As substantive economic and social phenomena, international trade and investment are inextricably linked. Yet like twins separated at birth, for decades they have been regulated by discrete international legal systems. Despite the historic parting of their respective legal systems, international trade and investment are more closely tied to each other today than ever before, with a significant portion of international trade and investment flows occurring in global supply chains within transnational corporations. However, convergence between trade and investment law is piecemeal, lacking a unifying logic. Taking a relatively compartmentalized issue - the differential treatment of subsidies in trade and in investment - as a case in point, this essay will query whether the continued distinction between trade and investment law, derived from historical and political causes that are no longer relevant, is still justified, or whether it is time to seriously consider consolidating and reconceiving the two fields as one.
Saturday, November 12, 2011
Friday, November 11, 2011
- Roberto Baratta, National Courts as ‘Guardians’ and ‘Ordinary Courts’ of EU Law: Opinion 1/09 of the ECJ
- Yun Zhao, Liberalization of Legal Services under the CEPA Framework between Mainland China and Hong Kong
- Shintaro Hamanaka, Comparative Analysis of Technical Assistance Obligations under WTO and FTAs: The Missing Perspective of the Regionalism-Multilateralism Debate
- Luke Haasbeek, Soft Drugs under Scrutiny: How ‘Easy Going’ Is the Court?
- Susan Marks, Law and the Production of Superfluity
- John McKay, Power Dynamics, Social Complexity and the Rule of Law in Development Aid: Why a (Social) Scientific View of Law should Turn our Focus to Power
- Filippo Fontanelli, Santi Romano and L'ordinamento giuridico: The Relevance of a Forgotten Masterpiece for Contemporary International, Transnational and Global Legal Relations
- Anne Peters, Die funktionale Immunität internationaler Organisationen und die Rechtsweggarantie
- Robert Kolb, Note sur un problème particulier de « ratification imparfaite » (article 46 de la Convention de Vienne sur le droit des traites de 1969)
- Anne-Sophie Papeil, La divergence d’interprétation d’une convention de droit international privé constitue-t-elle une violation d’un traité ? Le cas particulier de la Convention de Lugano
- Harald Brekke & Philip Symonds, Submarine Ridges and Elevations of Article 76 in Light of Published Summaries of Recommendations of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf
- Aldo Chircop, Managing Adjacency: Some Legal Aspects of the Relationship Between the Extended Continental Shelf and the International Seabed Area
- Jia Yu & Wu Ji-Lu, The Outer Continental Shelf of Coastal States and the Common Heritage of Mankind
- Anna-Maria Hubert, The New Paradox in Marine Scientific Research: Regulating the Potential Environmental Impacts of Conducting Ocean Science
- Nengye Liu & Frank Maes, Prevention of Vessel-Source Marine Pollution: A Note on the Challenges and Prospects for Chinese Practice Under International Law
- Elizabeth Riddell-Dixon, Meeting the Deadline: Canada's Arctic Submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf
- Nicholas Rostow, Combating Terrorists: Legal Challenges in the Post-9/11 World
- John F. Murphy, Mission Impossible? International Law and the Changing Character of War
- Matthew C. Waxman, Cyber Attacks as “Force” under UN Charter Article 2(4)
- Sean Watts, Low-Intensity Computer Network Attack and Self-Defense
- Michael N. Schmitt, Cyber Operations and the Jus in Bello: Key Issues
- Robert M. Chesney, Who May Be Held? Military Detention through the Habeas Lens
- Charles Garraway, The Changing Character of the Participants in War: Civilianization of Warfighting and the Concept of “Direct Participation in Hostilities”
- Françoise J. Hampson, Direct Participation in Hostilities and the Interoperability of the Law of Armed Conflict and Human Rights Law
- Raul A. “Pete” Pedrozo, Use of Unmanned Systems to Combat Terrorism
- Darren M. Stewart, New Technology and the Law of Armed Conflict
- David E. Graham, The Law of Armed Conflict in Asymmetric Urban Armed Conflict
- Charles J. Dunlap, Jr., Lawfare Today . . . and Tomorrow
- Dale Stephens, The Age of Lawfare
- Pnina Sharvit Baruch & Noam Neuman, Warning Civilians Prior to Attack under International Law: Theory and Practice
- Rob McLaughlin, The Changing Character of Public Legal Scrutiny of Operations
- Ashley S. Deeks, Litigating How We Fight
- Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg, Asymmetric Warfare: How to Respond?
- Yoram Dinstein, Concluding Remarks: LOAC and Attempts to Abuse or Subvert It
Thursday, November 10, 2011
- C. Favilli, L’attuazione in Italia della direttiva rimpatri: dall’inerzia all’urgenza con scarsa cooperazione
- F.C. Villata, Obblighi alimentari e rapporti di famiglia secondo il regolamento n. 4/2009
- Note e commenti
- B. Ubertazzi, Su alcuni aspetti problematici della Convenzione per la salvaguardia del patrimonio culturale intangibile
- S. Vezzani, Sul previo esaurimento dei mezzi di ricorso interni in situazioni di occupazione territoriale illegittima
- E. Cannizzaro, Responsabilità di proteggere e intervento delle Nazioni Unite in Libia
- L. Magi, Protezione dei richiedenti asilo « par ricochet » o protezione « par moitié »? La Grande Camera ripartisce fra gli Stati contraenti le responsabilità per violazione della Convenzione europea conseguenti al trasferimento di un richiedente asilo in attuazione del regolamento « Dublino II »
- O. Feraci, L’abolizione dell’exequatur nella proposta di revisione del regolamento n. 44/2001: quale destino per i motivi di rifiuto del riconoscimento e dell’esecuzione delle decisioni
- Vincent Chetail, Théorie et pratique de l'asile en droit international classique : étude sur les origines conceptuelles et normatives du droit international des réfugiés
- Louis Le Hardy De Beaulieu, La piraterie maritime à l'aube du XXIème siècle
- Marie-Clotilde Runavot, L'avenir du "modèle intergouvernemental" de l'organisation internationale
- Robert Kolb, La clausula rebus sic stantibus s'applique-t-elle aussi au droit international coutumier?
- Michel Montjoie, L'utilité douteuse de la Directive 2009/71/Euratom sur la sûreté nucléaire à la lumière de l'accident de Fukushima du 11 mars 2011
The role of nationality in the application of international humanitarian law has been a source of recurring controversy. This article attempts to critically analyse the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, which has radically expanded the traditional scope of application of Geneva Convention IV. Even though the approach of the Tribunal is commendable from the perspective of further humanization of humanitarian law, the radical departure from the original construction of the Convention might present more dangers than benefits.
One of the most difficult issues in cyber conflict is the application of territorial sovereignty and other geographic principles to an activity that defies the traditional notions of borders. The structure of the internet and the protocols by which it operates, including the inability to direct the path over which internet traffic travels, raise questions about the application of law of armed conflict provisions, such as the doctrine of neutrality, to cyber conflict. This paper analyzes the doctrine of neutrality in cyber conflict and argues that most provisions are still applicable to international armed conflicts but that some evolution would add clarity in the cyber age.
The paper then turns its attention to the vexing problem of non-international armed conflicts, or NIACs, where the traditional doctrine of neutrality is not applicable but would prove useful in preventing actions by both States and non-State actors that might tend to escalate the conflict. Applying the law of neutrality to NIACs would also provide non-Parties to the NIAC an additional legal paradigm with authority to prevent cyber actions within their territories.
Wednesday, November 9, 2011
Bannelier, Christakis, & Heathcote: The ICJ and the Evolution of International Law: The Enduring Impact of the Corfu Channel Case
In 1949 the International Court of Justice (ICJ) handed down its first judgment in the Corfu Channel Case. In diffusing an early Cold War dispute, the Court articulated a set of legal principles which continue to shape our appreciation of the international legal order. Many of the issues dealt with by the Court in 1949 remain central questions of international law, including due diligence, forcible intervention and self-help, maritime operations, navigation in international straits and the concept of elementary considerations of humanity. The Court’s decision has been cited on numerous occasions in subsequent international litigation. Indeed, the relevance of this judgment goes far beyond the subject matter dealt with by the Court in 1949, extending to pressing problems such as trans-boundary pollution, terrorism and piracy. In short, it was and remains a thoroughly modern decision — a landmark for international law; and one which today still warrants examination sixty years later.
Taking a critical approach, this book examines the decision’s influence on international law generally and on some fields of international law like the law of the sea and the law of international responsibility specifically. The book collects the commentary of a distinguished set of international law scholars, including five well-known international judges. The contributors consider not only the history of the Corfu Channel Judgment and its contribution to the development of international law, but also its resonance in many contemporary issues in the field of international law.
The International Criminal Court (ICC) was created by the Rome Statute to prosecute and adjudicate international crimes, such as war crimes and crimes against humanity. Pursuant to the Rome Statute, the ICC applies a jurisdictional rule known as the rule of complementarity. This rule commits the ICC not to prosecute crimes that are being prosecuted by a state that has concurrent jurisdiction. The ICC could have adopted a rule of primacy – such as that adopted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) – that would have allowed it to prosecute cases even if they were being tried in another jurisdiction. This paper explores the conditions under which the rule of complementarity better deters officers from violating the statute than the rule of primacy. It concludes that the jurisdictional rule that creates better deterrence depends on the type of states under the ICC's jurisdiction, that is whether there are more corrupt states or rule of law states, as well as on the probability that the ICC will use its scarce resources to prosecute particular officers.
This article proposes an exploration of the 'legacy' of the ICTY through the experience of some of its actors and observers. It is based on material provided by a dozen interviews and written in the spirit of understanding the tribunal's legacy as a collection of complex individual narratives of what the tribunal stands for, what it did well, and what it might have done better. The legacy of the ICTY as an international criminal tribunal on the one hand, and as a device for transitional justice on the other hand are considered. Although a tension is found to exist between a more 'forensic' and a more 'transitional' view of its role which is particularly manifest in determining the tribunal's constituencies and policies, the two are also linked. There is broad consensus about the tribunal's importance, but on the eve of its closing, also a sense of the limits of what international criminal justice can aspire to achieve.
Goldmann: Sovereign Debt Crises as Triggers of Armed Conflict: Restructuring Under Chapter VII of the UN Charter?
Recently, a growing amount of data suggests that there is an intricate relationship between sovereign debt and civil unrest. This article proposes that the powers of the UN Security Council, and in particular its experience with the imposition of sanctions, should be used in order to restructure sovereign debt before a situation aggravates and leads to the outbreak of civil unrest or an armed conflict. The proposal entails some intricate legal questions. First, it requires a reconsideration of Article 39 of the UN Charter, the threshold for the power of the Security Council to adopt binding resolutions. Second, conflicts of competence might arise between the Security Council and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Third, the rights of the holders of sovereign bonds need to be respected.
Le présent ouvrage est dédié au Pacte mondial, instrument unique en son genre dans le paysage juridique international. En effet, sous l’égide de l’Organisation des Nations Unies, il met à contribution les acteurs privés, la société civile, les organisations internationales et les États dans la promotion de 10 principes universels, dans les domaines des droits de l’homme, du droit de l’environnement et des droits sociaux. Lancé en 2000 sur une initiative du Secrétaire général Kofi Annan, le Pacte mondial occupe désormais une place incontournable sur la scène internationale. Rassemblant les contributions présentées lors d’une conférence à Genève organisée pour le 10e anniversaire du Pacte mondial, cet ouvrage s’attache à en présenter le profil juridique et politique mais également à analyser les réussites et les limites de cet instrument. Les contributeurs présentent ainsi les forces et les faiblesses d’un instrument, non contraignant, basé sur la volonté de s’engager de ses adhérents, que sont les entreprises, s’inscrivant par là-même dans le mouvement de la «soft law» et de la responsabilité sociale des entreprises. Les auteurs examinent également, en étayant leurs analyses avec les résultats de recherches précises, les modalités effectives de mise en oeuvre des engagements du Pacte, tant dans le domaine du travail que dans celui de l’environnement. Toutes les facettes de cet instrument sont présentées, que ce soit la coopération avec les États ou le rôle des organisations internationales dans la réalisation et la promotion des objectifs du Pacte. Des perspectives d’évolution et de perfectionnement, notamment quant à la question d’une éventuelle sanction plus efficace, sont proposées. Se dessinent ainsi les contours d’une possible responsabilité sociale et environnementale des entreprises multinationales dans un monde globalisé.
Tuesday, November 8, 2011
Posner & Sykes: Efficient Breach of International Law: Optimal Remedies, "Legalized Noncompliance," and Related Issues
In much of the scholarly literature on international law, there is a tendency to condemn violations of the law and to leave it at that. If all violations of international law were indeed undesirable, this tendency would be unobjectionable. We argue in this Article, however, that a variety of circumstances arise under which violations of international law are desirable from an economic standpoint. The reasons why are much the same as the reasons why nonperformance of private contracts is sometimes desirable-the concept of "efficient breach," familiar to modern students of contract law, has direct applicability to international law. As in the case of private contracts, it is important for international law to devise remedial or other mechanisms that encourage compliance where appropriate and facilitate noncompliance where appropriate. To this end, violators ideally should internalize the costs that violations impose on other nations, but should not be "punished" beyond this level. We show that the (limited) international law of remedies, both at a general level and in certain subfields of international law, can be understood to be consistent with this principle. We also consider other mechanisms that may serve to "legalize" efficient deviation from international rules, as well as the possibility that breach of international obligations may facilitate efficient evolution of the underlying substantive law.
- Gabrielle Marceau, IGOs in Crisis? Or New Opportunities to Demonstrate Responsibility?
- Anne Peters, The security Council's Responsibility to Protect
- Scott P. Sheeran, A Constitutional Moment?: United Nations Peacekeeping in the Democratic Republic of Congo
- Renuka Dhinakaran, Law of the International Civil service: A Venture into Legal Theory
- Joachim Gruber, European schools: A subject of International Law Integrated into the European Union
- Wouter Werner & Bertjan Wolthuis, World Legislation Perspectives from International Law, Legal Theory and Political Philosophy
- C.H. Powell, A Fullerian Analysis of security Council Legislation
- Gary Remer, Ciceronian Ius Gentium and World Legislation
- J.A. Vos, World Legislation as Deliberation about the Common Good of International society
- Ramses A. Wessel, Informal International Law-Making as a New Form of World Legislation?
- Katharina Boele-Woelki, For Better or for Worse: The Europeanization of International Divorce Law
- Chen Weizuo, Chinese Private International Law Statute of 28 October 2010
- Talia Einhorn, The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments: on International Commercial Arbitral Awards
- Sixto Sanchez Lorenzo, Choice of Law and Overriding Mandatory Rules in International Contracts after Rome I
- Recent Developments in U.S. Conflicts of Laws
- Patrick J. Borchers, The Emergence of Quasi Rules in U.S. Conflicts Law
- Ronald A. Brand, U.S. Implementation vel non of the 2005 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements
- Linda J. Silberman, Morrison v. National Australia Bank: Implications for Global Securities Class Actions
- Robert G. Spector, A Guide to United States Case Law under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction
- David P. Stewart, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the United States
- Symeon C. Symeonides, Codifying Choice of Law for Tort Conflicts: The Oregon Experience in Comparative Perspective
- The Revision of the Brussels I Regulation
- Andrew Dickinson, Surveying the Proposed Brussels I bis Regulation: Solid Foundations but Renovation Needed
- Adrian Briggs, What Should Be Done about Jurisdiction Agreements?
- Alegría Borrás, Application of the Brussels I Regulation to External Situations – From Studies Carried Out by the European Group for Private International Law (EGPIL/GEDIP) to the Proposal for the Revision of the Regulation
- Rafael Arenas García, Abolition of Exequatur: Problems and Solutions – Mutual Recognition, Mutual Trust and Recognition of Foreign Judgments: Too Many Words in the Sea
- Sara Sánchez Fernández, Choice-of-Court Agreements: Breach and Damages Within the Brussels I Regime
- Diana Sancho Villa, Jurisdiction over Jurisdiction and Choice of Court Agreements: Views on the Hague Convention of 2005 and Implications for the European Regime
- John Quigley, Britain's Secret Re-Assessment of the Balfour Declaration. The Perfidy of Albion
- Yang Zewei, Western International Law and China's Confucianism in the 19th Century. Collision and Integration
- Awalou Ouedraogo, La neutralité et l'émergence du concept de due diligence en droit international. L'affaire de l'Alabama revisitée
- Frederik Dhondt, From Contract to Treaty. The Legal Transformation of the Spanish Succession 1659-1713
- William E. Butler, David Bailie Warden and the Development of American Consular Law
Monday, November 7, 2011
- Claude E. Welch Jr. & Ashley F. Watkins, Extending Enforcement: The Coalition for the International Criminal Court
- Geoffrey W.G. Leane, Rights of Ethnic Minorities in Liberal Democracies: Has France Gone Too Far in Banning Muslim Women from Wearing the Burka?
- Ruth Rubio-Marín & Clara Sandoval, Engendering the Reparations Jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights: The Promise of the Cotton Field Judgment
- Lyle Scruggs, Shareen Hertel, Samuel J. Best & Christopher Jeffords, Information, Choice and Political Consumption: Human Rights in the Checkout Lane
- Tom Parker, Redressing the Balance: How Human Rights Defenders Can Use Victim Narratives to Confront the Violence of Armed Groups
- Ariadna Estévez, Human Rights in Contemporary Political Sociology: The Primacy of Social Subjects
- Nicholas Azadi Goodfellow, The Miscategorization of 'Forced Marriage' as a Crime against Humanity by the Special Court for Sierra Leone
- Krit Zeegers, Defence Counsel Immunity at the Ad Hoc Tribunals
- Locknie Hsu, International Investment Disputes: Ideological Fault Lines and an Evolving Zeitgeist
- Moshe Hirsch, Between Fair and Equitable Treatment and Stabilization Clause: Stable Legal Environment and Regulatory Change in International Investment Law
- Kevin P. Gallagher & Elen Shrestha, Investment Treaty Arbitration and Development: A Re-Appraisal
- Gilbert Gagné, The U.S. Policy on the Protection of Foreign Investment: From the NAFTA to the U.S.-Korea FTA
- Syed Tariq Anwar, Internationalization, Investment Opportunities, Expansion Strategies, and the Changing Telecom Industry in the MENA Region
- Ruwantissa Abeyratne, Investing in Mitigating the Effects of Aircraft Engine Emissions
The Conference aims to bring together leading academics, international judges and practitioners, state representatives, and members of civil society, to explore the impact of the Tribunal’s work on international humanitarian law and international criminal procedure, as well as the potential of its jurisprudence to shape the future of global justice and the advancement of human rights.
- Monika Pauknerová, Treatment of foreign law in a comparative perspective
- Spiros V. Bazinas, Uniform receivables financing law: key policy aspects of the United Nations Convention on the assignment of receivables in international trade
- Constantine D. Mortopoulos, Cave canes impugnates: a legal analysis on armed contractors, ‘peaceful mercenaries’, and the consequences on command responsibility
- Special File: Adoption law in the Balkans: International conference organized by the Institute for the State & the Law of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Sofia, 10 October 2010
- Ekrem Kurt, Adoption in the Turkish civil law
- Ines Medić Musa, International adoption in countries of South-eastern Europe: Croatia – national legislation, applicable law
- Flavius George Pancescu, L’adoption en Roumanie
- Antonia R. Papadelli - Adoption according to Greek law
- Zeynep Derya Tarman, Adoption under Turkish law
- Spyridon Vrellis, The ordre public clause in the Greek case law on adoption
- Mirko Živković & Sanja Marjanović, International adoption in Serbian law
- Questionnaire on the law of adoption (A.R. Papadelli & Z.D. Tarman)
- Georgios Panopoulos, Quels droits fondamentaux pour quel droit communautaire
- Eleni Zervogianni, On the recovery of non-pecuniary loss in Greece
Sunday, November 6, 2011
- Larissa van den Herik & Daniëlla Dam-De Jong, Revitalizing the Antique War Crime of Pillage: The Potential and Pitfalls of Using International Criminal Law to Address Illegal Resource Exploitation during Armed Conflict
- Marjolein Cupido, The Policy Underlying Crimes Against Humanity: Practical Reflections on a Theoretical Debate
- Sienna Merope, Recharacterizing the Lubanga Case: Regulation 55 and the Consequences for Gender Justice at the ICC
- Symposium: The STL Appeals Chamber Decision
- Joseph Powderly, Introductory observations on the STL appeals chamber decision: context and critical remarks
- Ben Saul, Amicus Curiae Brief on the Notion of Terrorist Acts Submitted to the Appeals Chamber of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon Pursuant to Rule 131 of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence
- Kai Ambos, Amicus Curiae Brief Submitted to the Appeals Chamber of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon on the Question of the Applicable Terrorism Offence with a Particular Focus on “Special” Special Intent and/or a Special Motive as Additional Subjective Requirements
- Susana Sácouto & Katherine Cleary, Amicus Curiae Brief on the Practice of Cumulative Charging Before International Criminal Bodies Submitted to the Appeals Chamber of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon Pursuant to Rule 131 of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence