- G. Clayton, J. Kathman, K. Beardsley, T.-I Gizelis, L. Olsson, V. Bove, A. Ruggeri, R. Zwetsloot, J. van der Lijn, T. Smit, L. Hultman, H. Dorussen, A. Ruggeri, P.F. Diehl, L. Bosco & C. Goodness, The known knowns and known unknowns of peacekeeping data
- David Curran, Muddling on through? Cosmopolitan peacekeeping and the protection of civilians
- Andrea Carati & Andrea Locatelli, Cui prodest? Italy’s questionable involvement in multilateral military operations amid ethical concerns and national interest
- Charles T. Hunt, All necessary means to what ends? the unintended consequences of the ‘robust turn’ in UN peace operations
- Anne-Kathrin Kreft, The gender mainstreaming gap: Security Council resolution 1325 and UN peacekeeping mandates
- Sophia Sabrow, Local perceptions of the legitimacy of peace operations by the UN, regional organizations and individual states – a case study of the Mali conflict
Saturday, January 7, 2017
Friday, January 6, 2017
- Virginie Barral, National Sovereignty Over National Resources: Environmental Challenges and Sustainable Development
- Jorge E. Viñuales, Foreign Direct Investment: International Investment Law and Natural Resource Governance
- Kati Kulovesi, International Trade: Natural Resources and the World Trade Organization
- Francesco Francioni, Natural Resources and Human Rights
- Emanuela Orlando, Corruption and Conflict
- Elisa Morgera, Corporate Accountability
- Lorenzo Cotula, Land
- Feja Lesniewska, Forests: Learning Lessons from our Interventions
- Alexander Proelss, Fisheries
- Arie Trouwborst, Wildlife and Landscapes
- Claudio Chiarolla, Genetic Resources
- Kim Talus, Oil and Gas: International Petroleum Regulation
- Rafael Leal-Arcas & Stephen Minas, Renewable Energy
- Max Jansson & Seita Romppanen, Biofuels
- Owen Mcintyre, Water
- Michael Kidd, Minerals
- Timo Koivurova, Arctic Resources: Exploitation of Natural Resources in the Arctic from the Perspective of International Law
- Richard Barnes & Carmino Massarella, High Seas Fisheries
- James Harrison, Resources of the International Seabed Area
- Charlotte Salpin, Marine Genetic of Resources in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction: Soul Searching and the Art of Balance
- Julia Jabour, Antarctica Resources: Economic Activities in Antarctica: Resources and Legal Regimes
- Ben Boer, International Law-Making
- Rakhyun E. Kim & Harro Van Asselt, Global Governance: Problem Shifting in the Anthropocene and the Limits of International Law
- Federico Ortino & Nima Mersadi Tabari, International Dispute Settlement: The Settlement of Investment Disputes Concerning Natural Resources - Applicable Law and Standards of Review
- Elisa Morgera & Kati Kulovesi, Conclusions: A Research Agenda on International Law and Natural Resources
- Giorgio Gaja, Assessing Expert Evidence in the ICJ
- Jamil Ddamulira Mujuzi, War Criminals Transferred to Serve their Sentences in Foreign Countries and their Right to Family Life: A Comment on the Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone’s Decision in Charles Ghankay Taylor’s Motion for Termination of Enforcement of Sentence in the United Kingdom and for Transfer to Rwanda
- William Thomas Worster, Unilateral Diplomatic Assurances as an Alternative to Provisional Measures
- Kei Nakajima, Parallel Universes of Investment Protection? A Divergent Finding on the Definition of Investment in the ICSID Arbitration on Greek Sovereign Debts
Oxford Reports on International Law (ORIL) brings together decisions on public international law from international law courts, domestic courts, and ad hoc tribunals, and is the most up-to-date source of international case law available. The Reports on International Trade Law Decisions (ITLD) module, led by the Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies at the University of Leuven, under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Jan Wouters and Prof. Dr. Geert Van Calster, is a database providing expert commentary and analysis of case law of trade-related international dispute settlement systems, focusing on issues relating to public international law. So far, the database covers cases decided by, inter alia, the WTO’s Dispute Settlement Body (Panels and the Appellate Body), NAFTA, MERCOSUR and the Caribbean Court of Justice.
We are currently looking for new (or already experienced) English and/or Spanish/Portuguese-speaking contributors that are experts in the fields of public international law, WTO law, and international trade law who would like to take part in the project. Contributors are asked to draft short case notes (comprising of a summary of the facts and holdings, as well as an analysis of its significance for public international law; amounting to around 2.500 words) on judgments from the abovementioned tribunals. You will be credited as the sole author, and each case note will be published online in the Oxford Reports on International Law – Reports on International Trade Law Decisions module. Moreover, you may use case notes as the basis for a subsequent publication provided it is not identical (in which case consent from OUP would need to be asked), and due reference is made to the earlier OUP case note. Additionally, authors of case notes will be compensated with a 45 EUR sum or 90 EUR worth of OUP book credits per note by Oxford University Press.
If you are interested in collaborating with us and are willing to contribute to this project, please send us a short description of your background and experience, insofar relevant. Considering the broad scope of this project, feel free to forward this invitation to equally qualified colleagues who may be interested to submit case notes.
Thank you in advance and we are at your disposal should you have additional queries. Please mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Prof. Dr. Jan Wouters and Prof. Dr. Geert Van Calster, Editors
Ines Willemyns, Alejandro Gonzalez Arreaza, Dylan Geraets and Marieke Koekkoek, Associate Editors
- Dan Edelstein, Is There a “Modern” Natural Law Theory?: Notes on the History of Human Rights
- Christopher N. Warren, Big Leagues: Specters of Milton and Republican International Justice between Shakespeare and Marx
- Dossier on Humanitarianism in Refugee Camps
- Maja Janmyr & Are J. Knudsen, Introduction: Hybrid Spaces
- Kirsten McConnachie, Camps of Containment: A Genealogy of the Refugee Camp
- Maja Janmyr, Spaces of Legal Ambiguity: Refugee Camps and Humanitarian Power
- Bram J. Jansen, The Refugee Camp as Warscape: Violent Cosmologies, “Rebelization,” and Humanitarian Governance in Kakuma, Kenya
- Are J. Knudsen, Camp, Ghetto, Zinco, Slum: Lebanon’s Transitional Zones of Emplacement
- Michel Agier, Afterword: What Contemporary Camps Tell Us about the World to Come
- Photo Essay
- Nina Berman, Object Lessons
- Sharon Sliwinski, Evocative Objects: A Sexual Violence Primer
- Essay Reviews
- Priya Satia, Guarding The Guardians: Payoffs and Perils
- Alexander Livingston, Moralism and Its Discontents
- Special Issue: Counting Civilian Casualties
- Lloyd Axworthy & Allan Rock, Memorandum to the New UN Secretary-General
- Bridget Conley, What Counts at the End? Questioning Consensus in the Construction of Mass Atrocity Narratives
- Vickie Frater & Phil Orchard, More Heat than Light: The Challenges of Measuring Forced Migration
- Sara E. Davies & Jacqui True, Connecting the Dots: Pre-existing Patterns of Gender Inequality and the Likelihood of Widespread and Systematic Sexual Violence
- Erica Chenoweth, Trends in Nonviolent Resistance and State Response: Is Violence Towards Civilian-based Movements on the Rise?
- Caron E. Gentry, The ‘Duel’ Meaning of Feminisation in International Relations: The Rise of Women and the Interior Logics of Declinist Literature
- Nobuo Hayashi, Cecelia M. Bailliet & Joanna Nicholson, Introduction
- Larry May & Shannon Fyfe, The legitimacy of international criminal tribunals
- Silje Aambø Langvatn & Theresa Squatrito, Conceptualising and measuring the legitimacy of international criminal tribunals
- Sergey Vasiliev, Between international criminal justice and injustice: theorising legitimacy
- Asad Kiyani, Legitimacy, legality, and the possibility of a pluralist international criminal law
- Athanasios Chouliaras, The legitimacy and effectiveness of international criminal tribunals: a criminal policy perspective
- Rogier Bartels, Legitimacy and ICC jurisdiction following Security Council referrals: conduct on the territory of non-Party States and the legality principle
- Nobuo Hayashi, Is the Yugoslav Tribunal guilty of hyper-humanising international humanitarian law?
- Jakob V H. Holtermann, 'One of the challenges that can plausibly be raised against them'? On the role of truth in debates about the legitimacy of international criminal tribunals
- Timothy William Waters, Hidden legitimacy: crafting judicial narratives in the shadow of secrecy at a war crimes tribunal - a speculation
- Ignaz Stegmiller, Positive complementarity and legitimacy - is the International Criminal Court shifting from judicial restraint towards intervention?
- Dorothy Makaza, African supranational criminal jurisdiction: one step towards ending impunity or two steps backwards for international criminal justice?
- Martin Wählisch, Legitimacy defects and legal flaws of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon: dilemmas of the 'peace through justice' theorem
- Damien Rogers, Prosecutors' opening statements: the rhetoric of law, politics and silent war
- Barbora Hola, Jessica Kelder & Joris van Wijk, Effectiveness of international criminal tribunals: empirical assessment of rehabilitation as sentencing goal
- Stephen Smith Cody, Procedural justice, legitimacy, and victim participation in Uganda
- Victor Peskin, Things fall apart: battles of legitimation and the politics of noncompliance and African sovereignty from the Rwanda tribunal to the ICC
- Mistale Taylor, Financing lady justice: how the funding systems of ad hoc tribunals could lend themselves to the possibility of judicial bias
- Kjersti Lohne, Claiming authority in the name of the other: human rights NGOs and the ICC
- Wolfgang Graf Vitzthum, Russland und das Völkerrecht
- Jelena Bäumler, Should we tame it, cage it or kill it? Past criticism, present developments and future imperatives for foreign investment protection in light of the IPA-SA, TPP and CETA
- Felix Boor, Die Aufhebung der Yukos-Schiedssprüche des Permanent Court of Arbitration vor dem Bezirksgericht in Den Haag – nur der Anfang einer langen Vollstreckungsodysee?
- Jorrik Fulda, Eine legitime Globalverfassung? Die US-Hegemonie und die weltgesellschaftlich gerechte Vollendung des Kantischen Projektes
Thursday, January 5, 2017
- Franco Frattini, Dopo la Brexit: quali implicazioni per Londra, l’Europa e l’Italia. Il diritto di Londra di uscire e il dovere dell’UE di evitare la fuga generalizzata
- Mario de Dominicis, In ricordo di Rolando Quadri a quarant’anni dalla scomparsa
- Articoli e Saggi
- Gianpaolo Mario Ruotolo, Il ruolo del consenso del sovrano territoriale nel transborder data access tra obblighi internazionali e norme interne di adattamento
- Osservatorio Europeo
- Federico Di Dario, La tutela dei valori dell’UE dopo la prima attivazione del “nuovo quadro per rafforzare lo stato di diritto”
- Osservatorio Diritti Umani
- Federica Falconi, La responsabilità dell’Internet Service Provider tra libertà di espressione e tutela della reputazione altrui
- Note e Commenti
- Luigia Bersani, Bilanciamento tra diritti d’autore e altri diritti culturali per uno sviluppo umano e sociale: a proposito del Trattato di Marrakech (WIPO 2013)
- Ian Hurd, The permissive power of the ban on war
- James Sperling & Mark Webber, NATO and the Ukraine crisis: Collective securitisation
- Sibylle Scheipers, ‘The most beautiful of wars’: Carl von Clausewitz and small wars
- Lee Jarvis, Stuart Macdonald, & Andrew Whiting, Unpacking cyberterrorism discourse: Specificity, status, and scale in news media constructions of threat
- Cristina G. Stefan, On non-Western norm shapers: Brazil and the Responsibility while Protecting
- Tudor Onea, Immoderate greatness: Is great power restraint a practical grand strategy?
International tribunals need to interface effectively with national jurisdictions, which includes coordination with domestic judicial prosecutions as well as an appreciation for other non-judicial types of transitional justice. In this book, the authors analyze the earlier international tribunals established since the 1990s and the parallel national proceedings for each. In examining the ways in which the ICC can best coordinate with national processes this book considers the ICC’s present interactions with national jurisdictions and the statutory framework of the Rome Statute for interface with national jurisdictions.
Glarou: The Impact of Naturalistic and Legal Positivist Doctrines on the Implementation of International Human Rights Treaty Law
Das völkerrechtliche Menschenrechtskonzept entwickelte sich in den letzten 60 Jahren hauptsächlich durch Abkommen als Ausdruck des positivistischen Zweigs des Völkerrechts. Allerdings stehen positivistische Schlüsselmerkmale wie bspw. pacta sunt servanda oder die Staatensouveränität einer effektiven Realisierung eines modernen Menschenrechtsregimes hinderlich gegenüber. Naturrechtliche Herkunft und Substanz der Menschenrechte wie deren Unveräußerlichkeit und Universalität werden dabei vernachlässigt. In diesem Spannungsverhältnis liegt die hier aufgearbeitete rechtliche Auseinandersetzung über Vorbehalte zu menschenrechtlichen Verträgen. Unter Einbezug u. a. der Stellungnahmen der Völkerrechtskommission, des UN-Menschenrechtsausschusses und des CEDAW-Ausschusses zu Vorbehalten kommt die Arbeit zu dem Schluss, dass die Etablierung des Menschenrechtskonzepts in einer rechtspositivistischen Umgebung ohne tragfähiges methodologisch systematisches Fundament deren Nachhaltigkeit gefährdet.
The concept of human rights has developed during the last 60 years mainly through multilateral treaties as a positivist branch of public international law. However, key positivist doctrines such as pacta sunt servanda or state sovereignty pose significant obstacles to the effective realization of a modern human rights regime. The universal, inherent and inalienable nature of fundamental human rights, deriving from their natural law origins, are often set aside by such doctrines and annulled. Through close examination of reservations to human rights treaties, this study sheds new light on the deep interplay of naturalistic and legal positivist doctrines on the progress and implementation of human rights law (CEDAW, HR Committee, ILC). It is argued that the positions of apex human rights bodies regarding reservations reveal that establishing a human rights concept within a legal positivist environment, without a systematic methodological foundation, endangers its basic sustainability.
The Israeli-Palestinian dispute ranks among the most emotionally and widely discussed conflicts in contemporary international law. Besides political debates over who is to blame for what and who ultimately bears the responsibility for this decade-long tragedy as well as historical questions regarding the rightful owner of the “Holy Land” , it poses a variety of difficult and therefore interesting legal questions such as the territorial characterisation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the right of self-defence against irregular combatants operating from these territories to the oftentimes unresolvable issue of proportionality in asymmetric warfare. Aiming at providing a small insight into these topics, this paper is divided into three distinctive chapters; each one of them will start with a short introduction into the state of law in the respective field and then further elaborate on Israel’s position, while contrasting it with the findings of international lawyers, the International Court of Justice, non-governmental groups, and UN reports.
- Sandesh Sivakumaran, The Influence of Teachings of Publicists on the Development of International Law
- Joanna Harrington, The Working Methods of the United Nations Security Council: Maintaining the Implementation of Change
- Andrew Keay, The Harmonization of the Avoidance Rules in European Union Insolvencies
- Matthias Lehmann, Bail-In and Private International Law: How to Make Bank Resolution Measures Effective Across Borders
- Lee Mcconnell, Assessing the Feasibility of a Business and Human Rights Treaty
- Stian Øby Johansen, Accountability Mechanisms for Human Rights Violations by CSDP Missions: Available and Sufficient?
- Claire Brighton, Unlikely Bedfellows: The Evolution of the Relationship Between Environmental Protection and Development
- Shorter Article and Notes
- Daniel Ghezelbash, Legal Transfers of Restrictive Immigration Laws: A Historical Perspective
Wednesday, January 4, 2017
The Conference will bring together the world’s leading experts to discuss the legal reasoning and findings in the Award on issues such as jurisdiction, historic rights, status and entitlement of features, artificial islands and installations, the protection of the marine environment, procedure and implications of the Award for UNCLOS dispute settlement.
The value of transparency in decision-making is regarded as something of a truism in the public sphere; something that is uncontroversial and requires little by way of justification. In the Security Council setting, there are mounting calls for greater transparency as if publicity is some form of unconditional virtue. However, this easy embrace of transparency evades difficult questions and fails to consider the tensions it conceals. The principle of transparency is not as easy to sustain, either in theory or practice, as it first might seem. Publicity might be necessary to justify policy, but secrecy may also be necessary to effect some policies. The primary aim of this essay is to ask a question to which an easy answer is sometimes presumed: why do we need transparency in the Security Council sanctions context? In this essay, I set the foundations for a value-based theory of transparency for Security Council sanctions decision-making. It is only when we understand ‘why’ transparency is needed in this context that we can adequately answer other questions, including the ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘when’ and ‘how’ questions.
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (‘TPP’) is the first trade agreement that comprehensively deals with contemporary policy issues in digital trade. It introduces new disciplines on issues such as cross-border data flows, online privacy, network neutrality, cybersecurity, regulation of spam, and safe harbour protection for internet intermediaries. These provisions are atypical of trade agreements, and are particularly significant as they have a direct impact on internet policy. In this article, I evaluate these new disciplines in the TPP to assess the extent to which the TPP is suitably placed in the internet eco-system. After a comprehensive legal assessment of these disciplines, I argue that the TPP does not effectively fit into the broader internet ecosystem, as it fails to synergize the goal of trade liberalization with important internet policy concerns such as facilitating consumer trust and digital innovation. However, despite its deficiencies, the TPP sets a new benchmark for rules on digital trade, as its provisions address several contemporary issues in the digital economy. Therefore, the provisions on digital trade within the TPP will be instrumental in future negotiations at the World Trade Organization (‘WTO’) and other regional bodies. More importantly, the TPP is a reminder of the increasing significance of trade agreements in influencing critical aspects of internet policy. Particularly, in developing rules on digital trade that affect issues such as cross-border data flows, online privacy and consumer protection, net neutrality and cybersecurity, trade negotiators/lawyers need to comprehensively assess the relevance of these rules in the liberalization of digital trade, and its broader impact on the internet ecosystem.
Tachou Sipowo: La Cour pénale internationale entre protection des secrets et impératifs d’effectivité
Le Statut de la Cour pénale internationale impose aux juges, dans des dispositions juridiques qui abondent, de respecter certains secrets, tels les secrets d’État, le secret de l’informateur, le secret professionnel ou encore l’anonymat des victimes et témoins. Cette surabondance de confidentialité, quand bien même sa légitimité est indéniable, soulève des difficultés. La Cour doit concilier la protection des secrets avec la répression effective des crimes qui relèvent de sa compétence. L’auteur pose un regard critique et constructif sur cette situation, considérant la fonction réparatrice et pédagogique que doit désormais assumer cette Cour dans l’ordre international. Faisant le constat que l’application du principe de proportionnalité ne désamorce pas la tension, l’auteur suggère que seul le recours à la théorie de la justice substantielle concilie le mieux le droit de l’accusé à un procès équitable avec les aspirations des victimes de voir leurs crimes réparés et châtiés. Il considère cependant qu’une telle approche nécessitait que les États transposent de manière parcimonieuse la protection des secrets en droit international au moment de l’adoption du Statut de la Cour.
Barros, Ryngaert, & Wouters: International Organizations and Member State Responsibility: Critical Perspectives
- Ana Sofia Barros, Cedric Ryngaert & Jan Wouters, Member States, International Organizations and International Responsibility
- Ramses A. Wessel & Ige F. Dekker, Identities of States in International Organizations
- Niels Blokker, Member State Responsibility for Wrongdoings of International Organizations
- Ana Sofia Barros, Member States and the International Legal (Dis)order
- Catherine Brölmann, Member States and International Legal Responsibility
- Jean d’Aspremont, International Responsibility and the Constitution of Power
- Tom Dannenbaum, Dual attribution in the context of military operations
- Antonios Tzanakopoulos, Sharing Responsibility for UN Targeted Sanctions
- Esa Paasivirta, The Responsibility of Member States of International Organizations?
- Paolo Palchetti, Litigating Member State Responsibility
- Francesco Messineo, The Invocation of Member State Responsibility before National and International Courts
- Cedric Ryngaert, The Responsibility of Member States of International Organizations
- Les études portant sur l’année 2015
- Frédéric Schneider, L’enseignement du droit de la mer en France
- Philippe Delebecque, Le droit maritime a-t-il un avenir ?
- Serge Beslier, Gouvernance de la Haute mer. Vers un accord d’application pour « la conservation et l’exploitation durable de la biodiversité marine » au-delà de la juridiction nationale
- Eric Canal-Forgues, L’obligation de négocier un accès à l’océan Pacifique (Bolivie c. Chili). Exception préliminaire, Arrêt du 24 septembre 2015
- François Campagnola, Conflits maritimes et « joint development » en Mer de Chine
- Jérôme Sautier, Délimitation maritime dans le Golfe de guinée : le différend entre le Ghana et la Côte d’Ivoire. La décision de la Chambre spéciale du Tribunal international du droit de la mer sur les mesures conservatoires demandées par la Côte d’Ivoire (25 avril 2015)
- Benoît Le Goaziou, L’affaire de l’Enrica lexie : bientôt un nouvel arrêt Lotus ? ou « Que diable allaient-ils faire dans cette galère ? »
- Yves van Der Mensbrugghe, Protection de l’environnement marin : activités récentes de l’Union européenne
- Annick de Marffy-Mantuano, Les règles internationales comme frein face à l’acidification des océans
- Michel Morin, Les requins et le droit
- Séraphine Nga Essomba, La protection de la personne physique, victime d’actes de piraterie maritime
- Vincent P. Cogliati-Bantz, L’immatriculation des navires par les organisations internationales : une question négligée
- Alexia Pognonec, Quelle réparation pour les dommages causés à la Zone, patrimoine commun de l’humanité ?
- Les variétés et actualités
- Daniel Schaeffer, Mers de Chine du sud : des « bras de fer » de plus en plus durs
- Yves van Der Mensbrugghe, A propos du Canal de Suez rénové
- Michel Vœlckel, Il y a 150 ans : le phare du Cap Spartel
Tuesday, January 3, 2017
- Direito Internacional e Biodiversidade
- Márcia Dieguez Leuzinger & Solanges Teles da Silva, Editorial
- Marcia Dieguez Leuzinger, Solange Solange Teles da Silva, Paul Martin, Improving the effectiveness of legal arrangements to protect biodiversity: Australia and Brazil
- Augusto César Leite de Resende, O reconhecimento da dignidade dos elementos da biodiversidade a partir do diálogo entre o direito internacional e o ordenamento jurídico brasileiro
- Ana Carolina Pereira Matos & Tarin Frota Mont'Alverne, O regime internacional do clima e a proteção aos “refugiados climáticos”: quais desafios da cop 21?
- Diogo Andreola Serraglio & Heline Sivini Ferreira, A análise do mecanismo redd+ com vistas à mitigação dos efeitos das mudanças climáticas e à proteção da diversidade biológica florestal
- Cristiane Derani & Arthur Rodrigues Dalmarco, Ecolabelling, eficiência energética e a disciplina dos PPM’s na OMC: ecolabels de eficiência energética e sua consistência com as provisões do GATT e Acordo TBT
- Alina Celi, Análisis jurídico del ordenamiento jurídico inetrnacional sobre protección de los recursos genéticos: desafios y perspectivas en Uruguay a partir de la implementación del protocolo de Nagoya
- Rodolpho Zahluth Bastos, Otávio do Canto, Karine Galy, & Isabelle Vestris, Le régime international sur l’accès aux ressources génétiques au prisme de l’entrée en vigueur du Protocole de Nagoya
- José Augusto Fontoura Costa & Liziane Paixão Silva Oliveira, Killing the green goose: legal limits to develop and sell biodiversity goods
- Marcos Edmar Ramos Alvares da Silva & André de Paiva Toledo, Vínculo substancial e as bandeiras de conveniência: consequências ambientais decorrentes dos navios com registros abertos
- Alice Rocha da Silva & Matheus Passos Silva, Análise de contratos públicos socioambientais no cenário português de crise econômica
- Paulo Henrique Faria Nunes, A organização do tratado de cooperação amazônica: uma análise crítica das razões por trás da sua criação e evolução
- Lucas Carlos Lima, O uso de experts em controvérsias ambientais perante a Corte Internacional de Justiça
- Natália Zampieri & Mariana Cabral, Os vieses da biodiversidade apresentados pelo caso do parque eólico de Bald Hills
- Claire Lajaunie & Pierre Mazzega, Mining CBD
- Fernanda Viegas Reichardt, Silvia Maria Guerra Molina, & Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo Garavello, Biotecnologia moderna, direito e o pensamento abissal
- Michelle Lucas Cardoso Balbino, Community core values como parâmetro de efetivação dos princípios da precaução e da participação popular em instrumentos de controle de projeto atividade de alta complexidade ambiental
- Gustavo Paschoal Oliveira, OGMs, Argentina e União Europeia: análise da integração entre meio ambiente e direitos humanos através de contencioso perante a Organização Mundial do Comércio.
- Mariana Barreto Pereira, O Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement e seus potenciais impactos para a regulação da biodiversidade no âmbito transnacional
- Rabah Belaidi, As áreas protegidas transfronteiriças: reflexões críticas acerca de um uso geopolítico do direito da biodiversidade
- Outros artigos
- Danielle anne pamplona, O que o caso Texas vs. Estados Unidos nos dirá sobre o direito de imigração nos Estados Unidos
- Paulo Emílio Vauthier Borges de Macedo, Clóvis Beviláqua e a justiça internacional: entre o sim e o não a Rui Barbosa
- Héctor Valverde Santana & Luciano Monti Favaro, Possibilidade de delegação de atribuição para a celebração de tratados pela República Federativa do Brasil: análise do artigo 84, viii c/c parágrafo único da Constituição Federal
- Thompson Chengeta, Dignity, Ubuntu, Humanity and autonomous weapon systems (AWS) debate: An African perspective
- André De Carvalho Ramos, Direito internacional privado e o direito transnacional: entre a unificação e a anarquia
- Gustavo Ferreira Ribeiro, A ilusória ausência do termo dépeçage na jurisprudência brasileira de contratos internacionais
- Lucas Fonseca Melo & José Levi Mello do Amaral Júnior, O efeito direto das diretivas e os direitos fundamentais
- Daniel Amin Ferraz & Leonardo Arêba Pinto, Da aplicabilidade do bulk factoring aos grupos de sociedades
- Inocêncio Mártires Coelho, A questão hermenêutica no direito das gentes
Monday, January 2, 2017
Tietje & Lang: The Reform of Investment Protection Rules in CETA, TTIP and Other Recent EU-FTAs: Convincing?
This paper explores the systemic problems that plague provision-dependent investment protection reforms in CETA, TTIP, and other recent EU-FTAs. The authors suggest that the current international investment system’s asymmetrical structure precludes effective reforms because reforms that “level the playing field” between state and investor run counter to the logic of a system designed with the purpose of protecting investors and investments, not states. The authors suggest that a new symmetrical international investment dispute settlement structure may provide a more convincing answer to calls for reform. After beginning with a background on the necessity of and problems with “vagueness” in law (both generally and in the international investment system), the chapter analyzes the most prominent reforms and reform proposals in the current international investment landscape. The chapter elucidates several of the structural problems that plague these current reform proposals and demonstrates that a symmetrical approach could alleviate these problems.
Sunday, January 1, 2017
International human rights law is a complex multilayered reality that can be analysed in terms of legal pluralism. The paper submits that it is highly relevant for scholars of human rights law to study human rights law as an integrated whole: looking amongst others at issues of consistency and alignment as well as divergence, at gaps in the overall protection system, and at all kinds of cross-cutting or isolated dynamics.
One such inconsistency in international human rights law concerns the attitude towards the recognition of legal pluralism, in the sense of an official legal system making room for a system of ‘traditional law’, a term which I intend to cover indigenous law, customary law as well as religious law. There is one field of international human rights law (the global regime concerning the rights of indigenous peoples, as laid down in ILO Convention 169 (1989) concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries and in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007)) that considers such a recognition as mandatory, and non-recognition as a violation of human rights. And there is another field of international human rights law (ECtHR case law) that considers such a recognition as a violation of human rights. The paper details each of these positions before examining whether their co-existence within international human rights law is sustainable or not.
This essay discusses different possible temporalities, or life cycles, that structure international law-making if international law is taken to be a noetic unity – a complex whole that is created by an exercise of reason and that does not exist outside of that exercise of reason. Put differently, it deals with the following question: if international law is something we create and develop through a shared understanding of what it is, what are the different salient moments in time that give a pace to the evolution of such an understanding? In answer to the question, the essay first explains that understanding law as a noetic unity allows us to make sense of the idea of law-making by law-thinking, and then identifies the following temporalities: the time of paradigm shifts; the time of struggles between competing schools of thought; the time of the formation of distinct epistemic fields; the time of the evolution of interests; and the time of the change of beliefs.
Die aktuelle Flüchtlingskrise stellt eine einzigartige Herausforderung insbesondere für Europa dar. Die Genfer Flüchtlingskonvention geht von einem einzelfallbezogenen Fluchttatbestand aus und kann für solche Situationen hinreichenden Schutz gewähren. Für Massenfluchtbewegungen bietet dieses Instrument hingegen keine geeignete Antwort. Es müssen neue Wege für eine gerechte Lastenverteilung ("burden-sharing") gefunden werden. Gegenwärtig versuchen einzelne Staaten, darunter Österreich, unilateral den Flüchtlingsströmen Grenzen zu setzen. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird gezeigt, dass weder das Völkerrecht noch das EU-Recht dafür eine Grundlage bietet. Die geplante Quotenregelung, für welche mit der Novelle zum AsylG 2005 in § 36 eine Grundlage geschaffen worden ist, ist damit rechtswidrig. Dies bedeutet aber nicht, dass ein grenzenloser Zustrom von Flüchtlingen akzeptiert werden muss. Es sind vielmehr die Bemühungen zu intensivieren, Instrumente zu schaffen, die auf multilateraler Ebene eine geeignete Antwort auf das immer bedeutender werdende Massenfluchtphänomen bieten können.
The refugee crisis represents an extraordinary challenge especially for Europe. The Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees of 1951 refers in substance to individuals seeking protection and does not deal with situations of mass flight. In the face of this new situation a fair burden-sharing has to be found within the European Union and globally. At present, several states, and among them Austria, are trying to stem the refugee tide by unilateral measures. In this context, the Austrian Asylum Law (AsylG 2005) has been amended providing now a basis for emergency measures consisting in the introduction of quotas. Such measures would, however, be unlawful. This does not mean that no barriers could be set against an unprecedented influx of refugees. Measures of such a kind have, however, to be accorded on an international level.
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This article argues that Occupying Powers are bound by Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) incorporated into the domestic legal system of the occupied State before the occupation. Indeed, Article 43 of the Hague Regulations of 1907 requires the Occupying Power to respect the "laws in force" in occupied territories. Part II of this Article shows that the phrase "laws in force" in Article 43 of the Hague Regulations includes pre-occupation BITs between the occupied State and third States. Therefore, the occupant's consent to be bound by those BITs, even if the occupant is not a party to them, is "indirect" or "derivative". This form of consent not only includes the occupant's submission to the substantive guarantees of the applicable BIT, but also to its dispute resolution clauses. This means that foreign investors could assert their rights under pre-occupation BITs against the occupant through international arbitration. Part III explains that the occupant could not rely on its purported immunity from local law to avoid jurisdiction of an investment tribunal. Finally, Part IV discusses the impact of the concurrent application of the law of occupation and BITs in investor-State disputes.
This paper explores the nature of WTO law. Specifically, it examines the question whether and to what extent WTO law protects community interests. It thereby revisits, seen through the lens of the community interest concept, the interrelated scholarly debates about whether the WTO’s legal system resembles a “constitution” or a “contract” and whether WTO obligations are “bilateral” or “collective”. The first part of the paper addresses challenges that are brought forward against the WTO system pursuing community interests, in particular that it only sets forth bilateral obligations, disregards non-trade values and is unfair to developing countries. The second part of the paper examines structural elements of WTO law that are indicative of community interests, namely the nondiscrimination principles, the limits on derogability and the design of enforcement mechanisms. Finally, the paper concludes that WTO law protects the community interest of promoting an essentially rules-based and fair world market. It argues that the core concern of WTO law is to protect trade-conducive structures that enable and further global economic activity for the purpose of generating overall welfare.