October 28, 2013
Stahn: Between Law-Breaking and Law-Making: Syria, Humanitarian Intervention and 'What the Law Ought to Be'
The Syrian crisis illustrates the struggles of international law to cope with injustices and violations of legal norms, including the ban of the prohibition of chemical weapons. The Security Council has been blocked over two years, due to an irresponsible use of prerogatives that are out of time. This has created dilemmas of protection. This article examines claims relating to ‘humanitarian intervention’ raised in the Syrian context. It questions whether greater flexibility towards military strikes or an ‘affirmative defense to Art. 2 (4)’ offers a proper remedy to deal with this dilemma. It argues that a case-by-case logic, with a differentiated matrix of assessment, provides a more promising way forward than claims for new regulation.
- Special Issue: The Role of International Criminal Justice in Transitional Justice
- Peter Dixon & Chris Tenove, International Criminal Justice as a Transnational Field: Rules, Authority and Victims
- Jens Iverson, Transitional Justice, Jus Post Bellum and International Criminal Law: Differentiating the Usages, History and Dynamics
- Kate Cronin-Furman, Managing Expectations: International Criminal Trials and the Prospects for Deterrence of Mass Atrocity
- Louise Chappell, Rosemary Grey, & Emily Waller, The Gender Justice Shadow of Complementarity: Lessons from the International Criminal Court’s Preliminary Examinations in Guinea and Colombia
- Felix Mukwiza Ndahinda, The Bemba-Banyamulenge Case before the ICC: From Individual to Collective Criminal Responsibility
- Michelle Burgis-Kasthala, Defining Justice during Transition? International and Domestic Contestations over the Special Tribunal for Lebanon
- Mariana Pena & Gaelle Carayon, Is the ICC Making the Most of Victim Participation?
Im Zuge der Finanzkrise ist die Europäische Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion (WWU) tiefgreifend umgestaltet worden. Die WWU war zuvor stark hinkend: Eine vollendete Währungsunion war auf eine nur schwach koordinierte Wirtschaftspolitik gestützt. Die Finanzkrise hat den Willen gestärkt, entschiedene Schritte in Richtung einer echten Wirtschaftsregierung („economic governance“) zu setzen. Die „neue WWU“ weist noch zahlreiche Bruchstellen auf. An anderen Stellen wird weiter gebaut. Insgesamt zeigt die WWU mittlerweile aber einen weit stärkeren Integrationsgrad. Den EU-Mitgliedstaaten wird einerseits eine größere Haushaltsdisziplin abverlangt, andererseits aber auch mehr wechselseitige Solidarität. In diesem Sammelwerk nehmen namhafte Experten eine Bestandsaufnahme zur WWU vor und verweisen auf die sich abzeichnenden Entwicklungslinien der neuen europäischen Finanzarchitektur. Ausführlich analysiert wird die einschlägige Rechtsprechung von EuGH und BVerfG. Behandelt werden Six-Pack, Fiskalpakt und ESM. Die Analyse erfolgt sowohl aus europarechtlicher, völkerrechtlicher und verfassungsrechtlicher Perspektive als auch aus wirtschaftswissenschaftlicher und politikwissenschaftlicher Warte.
- Sung Eun Kim & Johannes Urpelainen, International energy lending: who funds fossil fuels, who funds energy access for the poor?
- Steinar Andresen, Kristin Rosendal, & Jon Birger Skjærseth, Why negotiate a legally binding mercury convention?
- Sylvia I. Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, The role of principles for allocating governance levels in the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development
- Michael Hübler & Michael Finus, Is the risk of North–South technology transfer failure an obstacle to a cooperative climate change agreement?
- David M. McEvoy, Enforcing compliance with international environmental agreements using a deposit-refund system
Sunday, October 27, 2013
d'Aspremont: Cognitive Conflicts and the Making of International Law: From Empirical Concord to Conceptual Discord in Legal Scholarship
This Article seeks to shed some light on the reasons guiding scholars in their choices pertaining to the cognition of international lawmaking. After a brief outline of the mainstream empirical construction of current norm-generating processes in international law (1) and a further detailed description of the main cognitive choices (value-facts) found in international legal scholarship (2), this Article elaborates on the driving forces behind each of the main value-facts permeating contemporary literature on international lawmaking (3). Particular attention is paid to static and dynamic conceptions of lawmaking based on subjects, the pedigree of rules, participation, impact, or a mix of them. This Article draws attention to the politics of empiricism and cognition with the aim of engaging in critical self-reflection on how international legal scholars and practitioners have been making sense of international lawmaking.