This chapter surveys the existing empirical literature on international arbitration. It seeks to be thorough but does not claim to be comprehensive. The chapter focuses on quantitative rather than qualitative empirical studies, and covers studies both of international commercial arbitration and international investment arbitration. Part I describes empirical research on the use of arbitration to resolve transnational disputes — in particular, the extent to which parties use arbitration clauses in international contracts, why they do so, and the frequency of international commercial and investment arbitration proceedings. Part II examines arbitral procedures, and Part III considers the applicable law in international commercial arbitration. Part IV looks at the demographics of international arbitrators, with emphasis on their diversity (or lack thereof), and arbitrator decisionmaking, in particular potential biases of party-appointed arbitrators, whether arbitrators make compromise awards, and the psychological aspects of arbitrator decisionmaking. Part V looks at the controversy over studies of outcomes in investment arbitrations. Finally, Part VI examines empirical studies of compliance with and enforcement of international arbitration awards, while Part VII considers their precedential effect, if any.
Saturday, December 24, 2016
L'égalité des armes est devenue, à travers la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme, la pierre angulaire du droit à un procès équitable, c'est-à-dire un principe essentiel pour la manifestation de la vérité et l'équilibre de la justice. Conscients de l'importance fondamentale de ce principe directeur du procès, les juges internationaux ont cherché à l'importer dans leur contentieux afin d'assurer sa légitimité. Mais c'était compter sans l'autre objectif assigné à la justice pénale internationale : la lutte contre l'impunité. La pression exercée par l'efficacité de la répression a donc conduit les juges à « cantonner » l'égalité des armes tant dans son acception substantielle que dans sa mise en oeuvre, révélant à travers ce mouvement toute l'ambiguïté dans la reconnaissance de ce principe. De surcroît, les juridictions pénales internationales reposent sur des déséquilibres structurels et procéduraux. En effet, la Défense - véritable « pilier oublié » - manque de moyens juridiques et matériels pour accomplir ses missions, tandis que le Bureau du Procureur apparaît comme l'organe « tout-puissant » d'un système conditionné par la répression. C'est dire que l'équilibre entre les « armes » des parties au procès reste encore à construire. Dès lors, pour redonner toute sa place à ce principe cardinal, des propositions de réformes inspirées de la culture romano-germanique sont effectuées (création d'une Chambre de l'enquête devant la CPI et instauration d'un juge d'instruction devant les futures juridictions internationalisées). C'est en (re)trouvant le juste équilibre, celui qui conduit à des décisions légitimes, que la justice pénale internationale sera rendue avec qualité.
- Theresa Reinold & Monika Heupel, Introduction: The Rule of Law in an Era of Multi-level Governance and Global Legal Pluralism
- Charlotte Ku & Paul F. Diehl, The Primary Effects of Secondary Rules: Institutions and Multi-level Governance
- Helmut Philipp Aust, The Rules of Interpretation as Secondary Rules: The Perspective of Domestic Courts
- Theresa Reinold, The United Nations Security Council and the Politics of Secondary Rule-Making
- Gisela Hirschmann, Accountability Dynamics and the Emergence of an International Rule of Law for Detentions in Multilateral Peace Operations
- Monika Heupel, Human Rights Protection in International Organizations in the Era of Multi-level Governance and Legal Pluralism
- Magdalena Bexell, Multi-level Governance and the Rule of International Human Rights Law: The Case of the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights
- Anna Leander, Whitelisting and the Rule of Law: Legal Technologies and Governance in Contemporary Commercial Security
Friday, December 23, 2016
- Private International Law
- The Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference on Private International Law, Hague Conference on Private International Law – Work in 2014
- Jae-Chun Won, Janet E. Lord, Michael Ashley Stein & Yosung Song, Disability, Repressive Regimes, and Health Disparity: Assessing Country Conditions in North Korea
- Public International Law
- Khagani Guliyev, Quelques réflexions sur un possible règlement du diffférend maritime frontalier entre l’Azerbaïdjan et le Turkménistan en mer Caspienne
- Panos Merkouris, Interpreting Requests for ICJ Advisory Opinions: Saying What You Mean or Meaning What You Say?
- Fabián Raimondo, Does the Population of the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Really Have the Right to Self-Determination?
- Alexander A.D. Brown, To Complicity… and Beyond! Passive Assistance and Positive Obligations in International Law
- Mutaz M. Qafĳisheh, Nationalizing International Criminal Law in Palestine: The Challenge of Complementarity
Acconci, Donat Cattin, Marchesi, Palmisano, & Santori: International Law and the Protection of Humanity: Essays in Honor of Flavia Lattanzi
- Pia Acconci, The Protection of Social Rights within the Activity of the Security Council
- Maurizio Arcari, UN Security Council Resolutions before the European Court of Human Rights: Exploring Alternative Approaches for the Solution of Normative Conflicts
- Fabio Bassan, Legal Options and Models in the Design of a Sovereign Wealth Fund and Their Implications for Human Rights Protection
- Pasquale De Sena, The Judgment of the Italian Constitutional Court on State Immunity in Cases of Serious Violations of Human Rights or Humanitarian Law: A Tentative Analysis under International Law
- Maria Luisa Padelletti, Significant Disadvantage and Admissibility of Applications to the European Court of Human Rights: Effects on Domestic Legal Orders
- Giuseppe Palmisano, Protecting the Rights of Persons with Autism: The Role of the European Committee of Social Rights
- Roberto Giuffrida, Subsidiary Protection in International and European Law
- Agostina Latino, The Principle of Non-Refoulement between International Law and European Union Law
- Antonio Marchesi, Close and Enduring Connections. Expulsion Procedures and the Ties between Non Citizens and Host States in the Practice of the Human Rights Committee
- Nicoletta Parisi, Immigration, citoyenneté européenneet citoyenneté de residence dans l’Union européenne
- Emanuela Pistoia, Procedural Rights of Illegal Migrants Facing Expulsion in Contemporary Times: Exploring Synergies Between the ILC Draft Articles and the EU Returns Directive
- Tullio Scovazzi, Some Cases in the Italian Practice relating to Illegal Migration at Sea
- Michael Bothe, The ILC Special Rapporteur’s Interim Report on the Protection of the Environment in Relation to Armed Conflicts.An Important Step in the Right Direction
- Maria Cleria Ciciriello, Fiammetta Borgia, Deconstructing the Responsibility to Protect Doctrine: Much Ado about Nothing
- Monica Lugato, Conceptualizing the Responsibility to Protect: A Short Contribution
- Mario Odoni, The Protection of the Environment Against Harmful Effects of Peacetime Military Training Activities: The Role of International Law
- Stelios Perrakis - La réparation de victimes des violations du droit humanitaire et le droit individuel d’accès a la justice. Etat de lieu et perspectives d’avenir
- M. Cherif Bassiouni, Two Hypothetical Prospective Extradition Cause Célèbre: The Snowden and Knox Cases
- Soraya Brikci, Cyril Laucci, Protecting/Promoting the Rights of Victims in International Law: Some Achievements and Ways Forward
- Eric David, Les travaux de la Conférence de Londres (26 juin-8 août 1945) sur le Statut du TMI de Nuremberg, une lecture parfois surprenante
- Gabriele Della Morte, La preuve à l’épreuve: trois cas-limites pour le juge international (penal)
- David Donat Cattin, Intervention of Humanity or the Use of Force to Protect Civilians, the Peremptory Prohibition of Aggression and the interplay between Jus ad Bellum, Jus in Bello and Individual Criminal Responsibility on the Crime of Aggression
- Alessandra Gianelli, The Place of Rehabilitation of the Offender among the Purposes of Penalties According to International Law
- Frederik Harhoff, One Size Fits All? A Looming Look at Human Rights in International Criminal Legal Proceedings
- Daniel D.N. Nsereko, The Special Tribunal for Lebanon and the Global Response to Terrorism
- Alain Pellet, Nouveau regard sur les sources du droit applicable par la CPI
- Fausto Pocar, Reflections on International Criminal Justice Twenty Years Later
- William Schabas, General Principles, nullum crimen and Accountability for International Crimes
- Riccardo Pisillo Mazzeschi, The Functional Immunity of State Officials from Foreign Jurisdiction: A Critique of the Traditional Theories
- Fabian Raimondo, The Right of Peoples to Self-Determination Revisited: Did Crimea Have the Right to Secede from the Ukraine?
- Dino Rinoldi, Human Health and Product Liability in the Agro-Food Chain
This essay seeks to provide a counterbalance to the frequent push for greater uniformity in international arbitration law. The New York Convention and the UNCITRAL Model Law both have made international arbitration law more uniform, and that increased uniformity no doubt has benefited parties and the system of international arbitration as a whole. But in deciding whether to make further reforms to international arbitration law, policy makers must do more than simply accept that uniformity has benefits. Rather, they must evaluate whether, given the degree of uniformity already achieved, what the marginal benefits of additional uniformity are. And while uniformity benefits parties by reducing the costs of transacting, it also has costs: the loss of individualized fit of laws and reduced legal innovation. The overall question for policy makers, then, is what is the optimal uniformity (or optimal diversity) of international arbitration law? That is a question this essay cannot even begin to answer.
- Alana Tiemessen, The International Criminal Court and the lawfare of judicial intervention
- Katarzyna Kaczmarska, ‘But in Asia we too are Europeans’: Russia’s multifaceted engagement with the standard of civilisation
- Jolanda van der Noll & Henk Dekker, A comparative analysis of Chinese urban citizens’ attitudes towards the EU, the United States, Russia and Japan
- Donald Holbrook, Al-Qaeda’s grievances in context: reconciling sharia and society
- Thierry Balzacq, Sarah Léonard, & Jan Ruzicka, ‘Securitization’ revisited: theory and cases
- Editorial Comment
- The impact of the Kampala definition of aggression on the law on the use of force Tom Ruys
- Op-Eds on the Joint Committee Drones Report
- Christian Henderson, Introducing perspectives on the Joint Committee’s drones report
- Christine Gray, Targeted killing outside armed conflict: a new departure for the UK?
- Mary Ellen O’Connell, The law on lethal force begins with the right to life
- Nigel D White, The Joint Committee, drone strikes and self-defence: Caught in no man's land?
- Karine Bannelier-Christakis, The Joint Committee’s drones report: Far-reaching conclusions on self-defence based on a dubious reading of resolution 2249
- Susan Breau, Reflections on the treatment of the decision-making process in section 4 of the Joint Committee's drone strikes report
- Sean Richmond, Why is humanitarian intervention so divisive? Revisiting the debate over the 1999 Kosovo intervention
- Sina Etezazian, The nature of the self-defence proportionality requirement
Thursday, December 22, 2016
European and domestic migration law indirectly discriminates against third-country national migrant women. Can human and fundamental rights law remedy this gender bias? This book seeks to unveil the existence of a gender bias in European norms – at both EU and domestic level – regulating migrant women’s family life and employment. Most importantly, the book aims to analyse the potential of European human and fundamental rights law to expose and correct this bias. Touching upon the two macro-areas of family life and employment, it argues that migrant women’s most common life circumstances must come to the fore in order to fulfil both of these aims. The book reviews and critically assesses relevant examples of human and fundamental rights jurisprudence at supranational and domestic level. It identifies effective judicial interpretations to ensure migrant women’s enjoyment of their rights and entitlements in conditions of equality and non-discrimination.
- Madhav Joshi, Erik Melander, & Jason Michael Quinn, Sequencing the Peace: How the Order of Peace Agreement Implementation Can Reduce the Destabilizing Effects of Post-accord Elections
- Fieke Harinck & Daniel Druckman, Do Negotiation Interventions Matter? Resolving Conflicting Interests and Values
- Stephen Chaudoin, Zachary Peskowitz, & Christopher Stanton, Beyond Zeroes and Ones: The Intensity and Dynamics of Civil Conflict
- Daphna Canetti, Julia Elad-Strenger, Iris Lavi, Dana Guy, & Daniel Bar-Tal, Exposure to Violence, Ethos of Conflict, and Support for Compromise: Surveys in Israel, East Jerusalem, West Bank, and Gaza
- Nimrod Rosler, Smadar Cohen-Chen, & Eran Halperin, The Distinctive Effects of Empathy and Hope in Intractable Conflicts
- Kishore Gawande, Devesh Kapur, & Shanker Satyanath, Renewable Natural Resource Shocks and Conflict Intensity: Findings from India’s Ongoing Maoist Insurgency
- Antonis Adam & Petros G. Sekeris, Self-Containment: Achieving Peace in Anarchic Settings
- Andrew T. Little, Coordination, Learning, and Coups
- Glenda Sluga & Patricia Clavin, Introduction. Rethinking the history of internationalism
- Abigail Green, Religious internationalisms
- Patrizia Dogliani, The fate of socialist internationalism
- Glenda Sluga, Women, feminisms and twentieth-century internationalisms
- Patricia Clavin, Men and markets: global capital and the international economy
- Susan Pedersen, Empires, states and the League of Nations
- Andrew Webster, The League of Nations, disarmament and internationalism
- Liang Pan, National internationalism in Japan and China
- Madeleine Herren, Fascist internationalism
- Talbot Imlay, Socialist internationalism after 1914
- Sunil S. Amrith, Internationalising health in the twentieth century
- Natasha Wheatley, New subjects in international law and order
- Roland Burke, The internationalism of human rights
- Hanne Hagtvedt Vik, Indigenous internationalism
- Sandrine Kott, Cold War internationalism
- EU Law and Public International Law: Co-implication, Embeddedness and Interdependency
- Violeta Moreno-Lax & Paul Gragl, Beyond Monism, Dualism, Pluralism: The Quest for a (Fully-Fledged) Theoretical Framework: Co-Implication, Embeddedness, and Interdependency between Public International Law and EU Law
- Niels Blokker, International Legal Personality of the European Communities and the European Union: Inspirations from Public International Law
- Gunnar Beck, The Court of Justice of the EU and the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
- Theodore Konstadinides, Customary International Law as a Source of EU Law: A Two-Way Fertilization Route?
- Ramses A. Wessel, Flipping the Question: The Reception of EU Law in the International Legal Order
- Elena Basheska & Dimitry Kochenov, ‘Good Fences Make Good Neighbors’ and Beyond … Two Faces of the Good Neighbourliness Principle
- Eileen Denza, Forging Links between Legal Orders
- Christian Tomuschat, The Relationship between EU Law and International Law in the Field of Human Rights
- Rafael Leal-Arcas & Stephen Minas, Mapping the International and European Governance of Renewable Energy
- Katja S. Ziegler, Beyond Pluralism and Autonomy: Systemic Harmonization as a Paradigm for the Interaction of EU Law and International Law
- Charles H. Brower II, Trans-Pacific Partnership: Continuity and Breakthroughs in U.S. Investment Treaty Practice
- Grant Hanessian & E. Alexandra Dosman, Songs of Innocence and Experience: Ten Years of Emergency Arbitration
- Csongor István Nagy, The Lesson of a Short-Lived Mutiny: The Rise and Fall of Hungary’s Controversial Arbitration Regime in Cases Involving National Assets
Call for Papers: 50 Years after 1967: Evaluating the Past, Present and Future of the Law of Belligerent Occupation
Conference Call for Papers
"50 Years after 1967: Evaluating the Past, Present and Future of the Law of Belligerent Occupation"
The 12th Annual Minerva-ICRC International Conference on International Humanitarian Law
22-23 May 2017, Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv
The Minerva Center for Human Rights at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Tel Aviv University, the Delegation of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Israel and the Occupied Territories and the Emile Zola Chair for Human Rights at the College of Management Academic Studies are organizing an international conference that seeks to evaluate - 50 years after 1967 - the past, present and future of the law of belligerent occupation, using the Israel-Palestine context, as well as other relevant situations of occupation and domination, as case studies.
The conference, the twelfth in the series of Minerva/ICRC annual international conferences on IHL, is scheduled for 22-23 May 2017 in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. The President of the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals, Prof. Theodor Meron, will deliver the keynote address of the Conference.
Recipients of this call for papers are invited to submit proposals to present a paper at the conference. Authors of selected proposals will be offered full or partial flight and accommodation expenses.
Submission deadline: 15 January 2017
BACKGROUND: The 1967 Middle East conflict, the assumption of control by Israel over territories formerly controlled by Egypt, Jordan and Syria, and the application of the laws of belligerent occupation by the Israeli authorities to most of these territories for most of the following fifty years, render the situation in those territories subject to what is probably the longest-running situation of belligerent occupation in modern history. The longevity of the situation poses in itself a significant challenge for the application of the laws of belligerent occupation, which were drafted envisioning relatively short-term situations of occupation pending a peace agreement. To this temporal challenge, one may add the significant legal, political and military developments that have occurred in the region throughout the last 50 years, which further complicate the legal situation in the territories seized by Israel in 1967, as well as the legacies of the particular measures taken by the Israeli authorities in the said territories over this 50-year period.
While the 1967 conflict produced what is perhaps the most frequently cited example of a post-World War Two belligerent occupation - it is also a fundamentally atypical example of a belligerent occupation, as the conduct and positions of the parties to the conflict appear to have run contrary to some of the basic assumptions underlying the laws of belligerent occupation: no transfer of sovereignty, temporariness, maintenance of the status quo ex ante and reliance by the occupied in law enforcement powers. However, given the atypical features of other situations of foreign military control or involvement in places as diverse as Iraq, Afghanistan, Western Sahara, East Timor, East Congo, Nagorno-Karabakh, Northern Cyprus and Crimea, it is arguable that the "classic" occupation is now the exception and not the rule.
The factual complexities posed by the aforementioned situations of actual or potential belligerent occupation or domination are further exacerbated by normative developments outside the field of the laws of belligerent occupation, which introduce new elements of legal uncertainty into the normative debate. These developments include the extension of international human rights law to occupied territories, the emergence of the right to self-determination in the era of decolonization (and the possible interplay between this right with both jus ad bellum and jus in bello), the development of laws governing non-international armed conflicts, and the re-invigoration of international criminal law. Arguably, such developments put the traditional equilibrium between the rights and obligations of occupying and occupied entities under considerable legal pressure, questioning the adequacy and legitimacy of the law of belligerent occupation, and inviting reconsideration of its core principles.
TOPICS: Against this backdrop, the conference academic committee invites recipients to submit proposals to present a paper dealing with one or more of the following issues:
The committee also welcomes additional proposals on other relevant and contemporary issues relating to the topic of the conference.
- The tension between stability and change in the law and practice of belligerent occupation;
- New forms of occupation and domination and their regulation under international law;
- The effects of occupation on internationally protected human rights and the cultural, social and national identities of the communities involved, and on their natural resources;
- The law governing conduct of hostilities in occupied territories;
- The debate over the very legality of occupation - revisiting the jus ad bellum v jus in bello dichotomy;
- Critical Reflections on the legitimacy and effectiveness of the law in belligerent occupation: is it legitimizing the exercise of power? What lessons can be drawn from its mis/dis-application?
- The role of national and international institutions in advancing or inhibiting the implementation and reform of the laws of belligerent occupation.
PAPER SUBMISSION PROCEDURE: Researchers interested in addressing these and other issues are invited to respond to this call for papers with a 1-2 page proposal for an article and presentation, along with a brief CV. Proposals should be submitted by email to the Minerva Center for Human Rights at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (email@example.com) no later than 15 January 2017.
Applicants should expect notification of the committee's decision by 15 February 2017. Written contributions (of approx. 10-25 pages) based on the selected proposals will be expected by 1 May 2017 at the latest. The Israel Law Review (a Cambridge University Press publication) has expressed interest in publishing selected full length papers based on conference presentations, subject to its standard review and editing procedures.
CONFERENCE ACADEMIC COMMITTEE:
Orna Ben-Naftali, College of Management Academic Studies
Tomer Broude, Minerva Center for Human Rights, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Danny Evron, Minerva Center for Human Rights, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Aeyal Gross, Tel Aviv University
Karen Loehner, ICRC, Israel and the Occupied Territories
Eliav Lieblich, Tel Aviv University
Doreen Lustig, Tel Aviv University
Alon Margalit, ICRC, Israel and the Occupied Territories
Yael Ronen, Israel Law Review, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Charles Shamas, The Mattin Group
Yuval Shany, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Chair)
Wednesday, December 21, 2016
The Bush Administration took a maximalist approach to the jus ad bellum and jus in bello, staking out broad claims about what international law permitted in resorting to force and detaining and interrogating Al Qaeda members. In contrast, the Obama administration established more minimalist policies that authorized a narrower scope of action than what international law permits and often avoided bold rhetorical claims about what international law allows. The Obama approach improved relations with allies and deferred difficult inter-agency debates. But it also incurred costs by slowing the development of international law and making it more difficult for other states to interpret the precedential value of U.S. actions. As a result, this paper argues that the administration’s international war powers legacy will be a modest one.
- Special Issue: Facilitating Child Participation in International Child Protection
- Mónica Ruiz-Casares, Tara M. Collins, E. Kay M. Tisdall & Sonja Grover, Children’s rights to participation and protection in international development and humanitarian interventions: nurturing a dialogue
- Tara M. Collins, A child’s right to participate: Implications for international child protection
- Laura Helen Virginia Wright, Creating space for children and young people’s engagement in international conferences
- E. Kay M. Tisdall, Conceptualising children and young people’s participation: examining vulnerability, social accountability and co-production
- Virginia Caputo, Children’s participation and protection in a globalised world: reimagining ‘too young to wed’ through a cultural politics of childhood
- Lucy Jamieson, Children and young people’s right to participate in residential care in South Africa
Gemäß Artikel 3 Absatz 5 des Vertrages über die Europäische Union leistet die Europäische Union einen Beitrag zur »strikten Einhaltung und Weiterentwicklung des Völkerrechts«. Als Völkerrechtssubjekt ist sie auch an die Normen des universellen Völkergewohnheitsrechts gebunden. Carolin Damm untersucht, inwieweit diese Normen die Rechtsbeziehungen der Europäischen Union nach außen und innen gestalten. Dabei zeigt sie, in welchem Ausmaß sie in ihren Außenbeziehungen an die Normen des universellen Völkergewohnheitsrechts gebunden ist und wie sie selbst an ihrer Entwicklung und Durchsetzung beteiligt ist. Wie gelangen diese Normen in den inneren Rechtsbeziehungen der Union zur Geltung und werden dann zur Anwendung gebracht? Zusammenfassend werden Strukturprinzipien des Zusammenspiels der Rechtsordnungen abgeleitet und in den Konstitutionalisierungsprozess der Völkerrechtsordnung eingeordnet.
For the 2017 issue we are inviting submissions specifically focusing on recent awards and on-going disputes such as Yukos, Philip Morris, Eureko and Vattenfall.
We also welcome submissions focusing on the Opinions and Judgments of the CJEU, such as on the EU-Singapore FTA, Micula, which are expected to be delivered in early 2017.
The deadline for submissions is: 1 April 2017.
Submissions should be in English and must be in conformity with the house style of the journal. All submissions must be unpublished and original material.
Submissions should be send as MS-WORD doc to: EILARev2016@gmail.com
All submissions will be peer-reviewed. The Editorial Board reserves the right to accept, reject a submission or make publication conditional on modifications, which have been suggested to the author.
“INTERNATIONAL LAW IN A DARK TIME”
Seminar for Doctoral Students and Junior Researchers
“INTERNATIONAL LAW IN A DARK TIME”
Seminar directors: Prof. Anne Orford (University of Melbourne) and Prof. Martti Koskenniemi (University of Helsinki)
Helsinki 22-23 May 2017
The Erik Castrén Institute of International Law and Human Rights and Peking University Institute of International Law Collaboration Project (ECI-PUIIL Project) funded by CIMO is pleased to offer a seminar for PhD students and junior researchers to be held at Faculty of Law, University of Helsinki. The purpose of this workshop is to examine the transformations of law at a specific moment in history in which law and lawfulness appear as much part of the problem as the solution.
The seminar is open to PhD students and young researchers, internationally, with a specific interest in the theme “International Law in a Dark Time”.
Theme of the Seminar
The call for papers is on four themes:
1) Human Rights in a Dark Time
2) Environmental Law in a Dark Time
3) The Laws of Security in a Dark Time
4) The Laws of the International Economy in a Dark Time.
The background for this workshop – and the call for papers – is formed by the experience that in the past 25 years optimism about international progress after the end of the Cold War has diminished and law’s role in global governance has come to appear increasingly ambivalent: it has often proven either useless or actually harmful. From an easy acceptance of the ideology of the “rule of law” in the early 1990s, we have come to realise that law comes in many forms and supports very different and often contradictory policies. On the one hand, there has been a massive growth of law in various specialist fields ranging from human rights to the environment, war and security to the economy. At the same time, in many of these fields a sense of a “crisis” has emerged or persists. Sometimes the crisis has been attributed to external phenomena – and law has come to seem inefficient in dealing with them. At other times crisis may seem have been created or exacerbated by the law itself. Despite the “growth” of law in the field of human rights and the environment, huge numbers of people experience daily deprivation and no end can be seen to the degradation of the quality of the environment. Laws enacted to protect the security of human groups are used to discipline and oppress, and economic laws seem powerful to forestall the massive growth of global inequality. In a word, the benefits of the traditional recipe to international problems of “more law” may no longer seem sustainable. The purpose of the workshop would be to examine law’s increasingly complex role and its often problematic consequences for international politics.
Format of the seminar
Each participant will deliver a paper and present it during the seminar. The papers shall be submitted before 30 April, and will be made available to all other participants. The seminar will be two days in total, and will not have parallel sessions.
Submission of Abstracts and Evaluation Process
An abstract (no more than 500 words) shall be submitted before 30 December. Please include full name, junior researcher/doctoral student/independent researcher, institutions/university, in the abstract. Accepted abstracts will be informed by 18 January.
All abstracts shall be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org with the title “International Law in a Dark Time + Name”.
30 Dec 2016: deadline for submission of abstracts by email.
18 Jan 2017: abstract evaluation and selection of papers
30 April: submission of full papers
There is no participation fee. The participants are expected to cover their own travel and other expenses.
A limited number of scholarships are available for Chinese participants under the ECI-PUIIL Project. Applicants should be a doctoral candidate or a junior faculty member working at a Chinese university. A formal application (including a CV, an abstract, and a short statement) should be sent to email@example.com and concurrently to firstname.lastname@example.org before 30 December. Decisions regarding the funding will be announced by 18 January.
Information about transportation and accommodation will be sent to accepted participants in January 2017.
- Iñaki Navarrete, L’espionnage en temps de paix en droit international public
- Catherine Blanchard, Evolution or Revolution? Evaluating the Territorial State-Based Regime of International Law in the Context of the Physical Disappearance of Territory Due to Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise
- Priscila Pereira de Andrade, La contribution limitée de la Convention des Nations Unies sur les contrats de vente internationale des marchandises pour l’application des “clauses de durabilité” des biocarburants
- Craig Brannagan & Christopher Waters, ICRC Privilege in Canada
- Mathieu Vaugeois, Quelle représentation pour l’Union européenne à l’Organisation de l’aviation civile internationale?
- I.M. Lobo de Souza, Revisiting the Right of Self-Defence against Non-State Armed Entities
- Notes and Comments
- Michael Carfagnini, Too Low a Threshold: Bilcon v Canada and the International Minimum Standard of Treatment
- François Larocque & Christiane Bossé, Kazemi ou l’inhumaine immunité de l’État tortionnaire en droit canadien
Helfer & Showalter: Opposing International Justice: Kenya's Integrated Backlash Strategy Against the ICC
The government of Kenya has employed a wide range of strategies to undermine the recently-dismissed prosecutions of President Uhuru Kenyatta and Deputy President William Ruto before the International Criminal Court (ICC). This Article argues that these strategies are part of an integrated backlash campaign against the ICC, one that encompasses seemingly unrelated actions in multiple global, regional and national venues. We identify three overarching themes that connect these diverse measures—politicizing complementarity, regionalizing political opposition, and pairing instances of cooperation and condemnation to diffuse accusations of impunity. By linking its discrete acts of opposition to these three themes, the government ultimately increased the effectiveness of its campaign against the Court. Our findings provide new evidence to analyze others instances of backlash against international courts and institutions.
Tuesday, December 20, 2016
Das Konzept der preemptive self-defense wurde erstmals im Rahmen der National Security Strategy der Bush-Administration im Jahr 2002 postuliert. Nach diesem sind militärische Maßnahmen bei einer Bedrohung durch internationale Terrororganisationen oder einem sogenannten Schurkenstaat mit Massenvernichtungswaffen, selbst wenn noch Unsicherheiten hinsichtlich Ort und Zeit des anzunehmenden Angriffs bestehen, vom völkerrechtlichen Selbstverteidigungsrecht gedeckt. Im Rahmen der Debatte um den Irakkrieg im Jahr 2003 wurde das Konzept der preemptive self-defense fälschlicherweise als Rechtfertigungsgrundlage für die Invasion des Iraks diskutiert und weitgehend als mit dem Völkerrecht unvereinbar abgelehnt. Christian Richter weist in seiner Untersuchung nach, dass das Konzept der preemptive self-defense an sich durchaus mit dem Völkerrecht vereinbar ist. Dies geschieht anhand einer grundlegenden Prüfung des Art. 51 UN-Charta, des Völkergewohnheitsrechts und der Staatenpraxis. Vor dem Hintergrund des massiven Erstarkens des internationalen Terrorismus und der jüngsten Atomwaffentests Nordkoreas im September 2016 gewinnt das Konzept der preemptive self-defense wieder an Bedeutung.
For the first time the concept of preemptive self-defense was promulgated in the National Security Strategy 2002. According to this concept the use of force against so-called rogue states or international terror organizations is consistent with the law of self-defense when there are uncertainties concerning the place and time of the assumed attack, especially in the case of an actual threat involving weapons of mass destruction. Within the debate concerning the legality of Operation Iraqi Freedom, the concept of preemptive self-defense was mistakenly discussed as a justification, and widely assessed as incompatible with public international law. Given the growing intensity of international terror organizations in the Middle East, as well as the latest North Korean nuclear weapon tests in September 2016, the concept of preemptive self-defense is of increasing importance. By analyzing Article 51 UN-Charter, the customary international law, as well as state practice, Christian Richter demonstrates that the concept of preemptive self-defense is in fact compatible with public international law.
- Inga Martinkute, The Delimitation of Contractual Rights and Property in International Investment Law
- Maria Laura Marceddu, The EU Dispute Settlement: Towards Legal Certainty in an Uneven International Investment System?
- Martina Magnarelli, The Unresolved Conundrum of Contract-Based and Treaty-Based Claims – An extra element of contention: privity of contract and forum selection clauses in investment contracts
- Egishe Dzhazoyan & Benjamin Burnham, The Aftermath of the Hague District Court Judgment: Are the Yukos Shareholders Now Shut out from Enforcing the ECT Awards through the English Courts?
- Simon Maynard, Legitimate Expectations and the Interpretation of the 'Legal Stability Obligation'
- Denis Parchajev & Rimantas Daujotas, Can Amici Curiae Rescue the Fading EU ISDS System?
- Irene Ng & Valeria Benedetti del Rio, The Use of Online Dispute Resolution in the Realm of Investment Arbitration in the European Union
- Judith Knieper, The UNCITRAL Transparency Standards in ISDS as a result of multi-lateral negotiation
- EFILA section
- Sophie Nappert, Escaping from Freedom? The dilemma of an improved ISDS mechanism
- Filippo Fontanelli, Koorosh Ameli, Ilias Bantekas, Horia Ciurtin, Nikos Lavranos, Mauro Rubino-Sammartano & Emma Spiteri Gonzi, Lights and shadows of the WTO-inspired International Court System
- EFILA Annual Conference 2016 contributions
- John P. Gaffney, The Rule of Law and Alternatives to Investment Arbitration
- Barton Legum, The International Minimum Standard of Treatment and Human Rights: A Pedigree in the Rule of Law
- Richard Happ, Why Investment Arbitration Contributes to the Rule of Law: Without knowing where we came from we cannot know where we are heading to
- Transparency and Independence of Arbitrators in Investment Arbitration: Rule of Law Implications Mathias Wolkewitz
Der Arbeitskreis junger Völkerrechtswissenschaftler/-innen (AjV) und die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationales Recht (DGIR) laden ein zu einer gemeinsamen Tagung zum Thema
Zeit und Internationales Recht
Die Tagung findet am 15. und 16. September 2017 an der Ruhr-Universität Bochum statt.
Wie jede Rechtsordnung ist auch das internationale Recht dem Faktor Zeit und der aus bestimmten Ereignissen resultierenden Veränderung geistiger Vorstellungen ausgesetzt. Diese Veränderung ist bereits Bestandteil der verschiedenen Rechtsquellen. So ist etwa dem Völkergewohnheitsrecht eine zeitliche Dimension immanent. Die Auslegung von internationalem Recht unterliegt ebenso zeitlichen Determinanten wie der dynamischen Auslegung von Verträgen oder deren Veränderung durch nachfolgende Übung. Zudem erschließt das internationale Recht stets neue Bereiche.
Der Querschnittsansatz der Tagung zielt darauf ab, das Thema Zeit und internationales Recht in verschiedenen Zusammenhängen neu zu beleuchten. Alte und neue Problemlagen sollen so einem (neuartigen) Lösungsansatz zugeführt werden. Fragen können dabei sein: Wie ist der Einfluss späterer Übereinkommen oder einer späteren Praxis auf völkerrechtliche Verträge? Können, müssen oder sollten neue Rechtsinstitute bei der Auslegung völkerrechtlicher Verträge oder des Völkergewohnheitsrechts berücksichtigt werden? Wie haben sich völkerrechtliche und international-privatrechtliche Grundsätze oder Rechtsregime im Laufe der Zeit verändert? Welche Ideen gingen verloren, wurden neu entwickelt oder gar wieder zum Leben erweckt? Ist eine engere transnationale Verflechtung angesichts globalisierungskritischer Strömungen und der Rückbesinnung auf den Nationalstaat weiterhin ein gangbarer und wünschenswerter Weg? Wie steht es mit dem Konzept der Rückwirkung? Ein weiterer Aspekt ist zudem, wie sich die Lehre des internationalen Rechts im Laufe der Zeit verändert (hat).
Es sind völker- und europarechtliche sowie international-privatrechtliche Beiträge in deutscher und englischer Sprache willkommen, etwa mit Bezug zu den folgenden Themenkomplexen:
- Rechtstheorie, -dogmatik und –geschichte
- Recht der Europäischen Union
- Menschenrechte (insb. EMRK), Friedenssicherungsrecht und Humanitäres Völkerrecht
- Internationales Wirtschaftsrecht, insb. Welthandelsrecht und Investitionsschutzrecht
- Zusammenspiel und Konflikt dieser Rechtsmaterien miteinander
- Lehre des internationalen Rechts
Die Veranstaltung soll Nachwuchswissenschaftler/-innen und etablierten Wissenschaftler/-innen ein Forum zum Dialog bieten. Die Beiträge der Nachwuchswissenschaftler/-innen werden von etablierten Wissenschaftler/-innen kommentiert.
Abstracts (max. 500 Wörter) werden bis zum 15.1.2017 an Tagung.ZeitundRecht@rub.de erbeten. Bitte teilen Sie uns Ihre Kontaktdaten (Name, ggf. Institution, E-Mail-Adresse) nur in der E-Mail mit. Am 6.2.2017 erhalten Sie Nachricht über die Annahme. Angenommene Abstracts müssen als ausformulierte Beiträge bis zum 30.6.2017 eingereicht werden. Eine Möglichkeit zur Veröffentlichung der ausgewählten Beiträge ist vorgesehen. Die Reise- und Übernachtungskosten der Referent/-innen können voraussichtlich übernommen werden.
Organisationskomitee: Dr. Felix Boor (Hamburg), Dr. Stefan Lorenzmeier, LL.M. (Augsburg), Isabella Risini, LL.M. (Bochum), Sebastian Wuschka, LL.M. (Hamburg/Bochum)
This article explores how international ideals and practices of law enforcement come into conflict with national bureaucracies. Drawing on original interviews, the investigation demonstrates how the competition to define the role of international prosecution impacted career strategies as well as the actual administration of criminal law within the Danish Prosecution Service (DPS). The analysis shows that this competition is embodied in two competing groups of prosecutors situated in a wider national bureaucracy—itself subject to transformations that affect the very stakes of the contest to define the international. While the institutionalists build careers closely attuned to the systemic and increasingly lean-management-inspired requirements of the DPS, the dissident and consequently unsettled position of the activists leads them to craft alternative career strategies closely related to the emergence of new international fields of criminal law.
- Operationalizing Human Rights in Peace Missions
- Christopher Michaelsen, Introduction: Operationalizing Human Rights in Peace Missions
- Jeni Whalan, Reforming UN Peace Operations: Will the High-Level Panel’s Report Make a Difference for Human Rights?
- Tetsuya Toyoda, UN Peacekeeping as the Most Presentable Part of Japan’s 2015 Peace and Security Legislation
- Hitoshi Nasu, The Legal Quagmire of Civilian Protection in Peacekeeping under Japan’s New Security Legislation
- Susan Harris Rimmer, Barriers to Operationalising the “Women, Peace & Security” Doctrine in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations
- Olivera Simić, Policing the Peacekeepers: Disrupting UN Responses to “Crises” Over Sexual Offence Allegations
- Kevin C. Chang, When Do-Gooders Do Harm: Accountability of the United Nations toward Third Parties in Peace Operations
- Sophocles Kitharidis, The Power of Article 103 of the UN Charter on Treaty Obligations
- Volume 380
- J.H.A. van Loon, The Global Horizon of Private International Law
- P.-G. Pougoué, L’arbitrage dans l’espace OHADA
- T. Kruger, The Quest for Legal Certainty in International Civil Cases
Monday, December 19, 2016
- Venkatachala G. Hegde, India and international settlement of disputes
- Bjarni Már Magnússon, The grey areas in the Bay of Bengal
- Ajay Kumar, Incoherence in applying international tax law: hemorrhaging development
- Anupama Sharan, From non-intervention to R2P
This book analyzes one of the most relevant issues of investment arbitration, which has extremely important practical consequences. Starting from an analysis of the sources of parallel proceedings and from a study of the reasons for the proliferation of international investment arbitrations arising from the same facts. The author argues that - at the admissibility stage of arbitral proceedings - the application of certain principles (namely abuse of process, res judicata and collateral estoppel) could, if such principles are broadly interpreted, offer practical solutions to the issue. This interpretation finds support in several awards and legal writings and the conclusions reached in the book are highly desirable from the perspective of investment arbitration as a public means of disputes settlement.
BUSINESS AND HUMAN RIGHTS:
INTERNATIONAL LAW CHALLENGES, EUROPEAN RESPONSES
University of Milan
29-30 May 2017
Transnational business activities are important drivers of growth for developing and the least-developed countries. However, business activities can also negatively impact the enjoyment of human rights. In some cases multinational corporations have even been accused of grave human rights abuses on the territory of the States where their subsidiaries are incorporated.
The relationship that exists between the development of business activities and the protection of human rights is addressed by international law. Some international legal instruments, especially the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises (OECD Guidelines) and the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) have blazed the trail in this field.
As the parent companies of many multinational enterprises are incorporated on the territory of European countries, the latter’s domestic legislation and the EU legal framework are worthy of examination. In fact they play a crucial role in establishing how the business activities of European multinational corporations should be conducted and which remedies can be activated when corporate human rights violations occur, thus providing specific responses to the challenges posed at international level.
This Conference focuses on several different legal instruments and legal areas, including: the international legal framework on Business and Human Rights (B&HR); domestic legislation and related practice and case law implementing it in Europe; the European Union (EU) legal framework on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), corporate behavior, and private international law; the EU trade and investment policy and the international agreements thereby negotiated or concluded.
On the basis of the examination of these legal instruments, the Conference aims at identifying the solutions offered in Europe to the B&HR international law issues and at providing an overall assessment of their effectiveness.
Call for papers:
We encourage scholars (especially scholars expert in International Law, EU Law, and B&HR) to submit papers on the following and related topics (the list is not exhaustive):
We invite scholars to adopt the perspective of this Conference, namely “International Law Challenges, European Responses”. We thus welcome papers approaching B&HR as disciplined by international, EU and domestic law and focusing on the specific challenges and achievements of the different legal systems.
- The implementation in Europe of the international legal instruments and principles on B&HR;
- The European contribution to the development of international principles on B&HR;
- The implementation in Europe of the Sustainable Development Goals and the relationship existing with B&HR;
- The EU and domestic frameworks on CSR and their relationship with the international legal framework on B&HR;
- National Action Plans (NAPs) implementing the UNGPs in Europe;
- The UNGPs’ State duty to protect human rights, as interpreted and applied by the EU, the Council of Europe, and/or by European countries;
- Legislation addressing corporate behavior and the provision for a human rights due diligence process in Europe;
- Access to remedies within Europe;
- The implementation of the OECD Guidelines and the relevant practice developed by the National Contact Points established in Europe;
- The EU private international legal framework on B&HR, its application and the related case law;
- The implications for B&HR of the EU trade and investment policy (including the negotiation/conclusion of: Free Trade Agreements, Economic Partnership Agreements and/or Investment Agreements/Chapters);
- Public/private partnerships as a means to promote respect for human rights in Europe.
Submission of proposals:
Please send your proposals for papers (abstracts) not exceeding 600 words to: EUlawbusinesshumanrights@unimi.it.
Please indicate your name, surname, affiliation, and position in your submission.
Publication of papers:
Papers presented at the Conference will be considered for publication as part of an edited volume produced by a leading publisher. Please indicate, when submitting your abstract, if you would be interested in contributing.
- Submission of abstracts: 31 January 2017
- Selection of papers: 15 February 2017
- Delivery of full papers: 15 May 2017
For more information, please contact: email@example.com
This international and interdisciplinary academic conference will involve a series of sessions linked together by the common theme of considering different forms (political, legal, social) of disenchantment with the state of human rights 50 years after the adoption of the International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; and whether and how any such disillusionment is being, or can be, challenged.
Sunday, December 18, 2016
- Mark Wu, The "China, Inc." Challenge to Global Trade Governance
- Kristina Daugirdas, How and Why International Law Binds International Organizations
- Sergio Puig, Tobacco Litigation in International Courts
- Harold Hongju Koh, Global Tobacco Control as a Health and Human Rights Imperative
- Jack Goldsmith, The Contributions of the Obama Administration to the Practice and Theory of International Law
- Payam Akhavan, Complementarity Conundrums: The ICC Clock in Transitional Times
- Miles Jackson, Regional Complementarity: The Rome Statute and Public International Law
- Oliver Diggelmann, International Criminal Tribunals and Reconciliation: Reflections on the Role of Remorse and Apology
- Kyle McCleery, Guilty Pleas and Plea Bargaining at the Ad Hoc Tribunals: Lessons from Civil Law Systems
- Ady Niv, The Schizophrenia of the ‘No Case to Answer’ Test in International Criminal Tribunals
- Symposium: Culture at the Frontline: Addressing Attacks on Cultural Heritage
- Asad Kiyani, John Reynolds & Sujith Xavier, Foreword
- Philippa Webb, Foreword
- Serge Brammertz, Kevin C. Hughes, Alison Kipp, & William B. Tomljanovich, Attacks against Cultural Heritage as a Weapon of War: Prosecutions at the ICTY
- Mark V. Vlasic & Helga Turku, ‘Blood Antiquities’: Protecting Cultural Heritage beyond Criminalization
- Paige Casaly, Al Mahdi before the ICC: Cultural Property and World Heritage in International Criminal Law
- National Prosecution of International Crimes: Legislation and Cases
- Kai Ambos, The German Rwabukombe Case: The Federal Court’s Interpretation of Co-perpetration and the Genocidal Intent to Destroy
- Matthias Vanhullebusch & Nadarajah Pushparajah, The Politics of Prosecution of International Crimes in Sri Lanka
- Katerina I. Kappos & Patrick W. Hayden, Current Developments at the Ad Hoc International Criminal Tribunals
- Martha Finnemore & Duncan B. Hollis, Constructing Norms for Global Cybersecurity
- In Memoriam
- Henry J. Richardson & Adrien K. Wing, Burns H. Weston (1933–2015)
- Editorial Comments
- Kal Raustiala, Governing The Internet
- Current Developments
- Surabhi Ranganathan, The 2015 Judicial Activity of the International Court of Justice
- International Decisions
- Yvonne McDermott, Prosecutor v. Bemba
- Salvatore Caserta & Mikael Rask Madsen, Tomlinson v. Belize; Tomlinson v. Trinidad and Tobago
- Thomas Weatherall, Flatow v. Iran
- Jill I. Goldenziel, Plaintiff M68/2015 v. Minister for Immigration and Border Protection
- Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law
- Kristina Daugirdas & Julian Davis Mortenson, Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law
- Recent Books on International Law
- Sonia E. Rolland, reviewing The Social Foundations of World Trade: Norms, Community, and Constitution, by Sungjoon Cho
- Tom Ruys, reviewing Aggression Against Ukraine: Territory, Responsibility, and International Law, by Thomas D. Grant
- Nicholas Tsagourias, reviewing Cyberwar: Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts, by Jens David Ohlin, Kevin Govern, and Claire Finkelstein
- Steve Charnovitz, reviewing The Future of the International Labour Organization in the Global Economy, by Francis Maupain
- Nadia B. Ahmad, reviewing International Environmental Law and the Global South, by Shawkat Alam, Sumudu Atapattu, Carmen G. Gonzalez, and Jona Razzaque
- Special Section on Food Safety
- Louis Augustin-Jean, Introduction to the Special Section on Food Safety—Food Risks, Food Safety, and International Trade: An Assessment
- Pascal Petit, Global Governance and Regulatory States in the Present Phase of Internationalization: Impacts of Product Markets Regulations
- Samuel Benrejeb Godefroy & Renata Clarke, Development and Application of International Food Safety Standards— Challenges and Opportunities
- Louis Augustin-Jean & Lei Xie, Food Safety Standards and Market Regulations as Elements of Competition— Case Studies from China’s International Trade
- Deborah K. Sy, Safeguarding Tobacco Control Measures from the Tobacco Industry’s Trade-related Challenges Through Trade Treaty Design
- Nu Ri Jung, Clarifying the Legal Ambiguity in Article 2.2.2(III) of the Anti-Dumping Agreement: A Proposed Set of Interpretative Guidelines for “Any Other Reasonable Method”
- Nan-xiang Sun, Piercing the Veil of National Security: Does China’s Banking IT Security Regulation Violate the TBT Agreement?
- Qianwen Zhang, Opening Pre-establishment National Treatment in International Investment Agreements: An Emerging “New Normal” in China?
- Yasushi Takahashi, Primary Health Care and Universal Health Coverage in Certain International Instruments and the Implementation—the Case of Japan
- Current Development
- Saisai Wang, Kim Van der Borght & Xiaoting Song, A Legal Analysis on the Current Trade Status of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Product in the E.U.—from the Perspectives of WTO Law and E.U. Pharmaceutical Law
- Chris Thomale, The forgotten discipline of private international law: lessons from Kiobel v Royal Dutch Petroleum – Part 1
- Fabien Gélinas, Arbitration as transnational governance by contract
- Eve Darian-Smith, The crisis in legal education: embracing ethnographic approaches to law
- Karl-Heinz Ladeur, A critique of balancing and the principle of proportionality in constitutional law – a case for ‘impersonal rights’?
- Rodrigo Camarena González, From jurisprudence constante to stare decisis: the migration of the doctrine of precedent to civil law constitutionalism
- Henry Farrell & Abraham Newman, The new interdependence approach: theoretical development and empirical demonstration
- Tana Johnson, Cooperation, co-optation, competition, conflict: international bureaucracies and non-governmental organizations in an interdependent world
- Abraham Newman & Elliot Posner, Structuring transnational interests: the second-order effects of soft law in the politics of global finance
- Manuela Moschella, Negotiating Greece. Layering, insulation, and the design of adjustment programs in the Eurozone
- Miles Kahler, Complex governance and the new interdependence approach (NIA)
- Lisa Lechner, The domestic battle over the design of non-trade issues in preferential trade agreements
- Amy A. Quark, Ratcheting up protective regulations in the shadow of the WTO: NGO strategy and food safety standard-setting in India