Beyond Fragmentation assembles a unique team of expert practitioners and leading scholars to explore and advance the study of cross-fertilization among international courts and tribunals. Using an inter-disciplinary and multi-method approach, contributors analyse how international courts and tribunals interact and why it matters in practice. After a thorough review of prior assessments of cross-fertilization and fragmentation, the editors offer a new take on competition and cooperation across courts and tribunals, exploring both substantive and procedural elements as well as the diverse agents of cross fertilization. Contributors engage with procedural issues, identifying a “procedural cross-fertilization pull” and why and how procedure is converging in international courts and tribunals. Case studies on the convergence in the law of the sea and at the European Court of Human Rights provide contrasting experiences of substantive cross-fertilization. The volume also identifies a variety of agents of cross-fertilization, including judges, litigants, counsel, and international organizations.
Saturday, May 21, 2022
Giorgetti & Pollack: Beyond Fragmentation: Cross-Fertilization, Cooperation and Competition among International Courts and Tribunals
The World Trade Organization is undergoing an existential crisis. Trade links the world not only through the flow of international commerce in goods, services, and ideas; but also through its economic, environmental, and social impacts. Trade links are supported by a WTO trading system founded on rules established in the 20th century which do not account for all the modern changes in the global economy. James Bacchus, a founder of the WTO, posits that this global organization can survive and continue to succeed only if the trade links among WTO members are revitalized and reimagined. He explains how to bring the WTO into the twenty-first century, exploring the ways it can be utilized to combat future pandemics and climate change and advance sustainable development, all while continuing to foster free trade. This book is among the first to comprehensively explain the new trade rules needed for our new world.
Friday, May 20, 2022
- E. Decaux C. Pettiti, In memoriam – Paul Tavernier (1941-2022)
- R. Ergec, La Convention européenne des droits de l’homme à l’épreuve du détournement de pouvoir
- L. François, Retour sur « La forme des droits de l’homme » - Entretien
- D. Szymczak, Chronique de jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme (2021)
- M. De Salvia, Chronique du contentieux interétatique devant la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme
- X. Bioy, La santé publique est-elle soluble dans les droits fondamentaux ?
- A. Ernoux, Éloignement d’un réfugié terroriste : le jeu des plaques tectoniques
- B. Vanmarcke & F. Vansiliette, La participation de l’avocat général à la rédaction de l’avant-projet d’arrêt de la Cour de cassation : Strasbourg locuta, causa finita ?
- A. Djelassi, R. Mertens, & S. Wattie, Principe de neutralité dans les entreprises privées : la Cour de justice étoffe sa jurisprudence relative à l’interdiction des signes religieux
- A. Berrendorf, L. Midrez, & L. Monaco Satire ou apologie du terrorisme, peut-on rire de tout ?
- E. Decaux, La Cour européenne des droits de l’homme et la Convention d’Oviedo : une compétence consultative embarrassante ?
Thursday, May 19, 2022
- Keziah Colsell & Olivera Simić, ‘It’s Not About the Money—Stop the Trauma’: Victims’ Responses to Reparations in Argentina and Australia
- Maia Hallward & Jonathan Taylor Downs, Differences in African Indigenous Rights Messaging in International Advocacy Coalitions
- Bouke de Vries, Should Autists Have Cultural Rights?
- Mahalia Jackman, Man to Man, Gal to Gal…dat Wrong: an Analysis of How Sexual Prejudice Is Reflected in Jamaican Popular Music
- Kristina Kironska, Taiwan’s Road to an Asylum Law: Who, When, How, and Why Not Yet?
- Abdul Halim, Non-Muslims in the Qanun Jinayat and the Choice of Law in Sharia Courts in Aceh
- Lindsey N. Kingston & Aroline E. Seibert Hanson, Marginalized and Misunderstood: How Anti-Rohingya Language Policies Fuel Genocide
Wednesday, May 18, 2022
What was the state of the law and how states managed to fulfil their international legal obligations under the law of nations with respect to intellectual property protection? 13 contributors show how the transition of intellectual property from private rights holders and their non-state patrons evolves into state lawmaking. The book presents these transitions through international legal perspectives and the history of intellectual property rights in late modern societies in Europe, the United States, Asia and Colonial States in Africa.
Rachovitsa & Johann: The Human Rights Implications of the Use of AI in the Digital Welfare State: Lessons Learned from the Dutch SyRI Case
The article discusses the human rights implications of algorithmic decision-making in the social welfare sphere. It does so against the background of the 2020 Hague’s District Court judgment in a case challenging the Dutch government’s use of System Risk Indication—an algorithm designed to identify potential social welfare fraud. Digital welfare state initiatives are likely to fall short of meeting basic requirements of legality and protecting against arbitrariness. Moreover, the intentional opacity surrounding the implementation of algorithms in the public sector not only hampers the effective exercise of human rights but also undermines proper judicial oversight. The analysis unpacks the relevance and complementarity of three legal/regulatory frameworks governing algorithmic systems: data protection, human rights law and algorithmic accountability. Notwithstanding these frameworks’ invaluable contribution, the discussion casts doubt on whether they are well-suited to address the legal challenges pertaining to the discriminatory effects of the use of algorithmic systems.
On 16 March 2022, among others measures, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ordered the Russian Federation to suspend immediately its military operations in Ukraine. The Order is remarkable for several reasons and, so it is submitted, potentially will entail considerable consequences in international adjudication, before and beyond the ICJ, as well as with respect to international law at large. In international procedural law, it emphasizes the vastness of what parties to international proceedings can ask for and what an international court or tribunal can order in respect of provisional measures. However, possibly the strongest potential of the Order does not lie in what it enables, but what it disables: it may deter states that are not a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council from employing insincere human rights arguments as a pretext for a military intervention in a neighbouring state.
A key issue in partnered operations is the extent to which partners have obligations under international law as regards each other’s conduct. For partnered operations in situations of armed conflict, this issue has generated a rich and vivid debate on the existence of a duty to ensure respect for international humanitarian law (IHL) by one’s partners, and in particular, whether this duty would require taking positive action. Rather than weighing in on the general question of whether all States bear such duties, this article sheds light on one aspect that this debate has tended to overlook. The article specifically looks at the situation in which multiple parties are engaged in the same armed conflict alongside one another against a common adversary—here labelled ‘co-parties’. It investigates which positive obligations these parties have as regards each other’s conduct. The central argument is that co-parties in an armed conflict have multiple complementary sets of duties to take positive steps vis-à-vis the conduct of their fellow co-parties. The resulting network of duties reflects the central role of the parties to the conflict to ensure that armed conflicts are carried out in accordance with the protective purposes of IHL. Built into the established structure of the legal framework regulating armed conflict, the account of the duties of co-parties presents a more refined conception to the allocation of obligations under IHL in cooperation settings, which, if implemented, may contribute to addressing the protection challenges raised by partnered operations.
Tuesday, May 17, 2022
- Neil Craik & Kristine Gu, Strategic Environmental Assessment in Marine Areas beyond National Jurisdiction: Implementing Integration
- Klaas Willaert, Fair Share: Equitable Distribution of Deep Sea Mining Proceeds
- Suk Kyoon Kim, An International Law Perspective on the China Coast Guard Law and Its Implications for Maritime Security in East Asia
- Michael Sheng-ti Gau, The Most Controversial Submission before the CLCS: With Reference to the 2019 Malaysia Submission
- Arie Afriansyah, Aristyo Rizka Darmawan, & Andreas Pramudianto, Enforcing Law in Undelimited Maritime Areas: Indonesian Border Experience
- Michael Tsimplis, Governance for Sustainable Development: The Value of Environmental Regulations and the Effect of Maritime Norms
Monday, May 16, 2022
- Anishka Cameron, Regina Esiovwa, John Connolly, Andrew Hursthouse, & Fiona Henriquez, Antimicrobial Resistance as a Global Health Threat: The Need to Learn Lessons from the COVID-19 Pandemic
- Josephine Borghi & Garrett W. Brown, Taking Systems Thinking to the Global Level: Using the WHO Building Blocks to Describe and Appraise the Global Health System in Relation to COVID-19
- Mark Beeson & Jolanta Hewitt, Does Multilateralism still Matter? ASEAN and the Arctic Council in Comparative Perspective
- Michelle Scobie, Sustainable Development Goals and Sustainability Governance: Norms, Implementation Pathways and Caribbean Small Island Developing States
- Eugénia C. Heldt, Patrick A. Mello, Anna Novoselova, & Omar Ramon Serrano Oswald, Persistence Against the Odds: How Entrepreneurial Agents Helped the UN Joint Inspection Unit to Prevail
- Eglė Butkevičienė & Florian Rabitz, Sharing the Benefits of Asteroid Mining
- Ali Balci, Controlling International Institutions: How the US Engineered UNSC Non-permanent Members in the Early Cold War
- Alexander Gilder, The Role of UN Peace Operations in Countering Health Insecurity after COVID-19
- Qerim Qerimi, The Ambitious Modesty of the High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development
- David Bach & Henning Meyer, Tripod Missions: Five Principles for Solving Society’s Most Pressing Challenges
- Jyoti Sharma, Danev Ricardo Pérez Valerino, Claudia Natalie Widmaier, Roberta Lima, Nidhi Gupta, & Sanjeev Kumar Varshney, Science Diplomacy and COVID-19: Future Perspectives for South–South Cooperation
- Yuke Li & Ke Meng, Understanding China’s COVID Zero Strategy: The Opening-Up Trilemma
- Frances Goodrum, Samuel Theuri, Eva Mutua, & Gemma Carder, The Donkey Skin Trade: Challenges and Opportunities for Policy Change
- Tony McGrew, Fixing the Global Food System
Pascale & Tonolo: The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties: The Role of the Treaty on Treaties in Contemporary International Law
A multitude of scholarly writings in many languages concern the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT). Nevertheless, uncertainties and difficulties can be still identified when trying to understand whether and to what extent the VCLT is still central in international law and if it fits into the current international legal scenario. Such uncertainties and difficulties have resulted in the writing of this book. Hence, the chapters here collected aim at untangling the yarns of some open issues and at filling some gaps in order to ultimately establish whether at present the VCLT continues to have a role in international law. The main perspective is that of public international law. However, some room is reserved to problems stemming from the relationship between the VCLT and EU Law. The VCLT is also observed through the lens of private international law.
von Bernstorff & Mayer: The Historical School and German 19th Century Contributions to International Legal Thought
In the second half of the 19th century, European international law became what Western international lawyers up until the 1930s conceived of as international law. The transformative process during that time led to the establishment of a number of important concepts: the modern notion of the sovereign state as the foundational unit of an international legal order based on common consent; a dualist notion of customary law as an empirical emanation (state practice) of a common legal “consciousness”; post-natural law concepts of a ius ad bellum, sovereign equality, the balance of power, a (constitutive) recognition-doctrine; and the closely connected Eurocentric legal dichotomy of a “civilized” core of Western states and a non-Western periphery. The rise of these concepts was shaped by major political, ideological, jurisprudential and philosophical currents during the long 19th century.The contribution will disentangle some of the most important 19th century doctrinal developments and the associated German jurisprudential theories. In a first step we will describe the reception of the Historical School in international legal scholarship and its doctrinal implications for a modern theory of customary law. As a second step we will reconstruct the contribution of German theories of the sovereign will of the state as the formal basis of international law [Staatswillenspositivismus] leading to new theories of “common consent” and recognition. These two broader developments shaped the last decades of the 19th century and would have long lasting implications for modern international law. Despite the reformist rhetoric of our main scholarly protagonists, both the new historicist foundation of international law in custom and the late 19th century turn to multilateral treaties and common consent were regarded by late 19th century contemporaries as complementing each other. German Staatswillenspositivismus à la Jellinek or Oppenheim developed its theories on “common civilised consent” inside the new historicist foundation of European international provided by the reception of the Historical School in the mid-19th century.
Sunday, May 15, 2022
- Sidy Alpha Ndiaye, Libres propos sur la notion de droits de l’homme en Afrique
- Stefanos Gakis, Théorie et pratique de la responsabilité de protéger : bilan de 20 ans
Depuis 2016-2017, la dénonciation des traités s’est imposée comme un sujet crucial. Si cette question est devenue centrale, c’est en raison de la dénonciation « politique » des Droits international et européens, dont les débouchés « juridiques » les plus évidents ont été le Brexit ainsi qu’une avalanche d’actes de rejet divers de la part de l’administration Trump. Depuis cette période, les manifestations de méfiance à l’endroit des instruments et institutions internationaux et européens se sont multipliées et diversifiées. Cet ouvrage, issu des actes de la 5ème Journée de Droit international de l’ENS en témoigne, mais suggère également l’existence d’un clivage politique entre deux types de rejet du Droit international : certains apparaissent comme une manière, pour des gouvernements à tendance autoritaire ou pour des juridictions nationales « conservatrices », de se soustraire à des institutions internationales elles-mêmes jugées autoritaires, dogmatiques ou biaisées, ou à des règles conventionnelles et surtout dérivées jugées trop intrusives ou trop libérales ; d’autres au contraire consistent ou résultent de critiques populaires, associatives et syndicales de traités excessivement façonnés par des lobbies, contournant l’autorité des parlements et accroissant les inégalités ou la pollution au lieu de faire face sérieusement aux défis écologiques, sociaux et sanitaires actuels.
Dans les deux cas, ces « dénonciations », prises ici au sens large, témoignent d’une fragilisation du lien de confiance unissant les États, en particulier les États occidentaux, et le Droit international. Néanmoins, elles font signe à la fois vers le fond du problème, celui d’un déficit démocratique grandissant des Droits international et européens à l’origine de leur contestation et de difficultés d’exécution, et vers sa solution la plus durablement efficace : une démocratisation globale de ces Droits et avant tout des procédures nationales d’engagement et de désengagement conventionnels.
Bismuth, Rusinova, Starzhenetskiy, & Ulfstein: Sovereign Immunity Under Pressure: Norms, Values and Interests
This book offers a critical analysis of current challenges and developments of the State immunity regime through three dimensions: it looks at State immunity from a comparative perspective; it discusses the major trends relating to the interplay between State immunity and the protection of human rights as well as counter-terrorism; and it examines the relationship between State immunity and the financial obligations of States.