- Federico Lenzerini, The Management of Refugee Flows in Times of Pandemic: COVID-19 and Beyond
- Francesco Pesce, I child marriages tra tutela dei diritti e portabilità degli status
- Il nuovo Patto europeo sulla migrazione e l’asilo: novità e continuità
- Anna Liguori, Il nuovo Patto sulla migrazione e l’asilo e la cooperazione dell’Unione europea con i Paesi terzi: niente di nuovo sotto il sole?
- Chiara Favilli, La solidarietà flessibile e l’inflessibile centralità del sistema Dublino
- Francesca De Vittor, Il Port State Control sulle navi delle ONG che prestano soccorso in mare: tutela della sicurezza della navigazione o ostacolo alle attività di soccorso?
- Adele Del Guercio, Canali di accesso protetto al territorio dell’Unione europea: un bilancio alla luce del nuovo Patto su immigrazione e asilo
- Mario Odoni, Il caso Ilva davanti alla Corte europea dei diritti umani: tutela par ricochet dell’ambiente o tutela par double ricochet della salute pubblica?
- Michele Corleto, La pianificazione governativa in tema di cambiamento climatico dinanzi alla Corte suprema irlandese
- Alessio Azzariti, Viaggi all’estero ai tempi del COVID-19: quale ruolo per il diritto internazionale?
- Francesca Tammone, Tratta di esseri umani e sfruttamento della prostituzione quali forme contemporanee di schiavismo: la pronuncia della Grande Camera nel caso S.M.
- Maddalena Cogorno, The Extraordinary Chambers in the Court of Cambodia in the Aftermath of Case 004/2: A Foretold ‘French leave’?
- Giuliana Marino, La Corte penale internazionale, gli ‘interessi della giustizia’ e la situazione afghana: sulla sentenza della Camera d’appello del 5 marzo 2020
Saturday, August 7, 2021
New Issue: Diritti umani e diritto internazionale
New Issue: Rivista di Diritto Internazionale
- G. Adinolfi, Regime failure e contromisure unilaterali: la modifica dell’enforcement regulation dell’Unione Europea
- K. Gavrysh, Il trasferimento della persona condannata tra Convenzione-quadro del 1983 e accordo di esecuzione
- C. Danisi, La nozione di « place of safety » e l’applicazione di garanzie procedurali a tutela dell’individuo soccorso in mare
- Note e Commenti
- G. Puma, Lo status di « locale della missione diplomatica » nella sentenza della Corte internazionale di giustizia su immunità e procedimenti penali
- D. Zannoni, The Slow Erosion of the Tax Arbitrability Taboo
Basedow: Why de-judicialize? Explaining state preferences on judicialization in World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement Body and Investor-to-State Dispute Settlement reforms
Judicialization scholarship suggests that states must seek the de-judicialization of international dispute settlement mechanisms to regain regulatory space. Why then do some states seek a de-judicialization yet others increased judicialization of dispute settlement mechanisms in their pursuit of regulatory space? This article advances a twofold argument. First, the concept of judicialization has been erroneously conflated with state perceptions of regulatory space under dispute settlement mechanisms. States aspiring to consolidate regulatory space may pursue de-judicialization and increased judicialization alike. Second, states' preferences for de-judicialization or increased judicialization to regain regulatory space should largely depend on conceptions of legitimate international law as either intergovernmental contracts or cosmopolitan quasi-constitutional order. The article illustrates these arguments at the example of US and EU efforts to reform the Dispute Settlement Body of the World Trade Organization and investor-to-state dispute settlement. Both seek to increase regulatory space. Yet, the USA pursues de-judicialization while the EU promotes judicialization.
New Issue: Revista de Direito Internacional
- Special Issue: Challenging the International Law of Immunities: New Trends on Established Principles?
- Lucas Carlos Lima, Loris Marotti, & Paolo Palchetti, Challenging the International Law of Immunities: New Trends on Established Principles? An introduction to the special issue
- Vinícius Fox Drummond Cançado Trindade, Responsabilidade e Imunidade das Organizações Internacionais: Prática e Desafios
- Barbara Tuyama Sollero, The jurisdictional immunity of international organizations before the Brazilian Supreme Federal Court
- Aziz Tuffi Saliba & Lucas Carlos Lima, The Law of State Immunity before the Brazilian Supreme Court: what is at stake with the “Changri-La” case?
- Pierfrancesco Rossi, State Immunity and the Rights of Employees: Lights and Shadows of the Strasbourg Court’s Jurisprudence
- Héloïse Guichardaz, A human rights-based challenge: the key to unlock the UN’s immunity problem?
- Rita Guerreiro Teixeira & Hannes Verheyden, Immunities of State Officials and the “Fundamentally Different Nature” of International Courts: the Appeals Chamber Decision in the Jordan Referral re Al-Bashir
- Vinícius Assis da Silveira, Luiz Felipe Costa Santana, & Valesca Raizer Borges Moschen, Imunidade de jurisdição dos Estados: o caminho para relativização
- Walter Arevalo-Ramirez & Ricardo Abello-Galvis, The immunity of international organizations in labour disputes: developments before international tribunals, national courts and the Colombian jurisdiction
- George Rodrigo Bandeira Galindo, Imunidade de Jurisdição dos Estados e Poder Executivo Brasileiro: Os Pareceres dos Consultores Jurídicos do Itamaraty
- Agatha Gonçalves Santana, Carla Noura Teixeira, & Otavio Noura Teixeira, A necessidade de disciplinar o uso de blockchain para a organização de refugiados pelo Direito Internacional
- André Viana Custódio & Johana Cabral, O trabalho infantil de migrantes e refugiados no Brasil
- Waldimeiry Correa da Silva, The new Brazilian Anti-trafficking Law: challenges and opportunities to cover the normative lack
- Juan Pablo Díaz Fuenzalida, ¿Son parte del bloque de constitucionalidad los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos de la OEA en Chile? Avances en base a la doctrina, normativa y jurisprudencia
- Arno Dal Ri Jr. & Andrey José Taffner Fraga, O Tratado de Saint-Germain-en-Laye e os efeitos do instituto da "opção" sobre a condição jurídica dos descendentes de cidadãos austríacos trentino-tirolêses
- Juan Carlos Ochoa-Sánchez, Control Judicial de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos y Programas Masivos de Reparaciones: Hacia un Enfoque más Matizado
- Augusto Antônio Fontanive Leal & Guilherme Massaú, Justiciabilidade direta dos direitos econômicos, sociais, culturais e ambientais na Corte Interamericana de Direitos Humanos
- Flavianne Fernanda Bitencourt Nóbrega & Camilla Montanha, How the indigenous case of Xukuru before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights can inspire decolonial comparative studies on property rights
Senaratne: Internal Self-Determination in International Law: History, Theory, and Practice
Internal self-determination is an under-explored topic in international law. It is popularly understood to be a principle of relatively recent origin, promoting democratic freedoms to populations and autonomy for minority groups within states. It has also been viewed as a principle receiving the support of Western states, in particular. In this first book-length critical study of the topic, the reader is invited to rethink the history, theory and practice of internal self-determination in a complex world. Kalana Senaratne shows that it is a principle of great, but varied, potential. Internal self-determination promises democratic freedoms and autonomy to peoples; but it also represents an idea which is not historically new, and is ultimately a principle which can be promoted for different and conflicting purposes. Written in a clear and accessible style, this book will be of interest to international lawyers, state-officials, minority groups, and students of law and politics.
Rothwell: Polar Dispute Settlement: Frameworks, Function and Future
Arctic and Antarctic law and governance is under the international spotlight with respect to the ability to respond to a range of issues including territorial tensions, maritime claims, environmental impact, and resource development. This raises for consideration contemporary international dispute settlement mechanisms. Whilst the Arctic and Antarctic have not been the scene of significant international discord there are examples of dispute settlement mechanisms having been utilised ranging from diplomatic initiatives to judicial settlement before the International Court of Justice. This paper assesses the practice associated with polar dispute settlement, considering overarching frameworks under the Charter of the United Nations and the law of the sea, before turning to review the function and future of the distinctive regional practices that have been adopted in the Arctic and Antarctica.
New Issue: La Comunità Internazionale
- Storia del Diritto Internazionale
- Arno Dal Ri, Pasquale Stanislao Mancini e la scienza del Diritto internazionale in Brasile
- Articoli e Saggi
- Pia Acconci, La cooperazione economica internazionale tra multilateralismo e unilateralismo al tempo dell’emergenza Covid-19
- Francesca Ippolito, Isolated Should not Mean Excluded: The Non-Derogable Status of Participatory Rights of Indigenous Peoples at the Time of the Covid-19 Pandemic
- Osservatorio Europeo
- Michele Vellano, The Chimera of Transparency in European Union Negotiations on International Agreements…
- Note e Commenti
- Elena Carpanelli, The Mysterious Abduction and Confinement of Two Princesses: A Tentative Analysis under International Law
Call for Papers: Workshop on History, Political Economy, & International Law (Early Career Scholars)
Feiler: Reparationen am Internationalen Strafgerichtshof
Seit der Errichtung des Internationalen Strafgerichtshofs wurde sein Mandat wiederholt mit der Schaffung von Opfergerechtigkeit, »justice for victims«, beschrieben. Maßgeblicher Teil dessen ist die Anordnung von Opferentschädigung gegen die vom IStGH verurteilten Täter. Der Internationale Strafgerichtshof hat nunmehr drei Reparationsentscheidungen gefällt. Es zeigt sich, dass Wiedergutmachung im Bereich der Makrokriminalität nicht trivial ist. Unterschiedliche rechtliche Verständnisse und Ansätze können zu sehr unterschiedlichen Rechtauffassungen führen. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Reparationsregime des IStGH. Ausgehend von allgemeinen Gedanken zum Ziel und Zweck des Reparationsregimes, werden die Anspruchsvoraussetzungen des Art. 75 IStGH-Statuts analysiert, in der Konturierung, die die Tatbestandsvoraussetzungen durch die Entscheidungen Lubanga, Katanga und Al Mahdi erhalten haben.
Taylor: War Economies and International Law: Regulating the Economic Activities of Violent Conflict
Economic activity continues during war. But what rules apply when US troops occupy Syrian oil fields? Who is responsible when multinational companies use minerals extracted by child labourers in war zones? This book examines how international law regulates the war economies that are at the heart of strategic competition between great powers and help sustain the irregular warfare in today's war zones. Drawing on advances in our understanding of the social and economic dynamics in war zones, this book identifies predation, a combination of violence and economic opportunity, as the core pathology of war economies. The author presents a framework for understanding the regulation of war economies based on the history of international law and existing norms of international humanitarian law, international criminal law, international human rights law and the law of international peace and security. War Economies and International Law concludes that the pathologies of predation in war demand answers based on an international regulatory strategy.
New Issue: African Journal of International and Comparative Law
- Linda Mushoriwa, The Immunity Question before the International Criminal Court: Revisiting African Sovereignty and the Colonial Origins of International Law
- Erika Arban & Adriano Dirri, Aspirational Principles in African Federalism: South Africa, Ethiopia and Nigeria Compared
- Simbarashe Tembo & Annette Singh, Prospects for Constitutional and Human Rights Transformation through Constitutional Adjudication in Zimbabwe after 2013
- Vasco Becker-Weinberg, Two Key Ocean Governance Challenges for Sao Tome and Principe
- Anthea Natalie Wagener, EU Directive Prohibiting Gender-Based Insurance Rating: Would a South African Court Follow Suit?
- Ben Juratowitch & Natasha McNamara, Individual Rights in Disputes between States
- P. J. Badenhorst, The Distinction between Real Rights and Personal Rights in the Deeds Registration System of South Africa – Part One: Statutory and Theoretical Distinction between Real Rights and Personal Rights
- Afia Agyeman Amponsah-Mensah, Ponzi Schemes in Ghana: The Menzgold Saga
Thursday, August 5, 2021
Fernandez & de Frouville: Universalité et complémentarité de la justice pénale internationale
Cet ouvrage reprend les actes des cinquièmes journées de la justice pénale internationale qui se sont tenues les 30 et 31 janvier 2020. Après le succès des précédentes éditions, le Centre Thucydide et le Centre de Recherche sur les droits de l’homme et le droit humanitaire (CRDH/Paris Human Rights Center) de l’Université Paris 2 Panthéon-Assas ont voulu à nouveau interroger les défis rencontrés et la capacité des institutions de la justice pénale internationale à les relever. Un premier défi est celui de l’universalité, y compris dans sa dimension personnelle : poursuivre tous les crimes de droit international, quels qu’en soient les auteurs, sans autre retenues que celles prévues par les statuts des juridictions instituées. Le second défi est celui de l’efficacité de la justice pénale internationale avec cette idée simple, qui est présente depuis les origines, mais qui reste encore largement à construire en pratique, que la répression des crimes ne peut pas reposer sur la seule CPI, ni même sur des juridictions internationales ad hoc. Sur ce point, les rédacteurs du Statut de Rome ont fait de la complémentarié un concept clé du Statut, sur lequel il a semblé utile de revenir cette année. Le troisième défi, enfin, est celui de l’exemplarité : les juridictions internationales pénales ont de moins en moins le droit à l’erreur et doivent toujours plus défendre leur action face aux multiples mises en cause du multilatéralisme. Il en va du comportement de leurs agents et organes comme de l’utilisation judicieuse de leurs ressources.
Akande & Tzanakopoulos: Use of Force in Self-Defence to Recover Occupied Territory: When Is It Permissible?
This paper considers if, and to what extent, a state may use force in self-defence in order to recover territory unlawfully occupied by another state as a result of an armed attack. The paper argues that any occupation that is the direct consequence of an unlawful armed attack must be considered a continuing armed attack, which triggers the right of self-defence. However, that right of self-defence is still subject to the conditions of necessity and proportionality, the condition of necessity here being the determining criterion as to whether, and more importantly, when, force can be used to recover territory occupied as a consequence of an armed attack.
Guerreiro: A Ingerência Interestatal no Quadro do Direito Internacional Público
A entrada em vigor da Carta das Nações Unidas oficializou a transição da cultura de coexistência de Estados para uma nova era de cooperação efectiva que instituísse um sistema alicerçado no princípio da igualdade de soberanias e na rejeição de agendas unilaterais, desenvolvendo uma ideia de comunidade internacional de facto com a missão se assegurar a paz e a segurança internacionais enquanto fins ao serviço da humanidade. Como demonstramos ao longo da presente obra, neste contexto, o princípio de não ingerência rapidamente se impôs no sentido de criar um dever de não ingerência dos Estados nos assuntos internos de terceiros Estados. Este princípio tem vindo a sedimentar-se desde 1945 até à actualidade através de várias manifestações concretas de actores, isoladamente ou através da ONU, e de decisões do Tribunal Internacional de Justiça nesse sentido.
Wednesday, August 4, 2021
New Issue: Revue Générale de Droit International Public
- Eric Wyler, Le juge international et la relation règle/cas du point de vue du fomalisme et du prgmatisme
- Philippe Frumer, «Je suis venu te dire que je m’en vais . . . » La dénonciation des traites régionaux de protection des droits
- Sarah Jamal, La compétence de la Cour pénale internationale en Palestine : A propos de la decision du 5 février 2021
New Issue: Journal du Droit International
- Syméon Karagiannis, La Convention européenne des droits de l’homme drapée dans sa modestie ?
- Les « dispute boards » : originalité, évaluation et perspectives d’un mode alternatif de règlement des différends singulier
- Un cas d’école pour le droit international : le détournement d’un vol commercial par le Belarus et les réactions européennes
- L’assimilation de l’action paulienne à une action contractuelle selon la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne
- L’activité extraterritoriale des services de renseignement numérique : recherche de solutions technico-juridiques de protection des données
New Issue: Journal of World Intellectual Property
- Hans Morten Haugen, Does TRIPS (Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) prevent COVID-19 vaccines as a global public good?
- Aalthady Maloor Radhika, K. Jesy Thomas, & Rajesh K. Raju, Geographical indications as a strategy for market enhancement-lessons from rice GIs in Kerala
- Amit K. Jha & Priyanka Rajan, Movie piracy: Displacement and its impact on legitimate sales in India
- Althaf Marsoof & Li Ting Tan, A CSR/fair trade inspired policy for fairer geographical indications
Call for Submissions: Does the Exception Swallow the Rule?: The Compulsory Settlement of EEZ Fisheries Disputes under Part XVof UNCLOS
New Issue: Human Rights Quarterly
- Maeve O'Rourke, The Manipulation of "Vulnerability:" State Responses to So-Called "Historical" Abuses in Ireland
- Cheah W.L., CEDAW, Transforming Stereotypes, and Judicial Obligations: The 'Provoked' Killing of Women in India, Malaysia, and Singapore
- Heidi Nichols Haddad & Isaac Cui, Localizing Rights Compliance: The Case for Cities as "Shadow Reporters" at International Human Rights Treaty Bodies
- Heiner Bielefeldt, Moving Beyond Anthropocentrism? Human Rights and the Charge of Speciesism
- Emily Logan & Les Allamby, A Peace Treaty and Human Rights Protection on the Island of Ireland
- Rosa Freedman, Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, & Louis Monroy-Santander, Seeking Justice for the Victims of Cholera in Haiti: Framing the Reparations Debate Through Transitional Justice
- Michelle Carmody, Making Human Rights International? Amnesty International, Organizational Development, and the Third World, 1970–1985
Oke: The Interface between Intellectual Property and Investment Law: An Intertextual Analysis
This original book presents a critical analysis of the interface between international intellectual property law and international investment law through the lens of intertextuality. It argues that a structuralist approach to intertextuality can be useful in the context of legal interpretation, especially in relation to the interpretation of treaties. Emmanuel Kolawole Oke critically evaluates the assumption that investment tribunals cannot take the rules of international intellectual property law into account when resolving investment disputes concerning intellectual property rights. He demonstrates instead the ways in which investment tribunals can and should adopt an intertextual approach when resolving such disputes, which, in turn, will help to preserve the intellectual property policy space of host states.
Symposium: Does the Exception Swallow the Rule?: The Compulsory Settlement of EEZ Fisheries Disputes under Part XV of UNCLOS
Tuesday, August 3, 2021
Iovane, Palombino, Amoroso, & Zarra: The Protection of General Interests in Contemporary International Law: A Theoretical and Empirical Inquiry
This book analyses three key concepts, global public goods, global commons, and fundamental values, as tools geared towards the protection of the general interests of the international community. After providing an overview of these concepts, the book examines how international law has responded to them in a wide range of fields, and investigates how global governance has improved, or worsened, this response. Contributions from a group of experts explore the legal foundations of general interests, and discuss which interests have or have not been deemed to deserve the protection of international law. Other chapters focus on whether, and to what extent, it is appropriate that international law intervenes to regulate such interests, considering the interplay between multiple actors including states, international and regional organisations, and non-state actors. The book explores how states and other actors have used international law to protect general interests, what lessons can be learned from these efforts, and what significant challenges still need to be addressed.
Melbourne Law's Institute for International Law and the Humanities "Festival of Conversations, Ideas and Performances"
Viterbo: Problematizing Law, Rights, and Childhood in Israel/Palestine
In this book, Hedi Viterbo radically challenges our picture of law, human rights, and childhood, both in and beyond the Israel/Palestine context. He reveals how Israel, rather than disregarding international law and children’s rights, has used them to hone and legitimize its violence against Palestinians. He exposes the human rights community’s complicity in this situation, due to its problematic assumptions about childhood, its uncritical embrace of international law, and its recurring emulation of Israel’s security discourse. He examines how, and to what effect, both the state and its critics manufacture, shape, and weaponize the categories “child” and “adult.” Bridging disciplinary divides, Viterbo analyzes hundreds of previously unexamined sources, many of which are not publicly available. Bold, sophisticated, and informative, Problematizing Law, Rights, and Childhood in Israel/Palestine provides unique insights into the ever-tightening relationship between law, children’s rights, and state violence, at both the local and global levels.
Rudall: Altruism in International Law
Much emphasis has been placed on the role that individualism, self-interest and reciprocity have in the formation and function of international legal rules. Rarely has attention been given to the presence of altruism in legal systems, let alone the international legal system. In a study that is the first of its kind in international legal scholarship, Altruism in International Law explores and analyses the emergence of altruistic legal relationships between states and people in other countries. The book also argues that the impulse for the emergence of these relationships is a cosmopolitan ideology, which co-exists with a persisting statist ideology, among the major actors in international law-making processes. Further still, the book reveals that individualistic legal norms are more often manifested as strict rules while altruistic legal norms find expression in flexible standards. This suggests that there is a connection between substance and form in international law.
New Issue: Security Studies
- Hye Ryeon Jang & Benjamin Smith, Pax Petrolica? Rethinking the Oil–Interstate War Linkage
- Jeffrey Ding & Allan Dafoe, The Logic of Strategic Assets: From Oil to AI
- Jack S. Levy & William Mulligan, Why 1914 but Not Before? A Comparative Study of the July Crisis and Its Precursors
- Ron Gurantz, Was Airpower “Misapplied” in the Vietnam War? Reassessing Signaling in Operation Rolling Thunder
- Derek Bolton, Balancing Identity: The Sino-Soviet Split, Ontological Security, and North Korean Foreign Policy
- The Obama Administration’s Response to the Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria: An Exchange
Ireland-Piper: Extraterritoriality in East Asia: Extraterritorial Criminal Jurisdiction in China, Japan, and South Korea
Extraterritoriality in East Asia examines the approaches of China, Japan, and South Korea to exercising legal authority over crimes committed outside their borders. It considers examples of legislation and judicial decision-making and offers a deeper understanding of the topic from the perspective of this legally, politically, and economically significant region. Beginning with a foundational overview of the principles of jurisdiction in international law, as well as identifying current challenges to those principles, subsequent chapters analyse the ways in which extraterritorial jurisdiction operates and is regulated in China, Japan, and South Korea. Danielle Ireland-Piper contextualizes contemporary issues within a historical narrative of each country and concludes by exploring areas of convergence and divergence between them.
New Issue: Chicago Journal of International Law
- Daniel Abebe, Adam Chilton, & Tom Ginsburg, The Social Science Approach to International Law
- Olabisi D. Akinkugbe, Reflections on the Value of Socio-Legal Approaches to International Economic Law in Africa
- Yifeng Chen, On Relating Social Sciences to International Law: Three Perspectives
- Simon Chesterman, Herding Schrödinger’s Cats: The Limits of the Social Science Approach to International Law
- Matthew S. Erie, China and Comparative International Law: Between Social Science and Critique
- James Thuo Gathii, Studying Race in International Law Scholarship Using a Social Science Approach
- Jack Goldsmith & Eric A. Posner, The Limits of International Law Fifteen Years Later
- Bing Bing Jia, A Matter of Personal Choice
- Mary Ellen O’Connell, Measuring the Art of International Law
- Emilia Justyna Powell, Comparative International Law and the Social Science Approach
- Weijia Rao, Social Science Research and Reforms of International Institutions
- Gregory Shaffer & Terence C. Halliday, International Law and Transnational Legal Orders: Permeating Boundaries and Extending Social Science Encounters
Monday, August 2, 2021
Call for Papers: The Intentional Destruction of the Cultural Heritage of Mankind (IDCHM): What Are the Remedies under International Law?
Heller: In Defense of Pure Sovereignty in Cyberspace
The final report of the United Nations Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG), adopted by consensus in March 2021, affirms that international law applies to cyberspace and calls upon states “to avoid and refrain from taking any measures not in accordance with international law.” Significant differences nevertheless remain concerning how international law applies to cyberspace, because states have been unable to agree on what kinds of cyber-operations international law prohibits. Instead, the OEWG’s final report simply – and rather tepidly – articulates 11 “voluntary, non-binding norms of responsible State behaviour.”
States are particularly divided over the international wrongfulness of cyber-operations that penetrate computer systems located on the territory of another state but do not rise to the level of a use of force or prohibited intervention – what are often referred to as “low intensity” cyber-operations. Low-intensity cyber-operations, which include most acts of extraterritorial law-enforcement (including counterterrorism) and espionage, are the most common form of cyber-operation and are likely to become even more common over time, given their relative lack of expense and their significant utility for states.
States have adopted three very different positions concerning whether low-intensity cyber-operations are internationally wrongful, all of which turn on whether such operations violate the sovereignty of the territorial state. The first position, endorsed by the UK and the US, is that low-intensity cyber-operations are never wrongful, because sovereignty is a principle of international law, not a primary rule that can be independently violated. The second position, defended most vigorously by France, is that low-intensity cyber-operations are always wrongful, because sovereignty is a primary rule of international law that is violated by any non-consensual penetration of a computer system located on the territory of another state – what has been called the “pure sovereigntist” approach. And the third position, adopted by states such as the Netherlands and the Czech Republic, is that although sovereignty is a primary rule of international law, only low-intensity cyber-operations that cause some kind of physical damage to the territorial state or render its cyber-infrastructure inoperable are wrongful – what has been called the “relative sovereigntist” approach.
This article has two purposes: to explain the different positions that states have taken on whether low-intensity cyber-operations violate sovereignty, and to provide a comprehensive analysis of which position is the strongest both legally and in terms of cyber policy. The article is divided into five sections. Section I briefly explains why sovereignty is a primary rule of international law, not simply a principle from which specific primary rules can be derived. Section II asks whether sovereignty applies in cyberspace as a rule, agreeing with the vast majority of states that it does. Section III explains and assesses the two positions that states have taken concerning how sovereignty applies in cyberspace as a rule: pure sovereignty and relative sovereignty. It concludes that the pure-sovereigntist position has a much stronger foundation in general international law than the relative-sovereigntist position. Section IV then analyses and rejects the most common legal objection to that conclusion: the supposed permissibility of espionage. Finally, Section V argues that a variety of policy considerations also favour pure sovereignty over relative sovereignty.
Howse: Official Business: International Trade Law and the Resurgence (or Resilience) of the State as an Economic Actor
The end of the 20th century was a time of privatization; so far, the new millennium has heralded a resurgence of state capitalism. China is doubtless Exhibit A. The notion that state enterprises engage in unfair competition is now a common refrain. It is conventional wisdom that the World Trade Organization has not held up on this front, and that the WTO needs new rules to reign in state enterprises. This Article challenges that point of view. Governments should not be able to circumvent existing WTO rules through state enterprises but putting the state sector under new special constraints is unjustified. State enterprise can be a legitimate tool of public policy. Focusing complaints about anti-competitive behavior on the state sector is unwarranted: private firms may also engage in unfair competition and abuse market power. Carefully examining the case law in the WTO, this Article argues that there is a strong basis in existing jurisprudence for holding governments accountable for the conduct of state firms, despite one often-cited decision anomalous tribunal decision. The Article advocates greater transparency & dialogue in the WTO about how ownership structure affects competition and trade-but applied equally to both public & private entities.
New Issue: GlobaLex
New Issue: International Criminal Law Review
- Special Issue: Italy’s Legal Obligations to Criminalise
- Francesca Capone & Marco Longobardo, Introduction
- Marco Longobardo, The Italian Legislature and International and EU Obligations of Domestic Criminalisation
- Daniele Amoroso, The Duties of Criminalization under International Law in the Practice of Italian Judges: An Overview
- Beatrice I. Bonafè, Constitutional Judicial Review and International Obligations of Criminalization
- Giulio Bartolini, The Criminalization of War Crimes in Italy and the Shortcomings of the Domestic Legal Framework
- Luigi Prosperi, ‘With or Without You’: Why Italy Should Incorporate Crimes Against Humanity and Genocide Into Its National Legal System
- Alessandra Gianelli, Has Italy Finally Implemented its International Obligations Concerning the Punishment of Torture?
- Francesca Capone, Criminalising Terrorist Offences and the Phenomenon of Foreign Terrorist Fighters at the Municipal Level without Defining Terrorism in International Law: Does the Trick Really Work?
- Francesca Ippolito, The Pitfalls of the Italian Response to the International Obligations of Criminalisation of Gender Violence
- Deborah Russo & Monica Parodi, The Protection of Children against Cybercrimes and Cyberbullying: International and European Obligations to Criminalize and the Uncertain Prospects of their Implementation in the Italian Legal System
- Leonardo Borlini, Not such a Retrospective: On the Implementation of the International Anti-Corruption Obligations in Italy
New Issue: International & Comparative Law Quarterly
- Tim Clark, The Teleological Turn in the Law of International Organisations
- Millicent McCreath, Community Interests and the Protection of the Marine Environment Within National Jurisdiction
- Sofia Galani, Port Closures and Persons at Sea in International Law
- Arthur Poon, Determining the Place of Performance Under Article 7(1) of the Brussels I Recast
- Alison Xu, A New Solution Concerning Choice-of-Law for the Assignment of Debts
- Joshua Paine, Autonomy to Set the Level of Regulatory Protection in International Investment Law
- Salvatore Caserta & Pola Cebulak, Resilience Techniques of International Courts in Times of Resistance to International Law
- Arman Sarvarian, The Ossified Debate on A UN Convention on State Responsibility
- Shorter Articles
- Rossana Deplano, The Artemis Accords: Evolution or Revolution in International Space Law?
Conference: Partnered Operations and International Law
Barkin: The Sovereignty Cartel
Sovereignty is the subject of many debates in international relations. Is it the source of state authority or a description of it? What is its history? Is it strengthening or weakening? Is it changing, and how? This book addresses these questions, but focuses on one less frequently addressed: what makes state sovereignty possible? The Sovereignty Cartel argues that sovereignty is built on state collusion – states work together to privilege sovereignty in global politics, because they benefit from sovereignty's exclusivity. This book explores this collusive behavior in international law, international political economy, international security, and migration and citizenship. In all these areas, states accord rights to other states, regardless of relative power, relative wealth, or relative position. Sovereignty, as a (changing) set of property rights for which states collude, accounts for this behavior not as anomaly (as other theories would) but instead as fundamental to the sovereign states system.
New Issue: Die Friedens-Warte
- Pionier*innen der Friedensforschung – neu betrachtet | Pioneers of Peace Research – Reconsidered
- Sabine Jaberg, Johan Galtungs weites Verständnis von Frieden und Gewalt – eine Grundsteinlegung für die Friedensforschung
- Michael Berndt, Der polit-ökonomische Ansatz der Kritischen Friedensforschung von Ekkehart Krippendorff
- Lukas Mengelkamp, Organisierte Friedlosigkeit – Dieter Senghaas’ Abschreckungskritik
- Gert Krell, „Abnehmende Gewalt und zunehmende Verteilungsgerechtigkeit“ Ernst-Otto Czempiels liberale Friedenstheorie
- Klaus Dicke, „Die Konstitution des Friedens als Rechtsordnung“ – Jost Delbrück als Friedensforscher
- Eva Senghaas-Knobloch, Elise Boulding: Die „Saatbeete“ für Friedenskulturen pflegen
- Werner Wintersteiner, Betty Reardon – Pionierin der feministischen Friedensforschung und der Friedenspädagogik
- Wilfried Graf & Werner Wintersteiner, Herbert C. Kelman: Von der sozialpsychologischen Friedensforschung zur Theorie und Praxis internationaler Friedensmediation
- Pete Hämmerle, Hildegard Goss-Mayr – eine Pionierin der Gewaltfreiheit und ihre Bedeutung für die Friedensforschung
- Vorläufer*innen der Friedensforschung | Precursors of Peace Research
- Hendrik W. Ohnesorge, „Man kann hier nicht halbieren“ – Immanuel Kants Zum ewigen Frieden und das Synergismus-Gebot
- Romy Klimke, „An Stelle der Gewalt das Recht“ – Der Frieden im Leben und Werk Bertha von Suttners aus völkerrechtlicher Perspektive
Dorn: Die Durchbrechung der Staatenimmunität im Falle des staatlich geförderten Terrorismus
Der Grundsatz der Staatenimmunität ist ein politisch sensibles und umstrittenes Thema im Völkerrecht. Befeuert werden das Ringen um Reichweite und Entwicklung des Grundsatzes der Staatenimmunität durch die USA und Kanada, die mit dem Erlass einer Terrorismusausnahme zur Staatenimmunität einen neuen Weg beschreiten. Zuletzt erweiterten die USA ihre Gesetzgebung um den »Justice Against State Sponsors of Terrorism Act«, der in der Staatenwelt auf erhebliche Kritik stieß. Die Arbeit nimmt dies zum Anlass und untersucht Rechtsprechungs- und Gesetzgebungspraxis beider Staaten. Die Autorin legt dar, dass es sich bei der Terrorismusausnahme zur Staatenimmunität um eine Ausnahme »sui generis« handelt, die als effektives Instrument zur Terrorismusbekämpfung dienen kann. Die Durchbrechung der Staatenimmunität in Fällen des staatlich geförderten Terrorismus stellt gegenwärtig einen Bruch des Völkerrechts dar, der jedoch als Gegenmaßnahme nach den Grundsätzen der Staatenverantwortlichkeit gerechtfertigt sein kann.
New Issue: Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy
- Cameron S. G. Jefferies, David Adie, Zach Bliss & Sarah Kent, Legal Options (and Obligations?) for Enhanced Canada–United States Cooperative Southern Resident Killer Whale Conservation
- Caroline Cox, The Elephant in the Courtroom: An Analysis of the United Kingdom’s Ivory Act 2018, Its Path to Enactment, and Its Potential Impact on the Illegal Trade in Ivory
- Ahmed Adham Abdulla & Erika J. Techera, Environmental Crimes: A Framework for Detection, Monitoring, and Enforcement in The Maldives
Marhold: Energy in International Trade Law: Concepts, Regulation and Changing Markets
Against the backdrop of energy markets that have radically changed in recent decades, this book offers an in-depth study of energy regulation in international trade law. The author seeks to clarify what we define as 'energy' in the context of the applicable international trade rules, and gives the reader a thorough analysis of the concepts, history and law of the various legal frameworks underpinning international energy trade. In addition, several case studies address the ongoing quest for energy security and show how the existing rules relate to some of the vast challenges that energy markets face today, notably the decentralisation and decarbonisation of energy markets.
Sunday, August 1, 2021
Cohen & Zlotogorski: Proportionality in International Humanitarian Law: Consequences, Precautions, and Procedures
The principle of proportionality is one of the corner-stones of international humanitarian law. Almost all states involved in armed conflicts recognize that launching an attack which may cause incidental harm to civilians that exceeds the direct military advantage anticipated from the attack is prohibited. This prohibition is included in military manuals, taught in professional courses, and accepted as almost axiomatic. And yet, the exact meaning of the principle is vague. Almost every issue, from the most elementary question of how to compare civilian harm and military advantage, to the obligation to employ accurate but expensive weapons, is disputed. Controversy is especially rife regarding asymmetrical conflicts, in which many modern democracies are involved. How exactly should proportionality be implemented when the enemy is not an army, but a non-state-actor embedded within a civilian population? What does it mean to use precautions in attack, when almost every attack is directed at objects that are used for both military and civilian purposes?
In Proportionality in International Humanitarian Law, Amichai Cohen and David Zlotogorski discuss the philosophical and political background of the principle of proportionality. Offering a fresh and comprehensive look at this key doctrine, they comprehensively discuss the different components of the proportionality “equation” - the meaning of “incidental harm” to civilians; the “military advantage” and the term “excessive”. The book proposes the debates over the principle of proportionality be reframed to focus on the precautions taken before the attack along with the course States should follow in investigations of the violations of the principle.
New Issue: Humanitäres Völkerrecht
- Alena Douhan, COVID-19 as a Challenge to International Solidarity: Legal Regime and Application of Unilateral Sanctions in the Course of the Pandemic
- Teresa Mörth & Gerd Oberleitner, COVID-19 as a ‘Threat to the Life of the Nation’ in International Human Rights Law: Diverging State Practice
- Kimberley J. Graham, Elizabeth B. Hessami, & Masa Nagai, Towards Enhanced Protection of the Marine Environment and Vulnerable Populations in Relation to Armed Conflicts Rouven Diekjobst, Sea-Level Rise and Public International Law: The Case of ‘Lost’ States
- Aktuelle Entwicklungen im humanitären Völkerrecht
- Valentina Azarova, ‘Zone of Non-Responsibility’: The Arms Trade Treaty and the Licensing of Violence
- Zia Akhtar, Loya Jirga and the Pashtun Tribes: Can a Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation Commission Restore the Trust of the Tribal Communities of the Khyber Pass?
- Marishet M. Hamza, Fragmented Armed Groups in International Humanitarian Law
New Issue: Vereinte Nationen
- Schwerpunkt: Blick über den Tellerrand
- Francisco Mari & Stig Tanzmann, Das globale Ernährungssystem nachhaltig transformieren
- Ulrich Seidenberger, Erwartungen an den ›UN Food Systems Summit‹
- Drei Fragen an Agnes Kalibata
- Regine Rehaag & Frank Waskow, Ernährungswandel zwischen Hunger und Übergewicht
- Im Diskurs
- Laura Kirkpatrick, Standpunkt | Der letzte Mann
- Daniela Heerdt, Keine Fouls an den Menschenrechten
- Michael Böcher & Ulrike Zeigermann, COVID-19 und die internationale Bewältigung multipler Krisen
Reynolds: Instruments of Peacemaking 1870-1914
This book focuses on Anglo-American disputes arising out of the civil war in the United States and British interests in the American continent: the Geneva Arbitration, the Venezuela-Guiana Arbitration and the Bhering Sea Arbitration. It draws on those cases as model proceedings which laid the foundations and inspiration for a promotion of international law through the Hague Conferences and by the work of English and American jurists. It considers the encouragement these cases gave to the promotion of public international law and how that contributed to the resolution of inter-state disputes.
New Issue: Climate Law
- Baine P. Kerr, Bridging the Climate and Maritime Legal Regimes: The IMO’s 2018 Climate Strategy as an Erga Omnes Obligation
- Christoph Schwarte, EU Climate Policy under the Paris Agreement
- Louisa Raitbaur, The New German Coal Laws: A Difficult Balancing Act
- Andreas Hösli, Milieudefensie et al. v. Shell: A Tipping Point in Climate Change Litigation against Corporations?
Maisley: Better to see international law this other way: the case against international normative positivism
In this paper, I argue against international normative positivism, i.e., against the idea that the separation of international legal judgement from moral reasoning is not only possible, but also a good thing. First, I claim that the space for the separation of legal and moral reasoning is minimal in this legal realm, given the peculiar characteristics of the international legal system. And then, I try to show that nonpositivism in international law (i) does not lead to quietism regarding the rules, (ii) or regarding the system as a whole, (iii) that it does not give too much power to international judges, or (iv) work against democratic values, (v) that it does not lead to anarchy, and that it (vi) may not be an instrument of imperialism, but rather a tool against it.
New Issue: Questions of International Law
- How can a treaty on business and human rights fit with international law? Assessing the development of international rules on corporate accountability and their relationship with other international legal regimes
- Introduced by Angelica Bonfanti and Marco Pertile
- Roberta Greco, The Draft Treaty on Business and Human Rights: What way forward for greater consistency between human rights and investment agreements?
- Jacques Hartmann and Annalisa Savaresi, Corporate actors, environmental harms and the Draft UN Treaty on Business and Human Rights: History in the making?
- Mara Tignino, Corporate human rights due diligence and liability in armed conflicts: The role of the ILC Draft Principles on the Protection of the Environment and the Draft UN Treaty on Business and Human Rights
New Issue: International Journal of Transitional Justice
- Special Issue: Housing, Land and Property Rights in Transitional Justice
- Jon D Unruh & Musa Adam Abdul-Jalil, Housing, Land and Property Rights in Transitional Justice
- Ginevra Le Moli, Intruders in a Balancing Act: Black Economic Empowerment, Transitional Justice and Investment Arbitration Tribunals
- Luis Enrique Ruiz González, Rocío Del Pilar Peña-Huertas, María Mónica Parada-Hernández, Alfonso Javier Lozano Valcárcel, Bryan Triana Ancínez, & Milton Alberto Valencia-Herrera, Who Owns What in Macondo? The Flexibilization of the Rules of Evidence in Land Restitution in Colombia
- Jamie Rowen & Arta Snipe, The Promise and Perils of Urban Land Restitution in Latvia
- Theodore Mbazumutima, Land Restitution in Postconflict Burundi
- Lejandrina Pastor & Angela Santamaria, Experiences of Spiritual Advocacy for Land and Territorial Itineraries for the Defense of Wiwa Women’s Rights in Postconflict Colombia
- Niall Gilmartin, ‘Ending the Silence’: Addressing the Legacy of Displacement in Northern Ireland’s ‘Troubles’
- Bernardo Almeida, The Law and Its Limits: Land Grievances, Wicked Problems, and Transitional Justice in Timor-Leste
- Daniel Aguirre & Irene Pietropaoli, Institutional Reform in Myanmar: Preventing Corporate Land Rights Abuses
- Mijke de Waardt, Dora Georgiou, & Evren Celal, Attempts at Redress Through the Lens of Social Identity: Housing, Land and Property of the Displaced in Cyprus
- Fabricio Teló, Alessandra Gasparotto, Leonilde Servolo de Medeiros, & Regina Coelly Fernandes Saraiva, Land and Transitional Justice in Brazil
- Pablo Rueda Sáiz & Alexandra Huneeus, Territory as a Victim of Armed Conflict
- Rocío Del Pilar Peña-Huertas, María Mónica Parada-Hernández, Natalia Abril-Bonilla, Luisa Fda Uribe-Larrota, María Camila Jiménez-Nicholls, & Ana Valentina Nieto-Cruz, Collective Ownership and Land Restitution: A New Opportunity for Afro-Colombian Communities
- Review Essay
- Nelson Camilo Sánchez, The Promised Land of Transitional Justice
Ponta: Responsible State Behavior in Cyberspace: Two New Reports from Parallel UN Processes
New Issue: Chinese Journal of International Law
- Sienho Yee, The Twentieth Anniversary of the Chinese Journal of International Law
- Joel Slawotsky, The Fusion of Ideology, Technology and Economic Power: Implications of the Emerging New United States National Security Conceptualization
- Jaemin Lee, The “Indirect Support” Loophole in the New SOE Norms: An Intentional Choice or Inadvertent Mistake?
- Wenliang Zhang & Guangjian Tu, The Hague Judgments Convention and Mainland China-Hong Kong SAR Judgments Arrangement: Comparison and Prospects for Implementation
- David Pavot & Lolita Laperle-Forget, The Emergence of Objective Guidelines for Granting Immunity to International Non-Governmental Organizations
- Letter to the Journal
- Alexander N Vylegzhanin, Ekaterina A Torkunova, Sergey A Lobanov, & Kirill V Kritskiy, Forcible Discharge of Ukrainian President Yanukovich from Power: Complicity of the Obama Administration
New Issue: International Organization
- Nils-Christian Bormann, Yannick I. Pengl, Lars-Erik Cederman, & Nils B. Weidmann, Globalization, Institutions, and Ethnic Inequality
- Jacque Gao, Democratization in the Shadow of Globalization
- Omer Solodoch, Regaining Control? The Political Impact of Policy Responses to Refugee Crises
- Jakana L. Thomas, Wolves in Sheep's Clothing: Assessing the Effect of Gender Norms on the Lethality of Female Suicide Terrorism
- Calvin Thrall, Public-Private Governance Initiatives and Corporate Responses to Stakeholder Complaints
- Research Notes
- Jessica Edry, Jesse C. Johnson, & Brett Ashley Leeds, Threats at Home and Abroad: Interstate War, Civil War, and Alliance Formation
- Connor Huff & Robert Schub, Segregation, Integration, and Death: Evidence from the Korean War
- Ryan Brutger & Brian Rathbun, Fair Share? Equality and Equity in American Attitudes Toward Trade
- Kosuke Imai & James Lo, Robustness of Empirical Evidence for the Democratic Peace: A Nonparametric Sensitivity Analysis
New Issue: International Legal Materials
- Germany v. Philipp (U.S. Sup. Ct.), with introductory note by Marie Greenman
- Immunities and Criminal Proceedings (Equatorial Guinea v. France) (I.C.J.), with introductory note by Péter Kovács
- Supreme Site Services v. Shape (C.J.E.U.), with introductory note by Salim S. Sleiman
- Telenor Magyarország Zrt. v. Nemzeti Média- És Hírközlési Hatóság Elnöke (C.J.E.U.), with introductory note by Jason A. Biros
- Case C-66/18 Comm'n v. Hungary (C.J.E.U.), with introductory note by Tamás Kende & Gábor Puskás
Call for Submissions: Managing Mixed Migration (Yale Journal of International Law)
New Issue: Nordic Journal of Human Rights
- Juan-Pablo Perez-Leon-Acevedo, Victims at the Central African Republic's Special Criminal Court
- Katja Creutz, Nordic Experiences in the UN Human Rights Council: A Tour d’Horizon of 2019 with Iceland and Denmark
- Marius Pieterse, Balancing Socio-economic Rights: Confronting COVID-19 in South Africa’s Informal Urban Settlements
- Kamrul Hossain & Rosa Maria Ballardini, Protecting Indigenous Traditional Knowledge Through a Holistic Principle-Based Approach
- Veljko Turanjanin, The Principle of Immediacy Versus the Efficiency of Criminal Proceedings: Do Changes in the Composition of the Trial Panel Violate the Right to a Fair Trial?