On 30 January 2008, the Israeli Supreme Court rendered its decision in Bassiouni v. Prime Minister - a case dealing with a challenge to the legality of cuts in the supply of electricity and fuel to Gaza. These cuts, together with trade and travel restrictions, were decided upon by Israel's security cabinet in September 2007 as a reaction to the assumption of power by Hamas in Gaza and the escalation of rocket and mortar attacks from the Gaza Strip to adjacent Israeli towns and villages.
This note analyzes and assesses the findings reaching by the Court in paragraph 12 of the Bassiouni judgment that contains the Court's position on the applicable legal framework against which the sanctions should be evaluated. The Court identified in this paragraph certain factors that allegedly justify the imposition - in subsequent parts of the judgment - of a duty on Israel to continue and provide some basic supplies to Gaza. But, although this outcome may be intuitively right and just, the Court did not carefully explain the legal theory which connects (a) the factual relations that characterize the relations between Israel and Gaza; to (b) Israel's legal obligations vis-a-vis Gaza. Hence, the full implications of the decision are unclear and invite further analysis.
The present note seeks to fill some of the gaps in the Court's judgment. It examines the Supreme Court's position that Gaza is no longer occupied and discusses three possible bases for imposing on Israel certain duties towards the residents of Gaza notwithstanding the end of occupation: obligations under international humanitarian laws (IHL) which ensue from the conclusion that Gaza is a non-occupied territory but subject to a state of siege, extra-territorial application international human rights law to the situation in Gaza, and possible post-occupation obligations.
Saturday, February 28, 2009
Friday, February 27, 2009
Das Werk beschäftigt sich mit der zentralen Frage des Nahostkonflikts: Wem gehört das Land? Der Autor untersucht den territorialen Status von Palästina aus völkerrechtlicher Perspektive und analysiert die historische Entwicklung des Palästinaproblems seit dem Jahr 1917. Der Schwerpunkt der Studie liegt auf den Entwicklungen seit dem Abschluss der ersten palästinensisch-israelischen Verträge im Jahr 1993.
Der Autor begründet zunächst, warum das Selbstbestimmungsrecht der Völker für die Untersuchung des territorialen Status nicht relevant ist. In einem weiteren Schritt wird mit den klassischen Methoden des Völkerrechts untersucht, welche Teile des ehemaligen Mandatsgebietes Palästina welchen Völkerrechtssubjekten (z.B. Staaten) zuzuordnen sind.
Er kommt zu dem Schluss, dass das Völkerrecht nur eine lückenhafte Antwort auf die zentrale Frage des Nahostkonfliktes gibt, legt dar, dass das Völkerrecht (allein) nicht das Erfolg versprechende Mittel zur Lösung des Nahostkonfliktes ist und dass sich das Völkerrecht in der Moderne den Herausforderungen territorialer Konflikte stellen muss.
This paper makes three central points. First, it charts the myriad ways in which the United States, the European Community, and influential constituencies within them advance their interests through the World Trade Organization (WTO). They predominate because they wield considerable material and ideational resources that provide them with advantages in economic relations in any institutional context. Second, the paper shows how WTO judicial bodies, as any court, exercise power when they decide legal cases. Because WTO rules are not fixed in meaning, their application requires WTO judicial bodies to make institutional choices. These institutional choices result in the effective allocation of decision-making authority to alternative institutional processes. To understand the operation of WTO judicial power, we thus need to examine how choices over the application of WTO rules differentially shapes opportunities for states and their constituents in the market and in domestic and international political processes. In short, the paper adopts an institutional perspective for assessing law's power, differing from (and complementing) perspectives that focus on legal discourse and legitimization processes. Third, the paper raises broader questions about the analysis of power and global governance. The paper contends that, since all institutional processes are characterized by bias, institutional analysis-whether conducted from a normative or strategic perspective-should be comparative, the key question being how parties participate, or otherwise are represented, in an institutional context in comparison with its alternatives. As the paper shows, because of the open-ended nature of WTO rules, the WTO Appellate Body itself can engage in comparative institutional analysis and consider institutional alternatives in terms of their relative biases. The issue is not whether biases exist (they exist in all institutional contexts), but rather, what are the effects of an institutional process on participation in the weighing of competing concerns compared to its non-idealized institutional alternatives. The paper demonstrates the effects of institutional choice through its assessment of one of the WTO Appellate Body's most controversial decisions, one which has been referred to as a constitutional-like case for the WTO and global governance-the United States shrimp-turtle case. The case involved the interaction of domestic and international trade, environmental, and development concerns.
This book provides a modern and basic introduction to a branch of international law constantly gaining in importance in international life, namely international humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict). It is constructed in a way suitable for self-study. The subject-matters are discussed in self-contained chapters, allowing each to be studied independently of the others. Among the subject-matters discussed are, inter alia: the Relationship between jus ad bellum / jus in bello; Historical Evolution of IHL; Basic Principles and Sources of IHL; Martens Clause; International and Non-International Armed Conflicts; Material, Spatial, Personal and Temporal Scope of Application of IHL; Special Agreements under IHL; Role of the ICRC; Targeting; Objects Specifically Protected against Attack; Prohibited Weapons; Perfidy; Reprisals; Assistance of the Wounded and Sick; Definition of Combatants; Protection of Prisoners of War; Protection of Civilians; Occupied Territories; Protective Emblems; Sea Warfare; Neutrality; Implementation of IHL.
ICTY: Trial Chamber Judgment in the Case Against Milutinović, Šainović, Ojdanić, Pavković, Lazarević, and Lukić
In its decision (judgment here, here, here, and here; summary here; press release here), the Trial Chamber found Šainović, Pavković, and Lukić guilty of crimes against humanity and war crimes. They were each sentenced to twenty years imprisonment. Lazarević and Ojdanić were convicted of crime against humanity and sentenced to fifteen years each. Milutinović was acquitted.
Paul Berkman (Univ. of Cambridge - Scott Polar Research Institute) will give a talk today at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law's Friday Lunchtime Lecture Series on "Law of the Sea: National Interests or Common Interests in the Arctic?"
David Zaring (Univ. of Pennsylvania - Wharton School) will give a talk today at the University of Georgia School of Law International Law Colloquium Series on "Why Do Some Regulatory Networks Fail, While Others Succeed?"
Thursday, February 26, 2009
In its decision (judgment here; summary here; press release here), the Appeals Chamber confirmed Karera's conviction and sentence, though it allowed his appeal in regard to several particular findings made by the Trial Chamber.
On 26-28 June 2009, Oxford Transitional Justice Research (OTJR) will host a conference to critically engage with and challenge the current academic thinking and practical implementation of transitional justice. The broad themes of the conference are outlined here, with a full programme to follow very shortly.
The opening plenary will set the stage, highlighting the development and currently accepted justifications for transitional justice processes. The individual sessions will take this process forward, structured around five broad themes, as outlined below. These sessions will allow for an in-depth, inter-disciplinary interrogation of the principles and practices of transitional justice.
The five plenary discussions will ground these themes in context-specific cases. Posing a number of contentious propositions – including, "It's time to move on," "It's all just politics," "Justice is a local process" – country experts will reflect on how these positions have played out in the practice of transitional justice.
Through this structure, the conference will question and re-orient the thinking around transitional justice, exploring its moral underpinnings, its universality and transferability, its objectives and implementation mechanisms. The aim will be to emerge in the final plenary with a better understanding of how to research, comprehend, debate and implement transitional justice.
The five broad themes that will form panels series are as follows:
1. Means and Ends: Reconciliation, Truth and Justice
In order to challenge the current paradigm, there is a need to return to the principles from which transitional justice has developed. The sessions under this heading will reframe transitional justice by critiquing its theoretical and conceptual basis. These panels will reflect critically on a range of standard assumptions, concepts and vocabulary used in transitional justice literature and practice. Through exploring the justifications for certain objectives and approaches, the sessions will aim to illuminate the fundamental principles of transitional justice. They will do this by discussing normative principles, the broad theme of reconciliation, memories in the making, and power, actors and agency.
2. Criminal Justice
The relationship between criminal and transitional justice is often considered from narrow disciplinary perspectives. The aim of this conference section will be to explore the relationship between criminal and transitional justice from two separate but related angles. The first set of discussions will examine the workings of international and domestic criminal justice from the 'inside', opening up the possiblity of exploring various aspects of prosecutions in transitional justice such as issues of prosecutorial discretion, the principle of complementarity and the construction of a criminal case. The second set of discussions will step 'outside' of the parameters of criminal justice to explore critically the legitimacy of international and domestic prosecutorial regimes.
3. Post-Conflict Reconstruction & Transitional Justice
Transitional justice processes depend heavily on – and aim to contribute to – effective post-conflict reconstruction and institutional reform. Reconstruction and institutional reform are concerned with rebuilding and redesigning socio-political structures – from the level of organisations to that of an entire constitutional framework – with the goal of mitigating the consequences, and preventing the recurrence, of conflict. Panels under this heading will cover a broad research area, providing an opportunity to explore themes of security sector reform, disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration, land reform, professionalisation of the military and police, constitutional reform, post-conflict reconstruction, institutional capacity building and political decentralisation.
The goal of this section will be to expand discussions of transitional justice to incorporate security and development concerns, while maintaining the focus on 'justice' and interrogating the relationship between the two. These discussions will centre on alternative institutions of justice and conceptually linking transitional justice and post-conflict reconstruction through understandings of intervention and justice.
4. Local Justice
Increasingly, there are calls for transitional justice to be delivered "locally" or "from below." This section will explore issues of "local," "traditional" and "community-based" approaches to transitional justice, recognising the complexities and tensions at the heart of these descriptions. The aim will be to interrogate a range of pragmatic and normative motivations that have driven this recent trend in transitional justice. This section will focus on the key social objectives with which local justice has been connected, particularly restoration of fractured relationships and reconciliation, and the practical efficacy of local approaches in achieving the ends designated to them. These sessions will be structured around two broad categories of issues: conceptualising "local" transitional justice processes; and exploring how these approaches unfold practically, drawing on ethnographic, field-based studies in a range of geographic examples.
This section will explore how reparations for human rights violations are understood as part of and beyond the transitional justice paradigm. Traditionally, reparations are perceived as the victim-centric, restorative aspect of transitional justice and as such bring a number of critical issues to the fore. These include: the concept of victimhood, possible forms of reparations, the manner in which the need for reparations is assessed, and the subsequent monitoring and evaluation of reparations policies.
The questions posed in this section will situate reparations simultaneously as a process of its own, and as intertwined with broader processes of transitional justice. From this basis, this section will explore conceptions of victimhood and their effect on reparations processes and reparations as enabling a victim-centred approach to transitional justice generally.
- Agora: Kosovo
- Rein Müllerson, Precedents in the Mountains: On the Parallels and Uniqueness of the Cases of Kosovo, South Ossetia and Abkhazia
- Jia Bing Bing, The Independence of Kosovo: A Unique Case of Secession?
- Peter Hilpold, The Kosovo Case and International Law: Looking for Applicable Theories
- Huang Jiefang, Aviation Safety, ICAO and Obligations Erga Omnes
- James D. Fry, Désordre Public International under the New York Convention: Wither Truly International Public Policy
- Stefan Talmon, The Recognition of the Chinese Government and the Convention on International Civil Aviation
- International Humanitarian Law
- Yoram Dinstein, Distinction and Loss of Civilian Protection in International Armed Conflicts
- Michael N. Schmitt, Human Shields in International Humanitarian Law
- Chris De Cock, The Use of Air Assets and Military Operations in Urban Terrain: Legal Constraints
- David Fisher, The Law of International Disaster Response: Overview and Ramifications for Military Actors
- The "War on Terrorism"
- David Turns, The Treatment of Detainees and the “Global War on Terror”: Selected Legal Issues
- Vicky McConachie, Coalition Operations: A Compromise or an Accommodation
- Robin R. Churchill, Conflicts Between UN Security Council Resolutions and the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea – and Their Possible Resolution
- International Law
- Robert P. Barnidge, Jr., Questioning the Legitimacy of Jus Cogens in the Global Legal Order
- Rein Müllerson, On Absolute and Relative Universality of the Concept of Democracy
- Special Supplement
- Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Customary International Humanitarian Law – A Response to US Comments
Ralph Wilde (University College London - Law) will give a talk today at the Oxford Public International Law Discussion Group on "Understanding the international territorial administration accountability deficit: Trusteeship and the legitimacy of international organizations."
Wednesday, February 25, 2009
Pauwelyn: Optimal Protection of International Law: Navigating between European Absolutism and American Voluntarism
Assume, for a moment, that the necessary tools are available to induce or even force states to comply with international law. In such a state of affairs, how strongly should international law be protected? More specifically, how easy should it be to change international law? Should treaties be specifically performed or should states be given an opportunity to ‘pay their way out’? In the event of states violating their commitments, what kind of back-up enforcement or sanctions should be imposed? Joost Pauwelyn uses the distinction between liability rules, property protection and inalienable entitlements as a starting point for a new theory of variable protection of international law, placed at the intersection between ‘European absolutism’ and ‘American voluntarism’. Rather than undermining international law, variable protection takes the normativity of international law seriously and calibrates it to achieve maximum welfare and effectiveness at the lowest cost to contractual freedom and legitimacy.
- Bruce M. Russett, Democracy, War and Expansion through Historical Lenses European Journal of International Relations 2009
- Jeffrey W. Legro, The Plasticity of Identity under Anarchy
- Khaled Fattah & K.M. Fierke, A Clash of Emotions: The Politics of Humiliation and Political Violence in the Middle East
- Erik Melander, The Geography of Fear: Regional Ethnic Diversity, the Security Dilemma and Ethnic War
- Thomas Gehring & Sebastian Oberthür, The Causal Mechanisms of Interaction between International Institutions
- Fred Chernoff, Conventionalism as an Adequate Basis for Policy-Relevant IR Theory
International environmental law has come of age, yet the global environment continues to deteriorate. The challenge of the twenty-first century is to reverse this process by ensuring that governments comply fully with their obligations, and progressively assume stricter duties to preserve the environment. This book is the first comprehensive examination of international environmental litigation. Analysing the spectrum of adjudicative bodies that are engaged in the resolution of environmental disputes, it offers a reappraisal of their relevance in contemporary contexts. The book critiques the contribution that arbitral awards and judicial decisions have made to the development of environmental law, and considers the looming challenges for international litigation. With its unique combination of scholarly analysis and practical discussion, this work is especially relevant to an era in which environmental matters are increasingly being brought before international jurisdictions, and will be of great interest to students and scholars engaged with this vital field.
- International Courts and Tribunals: The Challenges Ahead
- Manuel Lezertua, Avant-Propos
- Michael Wood, Introduction
- Dennis C.M. Byron, Comments on "International Justice The Wider Picture"
- Alain Pellet, The Anatomy of Courts and Tribunals
- Lucius Caflisch, The Law Substantive and Procedural Questions
- Brigitte Stern, Commentary on Substantive and Procedural Questions
- Paul Mahoney, The International Judiciary Independence and Accountability
- Loretta Malintoppi, Remarks on Arbitrators' Independence, Impartiality and Duty to Disclose in Investment Arbitration
Alison Duxbury (Univ. of Melbourne - Law) will give a talk today at the International Law Association (British Branch)-University College London Faculty of Laws International Law Seminar on "Suspending States from International Organizations for Violations of Human Rights and Democracy."
Tuesday, February 24, 2009
- Karin Buhmann, Regulating Corporate Social and Human Rights Responsibilities at the UN Plane: Institutionalising New Forms of Law and Law-making Approaches?
- Ulf Linderfalk, State Responsibility and the Primary-Secondary Rules Terminology The Role of Language for an Understanding of the International Legal System
- Kjetil Mujezinović Larsen, 'Territorial Non-Application' of the European Convention on Human Rights
- Inger Österdahl, The Neutral Ally: The European Security and Defence Policy and the Swedish Constitution
This book focuses on one of the most important issues of international law relating to the use of force. Using the premise that in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of 9/11 the gap between the law and the state practice concerning use of force is increasingly widening the thesis argues that the law of self-defence stands on the brink of modification and change. As the collective security system finds itself to be relevant and effective in less and less crises the question arises as to whether the UN Charter rules on the use of force reflect contemporary international law or whether we have returned to the pre-Charter customary rules which would justify wider range of uses of force than the Charter rules. Chapter 1 examines the changing context of the law of self defence. Chapter 2 refers to the theoretical framework of self-defence before 9/11. Chapters 3 and 4 assess the legality of the US-led military operations in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003). The book also addresses how the Iraq crisis in 2003 shed light on all the flaws of the collective security system with the effect of even questioning the relevance of the Security Council. It assesses the impact of Security Council resolutions, passed after the event, on unilateral use of force. Chapter 5 examines the right of self-defence in the light of recent International Court of Justice jurisprudence. Chapter 6 argues that the contemporary paradigm of use of force does not address the modern security challenges and changes in technology and maintains that there is every need to reconceptualise the right of self-defence and allow for preemptive forms of self defence in cases of threats from terrorists and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
- Allehone Mulugeta Abebe, Of Shaming and Bargaining: African States and the Universal Periodic
- Robin C.A. White & Iris Boussiakou, Separate opinions in the European Court of Human Rights
- Holly Cullen, The Collective Complaints System of the European Social Charter: Interpretative Methods of the European Committee of Social Rights
- Sergey Sayapin, The International Committee of the Red Cross and International Human Rights Law
- Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann, Reply to Paul O'Connell's Article on Neo-liberal Globalisation and Human Rights
- Paul O'Connell, Not Seeing the Forest for the Trees: A Reply to Rhoda Howard-Hassmann
- Tafsir Malick Ndiaye, Proceedings on the Merits before the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
- Manoj Kumar Sinha, Right to Education: National and International Perspectives
- Sandy Ghandhi, The Human Rights Committee of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Practice and Procedure in the New Millennium
- Kamrul Hossain, The Challenge of Peace Management: The Role of the United Nations Secretary-General
- D. Sridhar Patnaik, Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Some Preliminary Reflections
Annecoos Wiersema (Ohio State Univ. - Law) will give a talk today at the University of Kansas School of Law Faculty Workshop on "Conferences of the Parties to Multilateral Environmental Agreements: The New International Law-Makers."
Monday, February 23, 2009
On July 8, 2008, the "National War Powers Commission" issued a report recommending repeal of the 1973 War Powers Resolution and enactment of a new law. The new law would put in place a consultation requirement applicable to significant armed conflicts, set up a new joint congressional committee for the President to consult, and establish a procedure aimed at requiring congressional approval or disapproval of such conflicts. The members of the Miller Center panel are owed a debt of gratitude for helping to focus public attention on these problems and adding to the impetus for reform. The panel's proposals, however, present an illusory solution to a non-problem. The problem is not, as its report suggests, that Congress sometimes is silent in the wake of significant but unauthorized use of force by the President. The problem, rather, is that force sometimes is used by the President without congressional or constitutional authority. The solution to this problem is not, as its proposal recommends, to try to force Congress to approve or disapprove that use of force after the fact, or to force the President merely to consult with a few members of Congress beforehand. Congress has no obligation to say anything when faced with a presidential fait accompli that violates the Constitution; it often would be good if it did, but that is, at least partially, the job of the courts. Seeking a few congressional opinions does not fulfill the constitutional requirement of prior legislative authorization. The report is correct that Congress needs to address the Resolution's flaws. The real question is whether Congress truly wants to force its inclusion in the decision to go to war. If it does, the constitutional means are available to do that.
Call for Papers: Securing Compliance with IHL: The Promise and Limits of Contemporary Enforcement Mechanisms
The Minerva Center for Human Rights at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Delegation of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Israel and the Occupied and Autonomous Territories are organizing an international conference on the enforcement of International Humanitarian Law (IHL). This event, the fourth annual international conference to be co-organized by the Minerva Center and the ICRC, will examine recent developments relating to the various mechanisms designed to ensure and improve compliance with IHL norms, and will evaluate the actual and potential effectiveness of these mechanisms. The conference will take place in Jerusalem on November 22-24, 2009.
Recipients of this call for papers are invited to submit proposals to present a paper at the conference. Authors of the selected proposals will be offered flight expenses to Israel and accommodations for the duration of the conference.
The proposition that what IHL needs is not new norms, but rather better enforcement of existing norms, enjoys considerable support. While the substantive norms of IHL in treaties are generally quite detailed, the mechanisms to enforce these norms are far less developed. The accelerated expansion in the 1990s of the application of IHL norms to non-international armed conflict and non-state groups has accentuated the gap between norms and enforcement.
While States themselves bear the primary responsibility to enforce the IHL norms to which they are bound, domestic enforcement has often proven inadequate. Hence, since it was reinvigorated in the 1990s, international criminal law has been widely viewed as the legal institution best capable of reducing IHL's compliance-gap. By focusing on individual responsibility and providing strong adjudicatory mechanisms that can operate on a universal basis, international criminal law was perceived as capable of generating incentives for compliance by all individuals involved in armed conflicts. However, more than 15 years after the establishment of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and a decade after the conclusion of the Rome Statute establishing the International Criminal Court, it appears that these expectations may well have been exaggerated. Although international criminal law has undoubtedly played a useful role in the aftermath of certain armed conflicts, it is doubtful whether international and universal jurisdiction have had much effect on the willingness of parties to armed conflicts to comply with the norms of IHL. International tribunals can only deal with a small number of cases, and it is questionable whether the hope that the existence of such tribunals would provide incentive for enhanced domestic enforcement of IHL norms has materialized.
Doubts as to the effectiveness of international criminal law have encouraged the exploration of other prevention and enforcement mechanisms - old and new - such as improved training designed to inculcate IHL norms, establishment of reparation committees, sanctions, reprisals, and lodging tort and administrative law claims in domestic courts. In the absence of mechanisms for enforcing state compliance with IHL, international human rights proceedings appear to be increasingly utilized in order to deal with armed conflict situations. All these mechanisms may be useful in some cases, in the sense that they may prevent some violations and cater to the needs of some victims. However, they do not provide, or even raise general expectations of systematic enforcement and redress.
Purpose of the Conference
The conference aims to critically examine the various enforcement mechanisms, both domestic and international, that have been designed or harnessed to induce compliance with IHL norms. It seeks to identify areas of future development within existing mechanisms and to suggest the creation of new mechanisms. It also aims to explore, where possible, the parallel or consecutive application of various mechanisms.
By studying existing and potential tools for better enforcement of IHL, the conference hopes to contribute to the development of law and scholarship in this crucial field of international law.
Researchers interested in addressing these questions, or other questions related to the topic of the conference, are invited to respond to this call for papers with a one-page proposal for an article and presentation, along with a brief CV. Proposals should be submitted no later than 16 April 2009, by email, to the Minerva Center for Human Rights at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (email@example.com).
All applicants should receive notification of the academic committee's decision by 15 May 2009. Short written contributions (of approx. 8-10 pages) based on the selected proposals will be expected by 1 November 2009. The organizers intend to publish full-length papers based on presentations made at the conference in a special edition of the Israel Law Review.
Conference Academic Committee
Prof. David Kretzmer, Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Transitional Justice Institute, University of Ulster; Academic Center of Law and Business, Ramat Gan
Prof. Yuval Shany, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Dr. Yaël Ronen, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Mr. Charles Shamas, Mattin Group, Ramallah
Adv. Larry Maybee, ICRC, Israel and the Occupied and Autonomous Territories
Adv. Eitan Diamond, ICRC, Israel and the Occupied and Autonomous Territories
- Thomas M. Franck, On Proportionality of Countermeasures in International Law
- James L. Cavallaro & Stephanie Erin Brewer, Reevaluating Regional Human Rights Litigation in the Twenty-first Century: The Case of the Inter-American Court
- Cees Flinterman, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights at 60
- Rachel Murray, National Preventive Mechanisms under the Optional Protocol to the Torture Convention: One Size Does Not Fit All
- Jeroen Temperman, Blasphemy, Defamation of Religions and Human Rights Law
- Ebenezer Durojaye, Turning Paper Promises to Reality: National Human Rights Institutions and Adolescents' Sexual and Reproductive Rights in Africa
- Janet Halley, Rape at Rome: Feminist Interventions in the Criminalization of Sex-Related Violence in Positive International Criminal Law
- Christopher M. Bruner, States, Markets, and Gatekeepers: Public-Private Regulatory Regimes in an Era of Economic Globalization
- Patrick Macklem, Indigenous Recognition in International Law: Theoretical Observations
- Timothy Webster, Reconstituting Japanese Law: International Norms and Domestic Litigation
- Robert D. Sloane, Breaking the Genuine Link: The Contemporary International Legal Regulation of Nationality
- Kurt Mundorff, Other Peoples' Children: A Textual and Contextual Interpretation of the Genocide Convention, Article 2(e)
- Martin Gelter, The Dark Side of Shareholder Influence: Managerial Autonomy and Stakeholder Orientation in Comparative Corporate Governance
- Nisuke Ando, The Development of the Human Rights Committee’s Activities under the ICCPR and Its Optional Protocol Through My Twenty-Year Experience as a Committee Member
- Francesco Bestagno, La dimensione sociale dell’abitazione nella giurisprudenza della Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo
- Ruggiero Cafari Panico, Il principio di non discriminazione e la la cittadinanza dell’Unione europea in rapporto all’autonomia impositiva regionale
- Cristina Campiglio, Il principio di non discriminazione genetica nella recente prassi internazionale
- Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade, Some Reflections on the Reassuring Expansion of the Material Content of Jus Cogens
- Andrea Cannone, Recenti sviluppi relativi al diritto alla riparazione previsto dagli accordi internazionali sui diritti umani
- Andrea Carcano, The Right to Self-Determination of the Iraqi People in the Practice of the Security Council Concerning the Occupation of Iraq
- Gabriella Carella, Nominalismo e lotta al terrorismo internazionale: il caso delle extraordinary renditions
- Linda E. Carter, The Importance of Understanding Criminal Justice Principles in the Context of International Criminal Procedure: The Case of Admitting Evidence on Appeal
- Antonio Cassese, Achievements and Pitfalls of the ICC Five Years on
- Marina Castellaneta, L’hate speech: da limite alla libertà di espressione a crimine contro l’umanità
- Giuseppe Cataldi, Convenzione europea dei diritti dell’uomo e ordinamento italiano. Una storia infinita?
- Giovanni Cellamare, Funzioni e caratteri dell’EUFOR in una situazione di emergenza umanitaria
- Andrea Comba, La salvaguardia del valore della moneta in relazione al primo protocollo addizionale della CEDU
- Giorgio Conetti, Un caso di responsabilità di ex Capo di Stato per la continuazione di atti iniziati nell’esercizio delle proprie funzioni
- Benedetto Conforti, Qualche riflessione sul contributo dei giudici internazionali ed interni al diritto internazionale
- Antonietta Damato, Profili di costituzionalità della legge italiana sul mandato d’arresto europeo
- Luigi Daniele, Carta dei diritti fondamentali dell’Unione europea e Trattato di Lisbona
- Angela Del Vecchio, I tribunali penali «internazionalizzati»
- Pasquale De Sena, Valori economici e non economici nella giurisprudenza della Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo in tema di proprietà
- Antonietta Di Blase, Human-Right-Related Aspects in the Settlement of International Disputes on Intellectual Property Rights
- Vojin Dimitrijević, The Experience of the Human Rights Committee with Minority Issues
- Christian Dominice, Droits individuels et droits de l’homme: chevauchements et différences
- Ugo Draetta, I principi democratici dell’Unione europea nel Trattato di Lisbona
- Paola Gaeta, Il principio di nazionalità passiva nella repressione dei crimini internazionali da parte delle giurisdizioni interne
- Pietro Gargiulo, Il protocollo facoltativo al Patto sui diritti economici, sociali e culturali
- Marco Gestri, Consiglio di sicurezza e sanzioni mirate: obblighi degli Stati di agire in «protezione diplomatica» dei singoli?
- Edoardo Greppi, Aggressione e crimine di aggressione: accertamento «politico» e riflessi giurisdizionali internazionali
- Hans van Houtte, The Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission and International Humanitarian Law
- Paola Ivaldi, Convenzione europea sui diritti umani e giurisdizioni nazionali
- Bing Bing Jia, The Right of Appeal in the Proceedings before the ICTY and ICTR
- Patrick Kinsch, On the Uncertainties Surrounding the Standard of Proof in Proceedings before International Courts and Tribunals
- Karl Kreuzer, Freedom of Religion in Secular and Islamic International Instruments: Complement or Alternative?
- Flavia Lattanzi, Quelques réflexions sur le «principe de juridiction universelle»
- Umberto Leanza, Il processo dello Statuto della Corte penale internazionale: dall’adozione dello Statuto di Roma alla prima Assemblea degli Stati parte
- Daqun Liu, Superior Responsibility in the Jurisprudence of the ICTY
- Monica Lugato, Struttura e contenuto della Convenzione europea dei diritti dell’uomo al vaglio della Corte costituzionale
- Angela Lupone, Le posizioni individuali nella restituzione degli immobili requisiti dai regimi
- Franz Matscher, Il metodo di lavoro e lo stile delle sentenze della Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo
- Cecilia Medina Quiroga, “Family Members” and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights
- Theodor Meron, Universality, Complementarity, and Cooperation Between States Parties to the Rome Statute and Non-Party States
- Maria Migliazza, I diritti fondamentali dell’Unione europea ed il limite dell’equity
- Bruno Nascimbene, Recent Trends in European Migration and Asylum Policies
- Rafael Nieto-Navia, The Application by the ICTY/ICTR Appeals Chamber of Article 14(5) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in Sentencing Proceedings
- Maria Luisa Padelletti, L’indennità d’esproprio e il rispetto della Convenzione europea dei diritti dell’uomo dopo i recenti interventi normativi
- Lina Panella, La cittadinanza nel diritto internazionale: potere dello Stato o diritto del singolo?
- Nicoletta Parisi, Fonti dell’Unione europea e revisione dei Trattati: la tutela dei diritti fondamentali
- Marco Pedrazzi, Irregular Apprehension in International Criminal Law: Male Captus Bene Detentus?
- Laura Pineschi, Tortura e trattamenti o punizioni crudeli, disumani e degradanti: il Commento generale n. 2 del Comitato contro la tortura
- Riccardo Pisillo Mazzeschi, Sulla natura degli obblighi internazionali di tutela dei diritti economici, sociali e culturali
- Mauro Politi, La Corte Penale Internazionale a dieci anni dalla Conferenza di Roma: un primo bilancio
- Giuseppe Porro, Riflessioni sui principi di uguaglianza e non discriminazione nel sistema di governance dell’Unione Europea
- François Rigaux, The Right to Health, a Fundamental Human Right?
- Dino Rinoldi, La giustizia e il bilanciamento fra libertà e sicurezza nello spazio costituzionale europeo
- Natalino Ronzitti, Azioni individuali per violazione da parte dello Stato estero di norme imperative del diritto internazionale: un punto fermo nella giurisprudenza italiana
- Lucia Serena Rossi, How Fundamental Are Fundamental Principles? Primacy of the EU Law, Principles of National Constitutions and Fundamental Rights after Lisbon
- Francesco Salerno, Corte internazionale di giustizia e giurisdizione penale internazionale
- Lidia Sandrini, La concorrenza tra il Comitato per i diritti umani e la Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo nell’esame di istanze individuali: brevi note sulle clausole di coordinamento
- Silvia Sanna, L’azione internazionale contro il traffico di minori: strumenti normativi e di controllo
- Elena Sciso, La condizione processuale e detentiva dei prigionieri di Guantanamo dinanzi alla Corte Suprema degli Stati Uniti
- Tullio Scovazzi, Considerazioni in tema di segreto di Stato e gravi violazioni dei diritti umani
- Mohamed Shahabuddeen, Consistency in the Case Law of the ICTY
- Tullio Treves, Diritto individuale di petizione e sanzioni «intelligenti», appunti
- Ennio Triggiani, I diritti umani nella cooperazione internazionale allo sviluppo
- Gabriella Venturini, International Law and the Offence of Enforced Disappearance
- Ilaria Viarengo, L’universalità dei diritti umani tra ideale e realtà: la prassi del Comitato dei diritti umani delle Nazioni Unite
- Ugo Villani, Tendenze della giurisprudenza internazionale in materia di riserve ai trattati sui diritti umani
- Spyridon Vrellis, Le traitement des déboutés du droit d’asile. Regards comparatifs
- Claudio Zanghì, La nuova Carta araba dei diritti dell’uomo
- Giuliana Ziccardi Capaldo, Processi decisionali integrati e azioni multilaterali per la tutela internazionale dei diritti umani: la destituzione con la forza di governi illegittimi
- Roberto Baratta, Réflexions sur la coopération judiciaire civile suite au traité de Lisbonne
- Stefania Bariatti, Filling in the Gaps of EC Conflicts of Laws Instruments: The Case of Jurisdiction over Actions Related to Insolvency Proceedings
- Maria Caterina Baruffi, Il riconoscimento delle decisioni in materia di obbligazioni alimentari verso i minori: l’Unione europea e gli Stati Uniti a confronto
- Jürgen Basedow, Lex mercatoria e diritto internazionale privato dei contratti: una prospettiva economica
- Paul R. Beaumont, The Art. 8 Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights on the Hague Convention on International Child Abduction in relation to Delays in Enforcing the Return of a Child
- Michael Bogdan, Some Reflections Regarding Environmental Damage and the Rome II Regulation
- Andrea Bonomi, Prime considerazioni sul regime delle norme di applicazione necessaria nel nuovo Regolamento Roma I sulla legge applicabile ai contratti
- Alegría Borrás, Reservations, Declarations and Specifications: Their Function in the Hague Convention on the International Recovery of Child Support and Other Forms of Family Maintenance
- Nerina Boschiero, Spunti critici sulla nuova disciplina comunitaria della legge applicabile ai contratti relativi alla proprietà intellettuale in mancanza di scelta ad opera delle parti
- Ronald A. Brand, Evolving Competence for Private International Law in Europe: The External Effects of Internal Developments
- Andreas Bucher, Réforme en matière d’enlèvement d’enfants: la loi suisse
- Sergio Maria Carbone, Accordi interstatali e diritto marittimo uniforme
- Roberta Clerici, Quale favor per il lavoratore nel Regolamento Roma I?
- Giuseppe Coscia, La nuova azione collettiva risarcitoria italiana nel quadro delle discipline processuali di conflitto interne e comunitarie
- Saverio De Bellis, La negotiorum gestio nel Regolamento (CE) n. 864/2007
- Patrizia De Cesari, «Disposizioni alle quali non è permesso derogare convenzionalmente» e «norme di applicazione necessaria» nel Regolamento Roma I
- Harry Duintjer Tebbens, Punitive Damages: Towards a Rule of Reason for U.S. Awards and Their Recognition Elsewhere
- William Duncan, The Maintenance of a Hague Convention. Adapting to Change. A Discussion of Techniques to Ensure that a Convention Remains “Fit for Purpose”
- Bernard Dutoit, Le droit international privé des obligations non contractuelles à l’heure européenne: le Règlement Rome II
- Marc Fallon, L’exception d’ordre public face à l’exception de reconnaissance mutuelle
- Paolo Fois, La comunitarizzazione del diritto internazionale privato e processuale. Perplessità circa il carattere «definitivo» del trasferimento di competenze dagli Stati membri alla Comunità
- Marco Frigessi Di Rattalma, La legge regolatrice della responsabilità da direzione e coordinamento nei gruppi multinazionali di società
- Manlio Frigo, Ethical Rules and Codes of Honour Related to Museum Activities: A Complementary Support to the Private International Law Approach Concerning the Circulation of Cultural Property
- Luigi Fumagalli, Il caso «Tedesco»: un rinvio pregiudiziale relativo al Regolamento n. 1206/2001
- Giorgio Gaja, Il regolamento di giurisdizione e il suo ambito di applicazione in materia internazionale
- Luciano Garofalo, Diritto comunitario e conflitti di leggi. Spunti sulle nuove tendenze del diritto internazionale privato contemporaneo emergenti dal Regolamento Roma II
- Hélène Gaudemet Tallon, Le destin mouvementé des articles 14 et 15 du Code civil français de 1804 au début du XXIème siècle
- Andrea Giardina, Gli interessi: conflitti di leggi e diritto uniforme nella pratica giudiziaria e arbitrale internazionale
- Trevor C. Hartley, The Integration Theory v Acquired Rights. The Way Forward for Matrimonial-Property Choice of Law in the EC
- Costanza Honorati, La legge applicabile al nome tra diritto internazionale privato e diritto comunitario nelle conclusioni degli avvocati generali
- Monique Jametti Greiner, La protection des enfants dans le cadre d’enlèvements internationaux d’enfants. Les solutions de La Haye
- Hans Ulrich Jessurun D’Oliveira, How do International Organisations Cope with the Personal Status of their Staff Members? Some Observations on the Recognition of (Same-Sex) Marriages in International Organizations
- Catherine Kessedjian, Les actions collectives en dommages et intérêts pour infraction aux règles communautaires de la concurrence et le droit international privé
- Peter Kindler, Libertà di stabilimento e diritto internazionale privato delle società
- Christian Kohler, Trois défis: la Cour de justice des Communautés européennes et l’espace judiciaire européen en matière civile
- Paul Lagarde, La culpa in contrahendo à la croisée des règlements communautaires
- Pierre Lalive, L’ordre public transnational et l’arbitre international
- Riccardo Luzzatto, Riflessioni sulla c.d. comunitarizzazione del diritto internazionale privato
- Maria Chiara Malaguti, Brevi riflessioni sui moderni criteri di unificazione del diritto alla luce della disciplina sui titoli detenuti presso intermediari
- Alberto Malatesta, Cultural Diversity and Private International Law
- Sergio Marchisio, Les conventions de la Commission internationale de l’État civil
- Luigi Mari, Equo processo e competenza in materia contrattuale. Note minime a proposito della giurisprudenza della Corte di giustizia
- Johan Meeusen, Who is Afraid of European Private International Law?
- Paolo Mengozzi, I conflitti di leggi, le norme di applicazione necessaria in materia di rapporti di lavoro e la libertà di circolazione dei servizi nella Comunità europea
- Robin Morse, Industrial Action in the Conflict of Laws
- Franco Mosconi, La Convenzione CIEC del 5 settembre 2007 sui partenariati registrati
- Francesco Munari, L’entrata in vigore del Regolamento Roma II e i suoi effetti sul private antitrust enforcement
- Peter Arnt Nielsen, European Contract Jurisdiction in Need of Reform?
- Tomasz Pajor, The Impact of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods on Polish Law
- Monika Pauknerová, International Conventions and Community Law: Harmony and Conflicts
- Marta Pertegás, The Interaction between EC Private International Law and Procedural Rules: The European Enforcement Order as Test-Case
- Paola Piroddi, Between Scylla and Charybdis. Art. 4 of the Rome I Regulation Navigating along the Cliffs of Uncertainty and Inflexibility
- Ilaria Queirolo, L’influenza del Regolamento comunitario sul difficile coordinamento tra legge fallimentare e legge di riforma del diritto internazionale privato
- Mariel Revillard, Pratique de droit international privé de la famille en Italie et en France: perspectives de communautarisation
- Carola Ricci, I fori «residuali» nelle cause matrimoniali dopo la sentenza Lopez
- Kurt Siehr, The lex originis for Cultural Objects in European Private International Law
- Antoon V.M. (Teun) Struycken, Bruxelles I et le monde extérieur
- Michele Tamburini, La validità nel processo civile italiano della procura alle liti rilasciata all’estero
- Antonio Tizzano, Qualche riflessione sul contributo della Corte di giustizia allo sviluppo del sistema comunitario
- Francesca Trombetta-Panigadi, Osservazioni sulla futura disciplina comunitaria in materia di successioni per causa di morte
- Francesca Clara Villata, La legge applicabile ai «contratti dei mercati regolamentati» nel Regolamento Roma I
- Gaetano Vitellino, Conflitti di leggi e di giurisdizioni in materia di azione inibitoria collettiva
William Howell (Northwestern Univ. - Harris School of Public Policy) will give a talk today at the Northwestern University School of Law International Law Colloquium on "Political Elites and Public Support for War" (co-authored with Douglas L. Kriner).
Nigel White (Univ. of Sheffield - Law) will give a talk today at the Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict Strengthening International Authority Seminar Series on "Institutional Responsibility for Private Military Contractors."
Sunday, February 22, 2009
- Christine Bell, Transitional Justice, Interdisciplinarity and the State of the ‘Field’ or ‘Non-Field’
- Wendy Lambourne, Transitional Justice and Peacebuilding after Mass Violence
- Luke Wilcox, Reshaping Civil Society through a Truth Commission: Human Rights in Morocco's Process of Political Reform
- Iolanda Jaquemet, Fighting Amnesia: Ways to Uncover the Truth about Lebanon's Missing
- Huma Haider, (Re)Imagining Coexistence: Striving for Sustainable Return, Reintegration and Reconciliation in Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Nicola Henry, Witness to Rape: The Limits and Potential of International War Crimes Trials for Victims of Wartime Sexual Violence
- Rebecca Horn, Simon Charters, & Saleem Vahidy, Testifying in an International War Crimes Tribunal: The Experience of Witnesses in the Special Court for Sierra Leone
Regional trade agreements (RTAs) have proliferated around the world in the past two decades, and now nearly all members of the WTO are party to at least one. Besides tariffs and rules of origin regulating trade in goods, many RTAs now include provisions on services, investments, technical barriers to trade and competition rules, as well as a host of issues not directly related to trade. The geographic reach of RTAs is expanding, with transcontinental agreements spreading forcefully alongside intra-regional agreements. ‘Multilateralizing Regionalism’ was the title of a major conference held from 10–12 September 2007 at the WTO in Geneva. Brought together in this publication, the conference papers achieve two things. First, they marshall detailed, new empirical work on the nature of the ‘Spaghetti Bowl’ and the problems it poses for the multilateral trade system. Second, they contribute fresh and creative thinking on how to ‘tame the tangle’ of regional trade agreements.
This paper focuses on the Security Council voting procedures, while analyzing the interplay between formal and informal decisions herein. Based on an empirical study, it serves to downplay the prevalence of asymmetries in international relations. It stands may connotes the real politique of the Security Council procedural rules to explain why is the single polar international community has kept its balanced bearing herein.
Among the range of questions arising from the procedural rules of the Security Council, those concerning the rules of voting procedure are commonly regarded as of central legal importance. In principle, votes are taken publicly and openly. The voting procedures in the Council are the outcome of the diverse decision-making practices applied there. The two principal processes are the "resolution", and the less familiar "presidential statement". The traditional manner of passing a resolution is through a Council vote. However, a presidential statement, which is generally read publicly before the members of the Council, does not require a vote but merely the existence of an unofficial consensus, and the prior agreement of all the members of the Council to every word contained in the text. Another framework which can lead to a vote, albeit this occurs rarely, is a "statement to the press". Generally, this is issued at the instruction of the President of the Council who possesses the mandate to represent the Council, following general and informal consultation with members of the Council. This paper challenges the hypothesis according to which in the single polar world of the post-Cold War, there has been a demise of the formal mechanisms on the expense of informal ones, followed a period of U.S. hegemony.