This paper looks at the international obligations that bind rebel groups in the context of international humanitarian law, international human rights law and international criminal law. The focus is on rebel groups and how to engage with them with regard to norms aimed at the protection of civilians. A number of suggestions are floated in the context of a wider project, organized by the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, aimed at improving respect for such norms by generating a greater sense of ownership over the standards and the monitoring processes.
Saturday, April 17, 2010
Clapham: The Rights and Responsibilities of Armed Non-State Actors: The Legal Landscape & Issues Surrounding Engagement
Friday, April 16, 2010
The last few years have seen an increased number of inter-governmental organisatons establishing institutions with a mandate to promote and protect human rights. The article first sets out to establish some of the common features of the structural make-up of the three established regional human rights systems in the Americas, Europe and Africa. Based on the findings of this inquiry guidelines for regional inter-governmental organisations and their human rights mechanisms are proposed. The Terms of Reference of the recently established ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights and the mechanisms established under the Arab Charter on Human Rights are considered in the light of the proposed guidelines. The article further explores developments in respect of some other regional and sub-regional human rights initiatives.
The Road to Kampala: U.S. Participation in the Review Conference of the International Criminal Court
On May 31 – June 11, 2010, the first Review Conference of the Rome Statute for the International Criminal Court (ICC) will take place in Kampala, Uganda. Hundreds of delegations from around the world will seek to define the crime of aggression and its jurisdictional conditions and evaluate the progress of the ICC since its inception. In a sharp departure from recent U.S. policy, the United States – even though not a State Party to the Rome Statute – will go to Kampala, sending a delegation likely to include high-level officials from the State Department, Pentagon and other agencies.
The Road to Kampala provides an overview of key issues and recommends achievable goals for the United States. Based on research by UCLA School of Law’s International Justice Clinic, we recommend:
- Genuine Engagement. The U.S. delegation should contribute to the Review Conference by expressing U.S. views on substantive matters and hosting side meetings to discuss U.S. policy and State cooperation. To encourage Congressional buy-in, Congressional staff should be invited to join the Review Conference delegation.
- Crime of aggression. To the extent possible, the U.S. delegation should avoid a hard-line stance rejecting the consensus definition. The delegation should engage, as it already is doing, and if necessary support a piecemeal approach of adopting components of the crime while deferring jurisdiction to a later negotiation. This is preferable to an “all or none” strategy, which might jeopardize the broader U.S. effort to reengage with the ICC.
- Proposed amendments. Consistent with U.S. policy, the delegation should support the Belgian proposal to expand certain war crimes to conflicts of a non-international character. The United States should actively engage in the newly established Working Group to deal with other proposed amendments that will not be on the Kampala agenda.
- Cooperation with the ICC. The United States has taken the positive step of offering to meet with the ICC Chief Prosecutor to determine where its contributions would be most useful. While mindful of restrictions and authorities in U.S. law, the U.S. delegation should publicly commit to cooperating with the ICC and identify specific areas where U.S. cooperation is likely to be most forthcoming.
- Enforcement of arrest warrants. The United States should find opportunities to share its valuable experience with arrests from its participation in ad hoc tribunals such as the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Rather than merely commenting during the stocktaking, the U.S. delegation should host a side meeting at the Review Conference and offer to hold technical meetings with interested governments on enforcement mechanisms.
- National Accountability. The U.S. delegation should be forward-leaning on the issue of “complementarity.” Even though ICC investigation of U.S. actions is unlikely, the United States should ensure that its domestic law would merit scrutiny under the Rome Statute, providing jurisdiction to investigate and prosecute all ICC crimes. The U.S. delegation should also offer technical support to help build the capacity of various States’ national accountability mechanisms.
- Ten Years of Modernized European Competition Law in Floris Vogelaar’s Landmark Notes
- Dirk Schroeder, The Merger Control Patchwork
- Paul Lugard, Some Reflections on Resale Price Maintenance
- Ioana Eleonora Rusu & Phedon Nicolaides, The ‘Binary’ Nature of the Economics of State Aid
- Maartje de Visser, Judicial Accountability and New Governance
- Andreas Kulick & Carsten Wendler, A Corrupt Way to Handle Corruption? Thoughts on the Recent ICSID Case Law on Corruption
- Michael J. Frese, Tightening the Grip on the Application of Article 81 EC Treaty: The European Court of Justice Guards Its Province
Estimés à près de 250 000, les enfants soldats participant activement à des hostilités constituent un phénomène global qui s'étend à tous les continents. Derrière la froideur des statistiques se profilent pourtant des images effroyables et chaque cas individuel est une tragédie. Comment le droit international permet d'appréhender ce phénomène et peut-il contribuer à y mettre un terme ? De quelle façon le droit international régit-il le recrutement et la participation des enfants soldats aux hostilités ? A quels acteurs du système juridique international s'applique l'interdiction de recruter et d'utiliser des enfants soldats ? Comment le droit international garantit-il le respect de cette interdiction et réprime-t-il ses violations ?
Utilisés par les adultes, les enfants soldats peuvent eux-mêmes devenir les auteurs de crimes internationaux. Innocents et responsables à la fois, leur position va à l'encontre même des frontières généralement établies. Comment le droit international appréhende l'identité des enfants soldats : s'agit-il de bourreaux et/ou de victimes ? Le malaise à trancher cette question démontre la tension qui englobe ce problème. Cette analyse démontre toutefois que le droit international ne reste pas silencieux quant à cette problématique.
Cet ouvrage détaillé cherche à répondre à ces différentes questions qui se posent au regard du droit international humanitaire et pénal. Magali Maystre tente aussi d'apporter une vision critique sur l'efficacité et les limites du régime juridique international concernant les enfants soldats, qu'elle analyse de manière globale mais précise.
Enfin, au-delà du cadre juridique, c'est un problème politique que pointe cet ouvrage. Il ressort de cette analyse que la communauté internationale s'est dotée d'un régime juridique extrêmement complet visant à appréhender le problème des enfants soldats dans sa globalité. Toutefois, une douloureuse dichotomie persiste entre le vaste régime juridique qui existe en la matière et la situation des enfants soldats sur le terrain qui reste grave et inacceptable. Cet ouvrage se veut donc un appel à l'application du droit international en la matière. Les enfants sont l'avenir de l'humanité, il est désormais temps de les libérer de la guerre.
- Première partie - Le concept d'espace
- Tullio Scovazzi, Le concept d’espace dans trois Conventions Unesco
- Deuxième partie – La protection de la nature
- Ali Mekouar & Patrice Talla, La protection des massifs montagneux en droit international
- David França Ribeiro de Carvalh, L'Organisation du Traité de Coopération Amazonienne
- Troisième partie – La protection de l’air et de l’eau
- Malgosia Fitzmaurice, Watercourse protection
- Fabienne Quilleré-Majzoub, Les nuages sont-ils solubles dans le cours d'eau international ?
- Bernard Pestel, La protection environnementale de l’espace aérien
- Marion Lemoine, Le mécanisme pour un développement propre du Protocole de Kyoto
- Danilo Comba, La place du GIEC dans la maîtrise de l'enjeu climatique
- Quatrième partie – La protection des espaces marins
- Guiseppe Cataldi, Problèmes liés aux instruments juridiques du droit de la mer
- Louis Savadogo, L’accord intérimaire établissant la Commission du courant de Benguela
- Sophie Gambardell, Le mécanisme des rapports étatiques et l’espace méditerranéen
- Cinquième partie – La protection des zones polaires
- Donald R. Rothwell, International Polar Governance in the Twenty-First Century
- Kerstin Odendahl, La protection internationale de l’environnement marin de l’océan Arctique
- Points d'appui - Conférences de Dinah Shelton prononcées à Aix-en-Provence les 22 et 23 juin 2009
- Dinah Shelton, Universalité et régionalisme en droit international des droits de l’homme
- Dinah Shelton, Hiérarchie des normes en droit international des droits de l’homme
Thursday, April 15, 2010
The fragmentation of general international law is not a new phenomenon. Nevertheless, it is a sign of our era and essentially results from the legal pluralism that characterizes it. Increasing adjudication also makes the study of this concept even more fascinating. The phenomenon of fragmentation manifests itself with particular tension in international trade law. Private interests and commercial transactions can be irreversibly affected by the absence of legal security or, worse, by the existence of contradictory rulings delivered by adjudicating bodies, which constantly compete for increasing jurisdiction and thus influence. This article reviews the discussion of fragmentation of international law and critically analyzes the problem of absence of coherence in regulating trade. By focusing on adjudication, permissible sources of law, and interpretation, it argues for more openness towards non-trade law when interpreting trade rules.
The article explores the relationship between free transfer clauses and exchange restrictions. The transfer of funds provision is a common feature of BITs, albeit of limited practical relevance thus far. The free transfer provision is particularly important in difficult economic times, when the host country faces complex policy trade-offs. Financial crises are a good example. No ICSID tribunal seems to have ruled on the merits of a capital transfer provision. This is likely to change over the coming years, in particular following the global financial crisis in 2008.
On 29 April 2009 the Spanish National Court opened a cause against the “perpetrators, the instigators, the necessary collaborators and accomplices” of alleged tortures at the Guantanamo camp and other overseas detention facilities. Before examining how these and other causes currently opened in Spain under the principle of universal jurisdiction enshrined by Art. 23.4 of the Organic Law of the Judicial Branch (LOPJ) are likely to be affected by the legislative reform of that very provision approved by the Spanish Congress of Deputies on 25 June 2009, we will first examine the sinuous - and now dramatically indicative in retrospect - jurisprudential evolution of the treatment of the principle of universal justice by Spanish Courts since the Constitutional Court enshrined a doctrine of unconditional universal jurisdiction in its widely celebrated Guatemala Genocide case in June 2005. This is complemented by an overview of the cases that, jurisdictionally based on the principle of universal justice enshrined by Article 23 of the LOPJ, are still currently open (from e.g., Tibet to Rwanda or Gaza) before Spanish Courts. In addition, set against the background provided by the release of the four so-called “torture memos” by the Obama Administration in April 2009, there is a brief examination of the possibilities of jurisdictional prosecution of both the perpetrators and those who formulated the legal guidance authorizing the “enhanced interrogators techniques” in both the U.S. domestic law system and international legal jurisdictional settings, including at the ICJ level. Eventually, an examination of the hasty procedure through which the new relevant Spanish provision in this area has been adopted and the legal effects, with reference to cases currently opened before the Spanish courts, of the newly reformed article give place to a brief reflection on the prospects of international law in the age of an emerging new international judiciary in view of the structural deficit of mechanisms of participatory democracy on the domestic plane with relevance in the international realm as dramatically epitomized at this juncture by the Spanish legal system.
La spécificité des droits culturels ne réside pas dans un régime particulier qui leur aurait été octroyé, ainsi qu’une partie de la doctrine l’a un temps suggéré, mais dans leur objet commun: ce sont des droits protégeant le développement et l’expression libres des identités culturelles, et l’accès aux ressources le permettant. Malgré le caractère peu explicite des dispositions internationales, notamment en dehors des champs relatifs aux minorités et aux peuples autochtones, une tendance se dégage en droit positif, au niveau tant universel que régional, exigeant le respect des identités individuelles et collectives pour tous. Les droits culturels sont des droits fondamentaux au sens plein du terme. Ils sont destinés à protéger les capacités de créer et les oeuvres individuelles ou collectives qui en résultent. Ils obligent à l’écoute des blessures identitaires et à l’engagement, en réponse à ces souffrances, à un dialogue articulé autour de la notion de droits de l’homme. En tous domaines, ils engagent les sociétés à interroger les valeurs qui les fondent et à s’adapter aux diverses identités dont elles sont constituées, en prenant appui sur les principes de liberté, d’égalité, et de respect des différences.
Conference: The Creation of International Law: An Exploration of Normative Innovation, Contextual Application, and Interpretation in a Time of Flux
International Public Law has traditionally been a male-dominated field, both nationally and internationally. The majority of textbooks and articles are written by men and the majority of judges and lawyers participating in international tribunals are men. In the recent time period, women researchers have increased their international publications and have been selected to serve as judges and lawyers in the international tribunals. Among those most famous are: Rosalyn Higgins, former President of the International Court of Justice in the Hague, and Navi Pillay, former President of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, currently the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. At present women are participating at all levels within the field. They argue important cases as lawyers before national, regional and international tribunals, committees/commissions, offer interpretation of norms as judges; and they propose new normative theories as researchers. This is a unique opportunity to create an international network of inspirational women scholars. There is a need to bring together academic women to promote new research collaboration strengthen their ability to influence the creation and elaboration of international law. There is a clear incentive to profile women as subjects of international public law development, both for students and female researchers seeking recruitment to the law faculties. We hope that the conference will promote opportunities for guest lecture and future research collaboration on the topics identified in the conference.
Scholars from across the globe are invited to present papers addressing challenges in relation to the creation of international law from theoretical or contextual perspectives. We welcome papers on sources, actors, law-making, interpretation, dispute resolution, and practice in selected fields of international law. We seek analysis of how the elaboration of international law at the national, regional, and international levels is affected by economic crisis, trade and investment instability, war, forced migration, international criminal networks and climate change.
Further, we welcome discussion as to what extent non-state actors (such as multinational companies or NGOs) promote the creation of new (quasi-legal) norms and why regulation is difficult by institutions at the different levels. We invite reflection over the large volume of “soft law” principles and guidelines, as well as increased resort to alternative dispute resolution forums. Can we still apply Francke’s measure of determinacy, symbolic validation, coherence and adherence to a normative hierarchy? There are dilemmas pertaining to the legitimacy of institutions at the different levels interpreting norms that have inter and intra state impact; resulting in increased resistance of states and/or private actors in implementing decisions. Is there a dilution of “good faith” implementation of treaties and rejection of the oversight monitors assigned to them? Is there a decrease in transparency and procedural fairness in national administrative agencies and judiciaries in response to increased possibility of oversight from above? What changes are occurring in relation to Koh’s identification of transnational legal processes (interaction, interpretation, and internalization) as the framework for norm evolution?
How is law created, interpreted and applied in states undergoing crisis, conflict, or post-conflict phases? What is the implication of the increased multi-disciplinary nature of normative evolution? What are the most relevant sources of law? How can we improve enforcement of norms contained in multilateral (human rights and environmental law) instruments in which simple reciprocity is unavailable? Is there a need to look beyond the law to achieve just solutions to present challenges?
Wednesday, April 14, 2010
Victims' Rights and Advocacy at the International Criminal Court is the first detailed analysis of the newly-recognized right of victims to participate in the trials of their accused abusers. Author T. Markus Funk draws on his extensive background in international criminal law and litigation to walk the reader through this unique - and, indeed, controversial - body of procedural and substantive rights for victims of atrocity crimes.
To set the stage for his analysis, Mr. Funk provides a historical account of the ICC's creation and the origins of victims' rights. In addition, Mr. Funk gives the reader practical guidance on what it takes to litigate cases before the Court.
This background, in turn, allows the reader to work through a number of key questions: How does the ICC function and how is it structured? What are the legal, theoretical, and political pillars upon which the ICC is built? What is the proper role for victims in atrocity crimes litigation? How successfully has the ICC lived up to its promises to victims? How does one become an ICC victim representative, prosecutor, or judge, and what does it take to fulfill the mandate of these positions? What are the costs and benefits sovereign nations must weigh before joining the ICC? What institutional flaws have kept the ICC, as well as other predecessor ad hoc tribunals, from meeting the weighty expectations they have set for themselves and the world community?
In addition to addressing these key issues, Mr. Funk proposes concrete reforms to help the ICC fulfill its mission of effectively redressing past atrocities, while preserving the rights of both victims and the accused. The book also presents a detailed explanation of the ICC's rules of procedure and evidence and other practical issues impacting the Court's daily litigation practice.
To the new student of international law, the subject can appear extremely complex: a system of laws created by states, international courts and tribunals operating at the national and global level. A clear guide to the subject is essential to ensure understanding. This handbook provides exactly that: written by an expert who both teaches and practises in the field, it focuses on what the law is; how it is created; and how it is applied to solve day-to-day problems. It offers a uniquely practical approach to the subject, giving it relevance and immediacy. The new edition retains a concise, user-friendly format allowing central principles such as jurisdiction and the law of treaties to be understood. In addition, it explores more specialised topics such as human rights, terrorism and the environment. This handbook is the ideal introduction for students new to international law.
At a time of unprecedented growth in arbitrations between investors and States over energy resources, International Energy Investment Law: The Pursuit of Stability examines and assesses the variety of contract- and treaty-based instruments in commercial and international law that strive to protect the respective interests of investors and States in the international energy industry. It covers most forms of energy, especially oil and gas, and considers issues arising from energy network operation including transit. It pays particular attention to their practical impact through an analysis of their enforcement by arbitration tribunals and bodies, such as the ICSID, the ICC and the LCIA. The book also examines growing challenges presented by environmental and human rights concerns to the stability of long-term agreements.
Investors in the international energy industry have long sought to secure guarantees from host States to mitigate the risk of unilateral revision of the deal at a future date. In recent years the traditional method of securing such guarantees has been supplemented by an unprecedented growth of international investment law in the form of BITs, MITs and other treaty-based instruments. Many States have also introduced guarantees into their domestic legislation. This multi-tier regime of stability has fundamentally altered the legal framework for energy investors and host States and offers extensive scope for international arbitration in the event of disputes. It is a system that is currently being tested in a number of high-value commercial disputes as a result of a wave of unilateral State action, most evidently in Latin America and East Europe. The protections for investors are being tested as arbitrators develop new notions of legitimate expectations and give content to fair and equitable treatment, while mapping out more precisely the duties which investors have to host States. This book examines critically the interaction between contract and treaty forms of stability in the new multi-tier setting, including two highly detailed regional case studies of Latin America and East Europe. In its concluding section, it looks forward to new challenges arising from climate change, human rights and environmental issues.
Anthony Cullen advances an argument for a particular approach to the interpretation of non-international armed conflict in international humanitarian law. The first part examines the origins of the ‘armed conflict’ concept and its development as the lower threshold for the application of international humanitarian law. Here the meaning of the term is traced from its use in the Hague Regulations of 1899 until the present day. The second part focuses on a number of contemporary developments which have affected the scope of non-international armed conflict. The case law of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia has been especially influential and the definition of non-international armed conflict provided by this institution is examined in detail. It is argued that this concept represents the most authoritative definition of the threshold and that, despite differences in interpretation, there exist reasons to interpret an identical threshold of application in the Rome Statute.
Tuesday, April 13, 2010
Fernandez: La politique juridique extérieure des Etats-Unis à l'égard de la Cour pénale internationale
Le Statut de Rome de la Cour pénale internationale entend instaurer une sorte de dissuasion judiciaire « égalitaire ». En raison des caractéristiques principales de ce nouveau régime, du contexte international ou de l'histoire singulière de la puissance américaine, les Etats-Unis vont s'opposer et tenter de neutraliser la première juridiction pénale internationale permanente. Washington considère que les gains relatifs que ce régime lui propose ne sont pas acceptables. Au surplus, l « exceptionnalisme » américain serait difficilement conciliable avec les prétentions d'une telle juridiction. Sous l'empire de l'Administration Bush, la politique juridique extérieure des Etats-Unis s'est cristallisée autour d'une logique de précaution contre la Cour. Les contre-mesures décidées par la puissance américaine se sont fondées sur des éléments classiques de la domination des Etats-Unis dans les relations internationales. Si la politique américaine a pu paraître excessive, en particulier entre 2002 et 2005, il n'en demeure pas moins que le refus de la C.P.I. est perçu de manière bipartisane comme relevant de l'intérêt national des Etats-Unis.
The theme for this year’s conference is compliance. The normative evolution, acceptance and development of international law continues, yet so too does the phenomenon of non-compliance. A number of papers will be presented by speakers from both academic and practitioner backgrounds on the practical and theoretical issues raised by questions of compliance understood broadly, across all areas of international law. The session themes include: Norms; Human Rights; Judges; Business; and Non-State Actors.
UNTOLD STORIES: HIDDEN HISTORIES OF WAR CRIMES TRIALS
A two-day international symposium to uncover and explore some of the less well-known war crimes trials, both international and domestic.
Melbourne Law School
15th and 16th October 2010
Presented by The Asia Pacific Centre for Military Law, Melbourne Law School, and supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery Project Grant
Organizers: Gerry Simpson, Tim McCormack, Kevin Heller, Jennifer Balint
CALL FOR PAPERS
Deadline for Abstracts: 30th May 2010
As international criminal law matures, there has been a return to history. Intriguing research agendas have focused on the origins of international criminal law in the repression of piracy or slave-trading and on the institutional innovations found at Versailles and The Hague. Meanwhile, familiar landmarks are being revisited in order to clarify ongoing doctrinal debates (aggression at Nuremberg, conspiracy at Tokyo, and so on). Alongside all of this is increased interest in less familiar war crimes trials, both international and domestic.
The idea behind this symposium is to uncover and explore some of the less well-known – perhaps even obscure – war crimes trials. As an example, Kevin Heller, one of the organizers, will be presenting a paper on the twelve Nuremberg Military Tribunals held under Control Council Law No. 10. There will also likely be papers on the war crimes trials held in Bangladesh after the secession, on the recent genocide trial in Ethiopia, and on the post-war trials under Australian jurisdiction in the Far East.
The symposium will be held over two days. We regret we cannot offer travel or accommodation expenses, but lunches and teas (morning and afternoon) will be provided. A speakers’ dinner will be held on the evening of the 15th and an informal dinner on the 16th for those who remain in town.
In addition to the organizers, confirmed participants in the symposium include Mark Drumbl and Larry May. The organizers intend to publish the papers presented at the symposium as an edited book; Oxford University Press has indicated preliminary interest.
If you are interested in presenting a paper at the symposium or contributing to the planned book, please send a 300-500 word abstract and a short C.V. no later than 30th May 2010 to Gerry Simpson c/o Cathy Hutton, Administrator, APCML (c.hutton [at] unimelb.edu.au). Doctoral students are welcome to submit abstracts.
Questions about the symposium can be directed to Kevin Heller (kheller [at] unimelb.edu.au)
- Timo Koivurova & Ismo Pölönen, Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment in the Case of the Baltic Sea Gas Pipeline
- Marta Chantal Ribeiro, The 'Rainbow': The First National Marine Protected Area Proposed Under the High Seas
- Mariano J. Aznar-Gómez, Treasure Hunters, Sunken State Vessels and the 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage
- Bjørn Kunoy, The Admissibility of a Plea to an International Adjudicative Forum to Delimit the Outer Continental Shelf Prior to the Adoption of Final Recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf
- Anne Peters, Die Anwendbarkeit der EMRK in Zeiten komplexer Hoheitsgewalt und das Prinzip der Grundrechtstoleranz
- Rainer Lagoni, Arbeitsschutz auf fremdflaggigen Seeschiffen im Hafen
- Beiträge und Berichte
- Carmen Thiele, Der völkerrechtliche Status der US-amerikanischen Militärbasis Guantánamo in Kuba
- Christoph Herrmann, Don Yuan - Chinas selbstsüchtige Wechselkurspolitik und das Internationale Wirtschaftsrecht
Quand est-ce qu'une occupation commence ? Quand est-ce qu'elle prend tin ? Quels sont les éléments à prendre en considération pour déterminer qu'un territoire est occupé et que l'armée étrangère est une puissance occupante ? Est-ce que la présence des troupes étrangères sur le territoire d'un Etat déclenche, à elle seule, l'application du droit de l'occupation ? Est-ce que le Conseil de sécurité peut imposer la fin d'une occupation ou moduler l'applicabilité du droit de l'occupation ? Les occupations dites « transformatives », constituent-elles réellement une catégorie particulière d'occupation que le jus in bello serait, par hypothèse, incapable à régir ? C'est à toutes ces questions que le présent ouvrage tente de répondre.
La doctrine s'est penchée dernièrement avec un intérêt accru sur les règles substantielles du droit international humanitaire relatif à l'occupation. Or, avant d'analyser ce qu'une Puissance occupante peut ou ne peut pas faire, des questions préliminaires s'imposent : quelles sont les situations régies par le droit de l'occupation et quand l'application de ce droit prend fin ? Ces interrogations ont été examinées de manière inversement proportionnelle à leur complexité, complexité illustrée d'ailleurs par une série de précédents récents (Afghanistan, Irak, Gaza). En premier lieu, cet ouvrage entend déterminer à partir de quand et jusqu'à quand le droit international humanitaire relatif à l'occupation s'applique. Cependant, l'axe principal de l'analyse consiste à démontrer que, si l'application du droit de l'occupation dépend principalement de la réalité factuelle sur le terrain, d'autres éléments que les faits (p.ex. une résolution du Conseil de sécurité, le consentement de l'Etat sur le territoire duquel les forces étrangères sont déployées etc.) exercent une influence considérable, voire parfois décisive, sur cette application. Ainsi, plus qu'une liste des situations constituant ou pas une occupation belligérante, le lecteur trouvera dans cet ouvrage une analyse articulée du rôle et de l'interaction des faits et des éléments « non factuels » dans l'existence d'une occupation belligérante et dans le début et la fin de l'application du droit de l'occupation.
Monday, April 12, 2010
In its early years, the model of a healthy and cooperative synergy between the ICC and domestic states is in danger of being replaced by a model of competition. At present, the Rome Statute obligates states parties to cooperate with the Court in a variety of ways throughout the investigation and prosecution of persons. Those obligations are not reciprocated by countervailing requirements for the Prosecutor or the Registry to consult with, much less cooperate with, states parties. The practice of complementarity may well be the fulcrum supporting the Court’s long term legitimacy; and this principle is all the more important because it is designed to provide intellectual leverage to move non-states party towards treaty accession. The plain text of Article 1 compels the conclusion that the International Criminal Court was intended to supplement the foundation of domestic punishment for violations of international norms rather than supplant domestic prosecutions. The Statute curtails sovereign authority by displacing domestic trials only in exceptional circumstances, and includes detailed procedural guidance designed to balance sovereign enforcement against improper extensions of ICC prosecutorial power. The Court and states parties should be joined in a partnership based on mutual respect and a renewed resolve to end impunity. Such a healthy synergy is by no means assured, and could be undermined by any of three emerging trends discussed herein - 1) the extension of judicial constructs beyond those envisioned by states, 2) an aggressive erosion of complementarity in practice, or 3) excessive politicization of charging decisions. If the Court habitually overrides the discretion of domestic officials and displaces their authority based on its own preferences or the expediency of political considerations, the entire premise of the complementarity principle will have been eviscerated. States parties would be wise to address these disquieting signals. This article concludes by making a series of specific textual recommendations that in the aggregate would go far towards preventing a crisis of confidence and cooperation that could cripple the Court of the future.
Special Issue of the Leiden Journal of International Law (2011)
Foucault and International Law
Abstracts due by 12 May 2010; Complete articles by 17 September 2010
The Leiden Journal of International Law is now soliciting articles for a special issue exploring the relevance of Foucault’s oeuvre to international law and legal theory. Apart from its merits for philosophy, political theory and sociology, the importance of Michel Foucault as a legal thinker (both as a thinker of law in his own right and as a thinker whose work can be illuminating for legal studies) is increasingly being felt. With the continuing translation and publication of Foucault’s lecture courses at the Collège de France and the ongoing importance of his already published work, Foucault’s work continues to provide fertile suggestions for rethinking many of our established notions of law, right(s), sovereignty and legal subjectivity. Yet to date there have been, with some notable exceptions, few sustained treatments of Foucault’s relevance to international law and international legal theory. This is the subject of Issue 2 of volume 24 (2011) of the Leiden Journal of International Law (LJIL).
What is the relevance of Foucaultian methodologies (archaeology, genealogy, problematisation) to international law and international legal theory? What does a Foucaultian analytic of international law entail? How can we use it to analyse international legal subjectivity? How does that relate to, inter alia, sovereign statehood and/or human rights law? How can the Foucaultian toolbox contribute to our understanding of the devolution of international public law, its fragmentation and specialisation (e.g. as an instance of governmentality)? What about international law ‘from below’ (the relevance of Foucaultian models of power/resistance, anti-globalisation perspectives and critiques of neoliberalism and the global rule of law, for example). These questions are just a number of suggestions, intended as provocations for thought, within the general theme of ‘Foucault and International law’ we invite contributors to interrogate and critically engage with.
Contributors will be asked to prepare an article of approximately 10,000 words (including footnotes) for publication in the LJIL, consistent with its instructions for authors. Those interested in contributing are requested to respond to this Call for Papers by email to managing editor Christine Tremblay (firstname.lastname@example.org) by 12 May 2010, attaching a 300-word abstract of the article you propose to contribute.
The selected authors are requested to submit the full articles by 17 September 2010. All contributions will be subject to double-blind peer review in accordance with the usual procedures of the LJIL. Please contact the LJIL (guest) editors with any further questions: Tanja Aalberts (email@example.com) and/or Ben Golder (firstname.lastname@example.org).
The Leiden Journal of International Law is published with Cambridge University Press, and provides a forum for two vital areas, namely international legal theory and international dispute settlement. For further information, please visit the journal’s website.
According to Andre Nollkaemper, the problem of “system criminality” reveals a flaw in the international criminal law’s focus on individual liability.Because many of the criminal acts prohibited by international criminal law are inextricably intertwined with the political and legal system from which it emerges, Nollkaemper argues, international criminal law should be reconsidered to address these systemic factors. Otherwise, it cannot achieve its second goal of deterring future criminal activity. In this comment, I suggest that pursuing system criminality would actually tend to worsen the problems Nollkaemper seeks to address. By widening the set of individuals who are likely to resist prosecution, the pursuit of system criminality is more likely to strengthen rather than weaken the regime’s resisting international criminal prosecution, both in the short term and possibly in the long term as well. I use the recent ICC arrest warrants against Sudan’s sitting President and Minister of the Interior as early evidence of the dangers of Nollkaemper’s proposal.
Call for Submissions – Chinese (Taiwan) Yearbook of International Law and Affairs
The Chinese (Taiwan) Yearbook of International Law and Affairs commenced publication in 1981 and is jointly published by Cameron May and the Chinese (Taiwan) Society of International Law. The Yearbook contains contributions addressing issues in international law and international relations with a focus on Taiwan, Mainland China and the Asia Pacific.
Prospective authors interested in publishing in Volume 27 of the Yearbook should submit a manuscript on any topics in the field of international law to email@example.com by August 1, 2010. Authors are requested to follow Guidelines for Submissions. Previous volumes of the Yearbook are also available on Westlaw and HeinOnline. General inquiries about the Yearbook can be directed to Pasha Hsieh, Managing Editor, at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The University of Glasgow has ambitious and exciting plans for expansion and development of teaching and research in law. It is investing heavily in the School of Law and this investment will ensure that Glasgow claims a place as one of the top seven law schools in the UK and one of the top forty in the world. These plans include a large expansion in staff, a major increase in research activity and establishing a range of new LLM and other postgraduate programmes. . . .
A crucial part of these developments and of our vision for the future of legal education at Glasgow will be a major expansion of our research and teaching activities in two overlapping areas: international law and law and security. The theme of law and security refers to a range of issues of contemporary importance in both international and national law which in various ways represent major threats (global and local) to national and international security. Specific threats would include terrorism, (forced) migration, environmental degradation, armed conflict and constraints on supply of energy, food, water and other essential resources.
The intention is to examine the legal dimensions of these issues, notably by assessing the contribution of law and legal processes to effective responses, as well as the role of (international) legal standards as a constraint on responses. Specific developments will include new taught postgraduate programmes, additional research students and funded research in the area of law and security.