The International Journal of Transitional Justice (IJTJ) invites submissions for its 2012 special issue entitled "Transitional Justice and the Everyday: Micro-perspectives of justice and social repair" to be guest edited by Pilar Riaño Alcalá (Associate Professor, School of Social Work and Liu Institute for Global Studies, University of British Columbia) and Erin Baines (Assistant Professor, Liu Institute for Global Issues, University of British Columbia).
In this special issue, the IJTJ will consider how people seek and experience justice after mass atrocity in the context of everyday life. Specific questions to be addressed will include:
- How do communities repair social relationships and networks that violence so often tears apart?
- Through what informal micro-processes and performances do people make sense of and address violent pasts, seek acknowledgement, accountability and justice?
- How do individuals or communities encounter and respond to formal national mechanisms such as truth commissions and trials or efforts to demobilize and reintegrate combatants?
- How do individuals and communities respond to state-generated histories of the past? How do they generate their own narratives about the past?
- How are local meanings of justice and social repair given expression in informal and formal TJ mechanisms?
Further areas may include:
- The meaning of justice and social repair in the context of the everyday
- Rebuilding lives, social networks and relationships
- Indigenous processes and mechanisms for healing, reconciliation and justice
- Ceremonial, ritual and spiritual processes of reconciliation
- Performance and artistic expressions
- Local initiatives of storytelling, memory making and truth telling
- Relationships and tensions between informal and formal processes at the local level
- Formal/state engagement and its impact at community level
IJTJ encourages the submission of papers from a broad spectrum of disciplines: philosophy, literary studies, political science, theatre, Indigenous studies, race and gender studies, post-colonial studies, sociology, anthropology, psychology, criminology, law, memory studies, among others.
The deadline for submissions is April 1, 2012. Papers should be submitted online from the IJTJ webpage at www.ijtj.oxfordjournals.org
For questions or further information, please contact the Managing Editor at email@example.com
Saturday, July 30, 2011
Friday, July 29, 2011
- Rusniah Ahmad & David I. Efevwerhan, The ICJ Opinion on Kosovo: Symphony or Cacophony?
- R. Bhanu Krishna Kiran, Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims
- Timothy F. Yerima, African Regional Human Rights Courts: Features and Comparative Critique with the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights
- Selvi Ganesh, Educational Service and International Law
- Anna Konert, Operations of Embarking and Disembarking as a Condition of Air Carrier Liability under Warsaw/Montreal Conventions
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is often accused of, at best, not paying enough attention to human rights or, at worst, facilitating and perpetuating human rights abuses. This book weighs these criticisms and examines their validity, incorporating legal arguments as well as some economic and political science perspectives.
After introducing the respective WTO and human rights regimes, and discussing their legal and normative relationship to each other, the book presents a detailed analysis of the main human rights concerns relating to the WTO. These include the alleged democratic deficit within the Organization and the impact of WTO rules on the right to health, labour rights, the right to food, and on questions of poverty and development.
Given that some of the most important issues within the WTO concern its impact on poor people within developing States, the book asks whether rich States have an obligation to the people of poorer States to construct a fairer trading system that better facilitates the alleviation of poverty and development. Against this background, the book examines the current Doha round proposals as well as suggestions for reform of the WTO to make it more 'human rights-friendly'.
- Gonzalo Villalta Puig & Bader Al-Haddabpp, The Transparency Deficit of Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization
- Kim Them Dopp, Competition Law and Policy and Economic Development in Developing Countries
- Ying Bipp, The Application of a ‘Market Share’ Test to Antidumping Cases in China - Seeking a New Development Model viathe Interaction of Trade and Competition
- Xiaojing Qin, Foreigners’ Right to Acquire Land under International Economic Agreements
The latest issue of International Organization (Vol. 65, no. 3, Summer 2011) is out. Contents include:
- Research Articles
- Todd Allee & Clint Peinhardt, Contingent Credibility: The Impact of Investment Treaty Violations on Foreign Direct Investment
- Bridget Coggins, Friends in High Places: International Politics and the Emergence of States from Secessionism
- Robert F. Trager, Multidimensional Diplomacy
- Research Notes
- Kristopher W. Ramsay, Revisiting the Resource Curse: Natural Disasters, the Price of Oil, and Democracy
- Glen Biglaiser & David Lektzian, The Effect of Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Direct Investment
- Review Essay
- Jeffrey K. Staton & Will H. Moore, Judicial Power in Domestic and International Politics
- Dissent and Response
- Erik Gartzke & Megumi Naoi, Multilateralism and Democracy: A Dissent Regarding Keohane, Macedo, and Moravcsik
- Robert O. Keohane, Stephen Macedo & Andrew Moravcsik, Constitutional Democracy and World Politics: A Response to Gartzke and Naoi
Thursday, July 28, 2011
- Amin George Forji, What Goes Around Comes Around: The Return of Rejected Western Standards on Investment Through Bilateral Investment Treaties
- B.C. Nirmal, Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: An Overview
- M.K. Sanu, The SPS Agreement, Risk Assessment and Science — in Troubled Waters?
- Shikhar Ranjan, The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010: An Introductory Note
- Dilip Lahiri, The International Criminal Court Reaches A Milestone: Should India Continue to Stay Out?
- Ravindra Pratap, India, WTO and Shrimp II: Yet Another Interpretational Loss to India
Liberalism is not pacifism. Loosely-speaking liberal states - states that attach importance, at least internally, to individual autonomy - have frequently been willing to use military force; they have also, on occasion, fought aggressive wars of choice. But liberal ideology and practice are not at ease with military adventures: war of its very nature involves attacks on life; it usually requires some kind of trade-off between security and liberty; and it encourages a warrior ethos that draws upon non-liberal motivations.
On July 6-7 2012, the University of Reading’s Leverhulme-supported Major Research Programme ‘The Liberal Way of War’ will host a conference concerned with the past, present, and future of ‘Liberal Wars’. It will be concerned with the constraints on liberal belligerent states arising from their liberal commitments, the tensions between liberal professions and the realities of large-scale warfare, and the way that such states represent their actions to themselves. We welcome proposals for papers (or for thematically-connected panels) from scholars with backgrounds in History, Law, International Relations, Strategic Studies, or Political Theory. Papers will, amongst other things, address the following questions:
How do liberals justify fighting?
What constraints do they respect?
Have those constraints been changing over time?
Has behaviour that flouts those constraints been counterproductive?
How do liberal wars end?
Are there ideological reasons for recent wars of choice?
We welcome case studies of conflicts or ideas derived from any place or period. Brief abstracts should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org before October 20 2011. Informal enquiries may be sent to Alan Cromartie (email@example.com).
- International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes: Global Trading Resource Corp. v. Ukraine, with introductory note by John R. Crook
- International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: Prosecutor v. Šljivančanin, with introductory note by Jennifer Easterday
- UN Security Council Resolution 1966: International Residual Mechanism for the ICTY and ICTR, with introductory note by Ruth Frolich
- Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, with introductory note by Daniel H. Joyner
- Brasilia Declaration on the Protection of Refugees and Stateless Persons in the Americas, with introductory note by Daniel Costa
- European Court of Human Rights: M.S.S. v. Belgium & Greece, with introductory note by Patricia Mallia
- Cross-Straits Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement, with introductory note by Elizabeth Chien-Hale
When citizens of Ecuador sued Texaco, Inc. in a U.S. court seeking damages for oil contamination in the Amazon, Texaco successfully moved to dismiss the suit in favor of Ecuador based on the forum non conveniens doctrine, arguing – as that doctrine requires – that Ecuador was an adequate alternative forum and more appropriate than the United States for hearing the suit. The plaintiffs then refiled the suit in Ecuador, and a court there entered a multi-billion dollar judgment against Chevron Corporation, which had merged with Texaco. Chevron now argues that the Ecuadorian legal system suffers from deficiencies that should render the judgment unenforceable.
Recently, other defendants have also been experiencing this type of “forum shopper’s remorse.” Having obtained what they wished for – a forum non-conveniens dismissal in favor of a foreign judiciary with a supposedly more pro-defendant legal environment than the United States – they are encountering unexpectedly pro-plaintiff outcomes, including substantial judgments against them. And, like Chevron, they are then arguing that the foreign judiciary suffers from inadequacies that should preclude enforcement of a judgment obtained there by the plaintiff – an argument seemingly at odds with the earlier forum non conveniens argument that the same foreign judiciary was adequate and more appropriate.
This Article shows that under current doctrine, these seemingly inconsistent arguments are not necessarily inconsistent at all. The forum non conveniens doctrine’s foreign judicial adequacy standard is lenient, plaintiff-focused and ex ante, whereas the judgment enforcement doctrine’s standard is relatively strict, defendant-focused, and ex post. Therefore, the same foreign judiciary may be adequate for a forum non conveniens dismissal, but inadequate for purposes of enforcing an ensuing foreign judgment. The result can be a transnational access-to-justice gap: A plaintiff may be denied both court access in the United States and a remedy based on a foreign court judgment. This Article argues that this gap should be closed, and it proposes doctrinal changes to accomplish this.
Feinäugle: Hoheitsgewalt im Völkerrecht: Das 1267-Sanktionsregime der UN und seine rechtliche Fassung
Gegenstand der Arbeit ist die rechtliche Fassung der Ausübung von Hoheitsgewalt auf völkerrechtlicher Ebene. Die Internationalisierung führt vermehrt zu Normsetzung auf völkerrechtlicher Ebene, durch die Individuen unmittelbar oder mittelbar betroffen sein können. Um die notwendige Akzeptanz zu finden, muss solche Hoheitsgewalt hinreichend legitimiert sein. Mithilfe eines öffentlich-rechtlichen Ansatzes wird am Beispiel des 1267-Sanktionsregimes der Vereinten Nationen das Prinzip der UN-Treue hergeleitet, aus dem sich eine Bindung des UN-Sicherheitsrates an Menschenrechte und Rechtsstaatlichkeit ergibt. Anhand dieses Maßstabs werden die für seine Akzeptanz notwendigen Verbesserungen des 1267- Sanktionsregimes erarbeitet. Das Treueprinzip lässt sich des Weiteren auf der Ebene des Rechtsschutzes als Prinzip der „Justiztreue“ nachweisen und bestätigt so seine Geeignetheit und Wirkungskraft im Rahmen der Ausübung von Hoheitsgewalt auf völkerrechtlicher Ebene.
- Rachel Brewster, The Surprising Benefits to Developing Countries of Linking International Trade and Intellectual Property
- Lisa Clarke, Responsibility of International Organizations under International Law for the Acts of Global Health Public-Private Partnerships
- Eric De Brabandere, NGOs and the "Public Interest": The Legality and Rationale of Amicus Curiae Interventions in International Economic and Investment Disputes
- Shai Dothan, Judicial Tactics in the European Court of Human Rights
- Samuel Estreicher, Privileging Asymmetric Warfare (Part II): The "Proportionality" Principle under International Humanitarian Law
- Neha Jain, The Control Theory of Preparation in International Criminal Law
Wednesday, July 27, 2011
- Scott J. Shackelford, Was Selden Right?: The Expansion of Closed Seas and Its Consequences
- Kennedth Beale, Justin Lugar, & Franz Schwarz, Solving the §1782 Puzzle: Bringing Certainty to the Debate over 28 U.S.C. §1782's Application to International Arbitration
- Brian Ray, Demosprudence in Comparative Perspective
- Daphne Barak-Erez & Jayna Kothari, When Sexual Harassment Law Goes East: Feminism, Legal Transplantation, and Social Change
Call for Papers: Post-Crisis International Financial Regulation: Fragmentation, Harmonization and Coordination
International Economic Law Interest Group (IEcLIG) of American Society of International Law (ASIL)
Call for Papers
Post-Crisis International Financial Regulation: Fragmentation, Harmonization and Coordination
The challenges of the 2008 financial crisis were severe and prolonged. The international regulatory community struggled to contain, manage and respond to the crisis despite a fragmented and complex set of regulatory sources and an unclear path to coordination let alone harmonization. Still, the urgency brought on by the crisis forced a degree of cooperation and sparked a hope that greater cooperation could emerge amongst the world regulators going forward. As the world emerges from this crisis, whether the ability or desire to forge greater cooperation exists is less than clear.
The International Economic Law Interest Group (IEcLIG) of the American Society of International Law (ASIL) will host a special Research Forum in early December 2011 to discuss the complexities international financial regulation post crisis. The conference will take place at Suffolk Law School on December 2, 2011. We invite the submission of proposals in the form of abstracts of no more than 300 words which will address this topic. Here is an illustrative list of potential topics, although you should feel free to submit any paper topic relevant to this field of study.
Financial Innovation and Regulatory Competition
Transparency and Systemic Risk
The Rise of the New Global Executive Coordination: The Case of G 20
The Basel III: A Glass Half-Full or Half-Empty?
The Fall of Intergovernmentalism in International Financial Regulation: The Rise of the Government Network
The Development Dimension of International Financial Regulation
Is the Macro-Prudential Coordination Possible?: Recent Challenges and Responses
Multiple Stakeholders and Financial Regulation: Relationships Between Governments, Society and Business
Regulatory Coherence and Regulatory Sprawl
Relationship between International and National Regulatory Bodies
Abstracts should be emailed to Sungjoon Cho at firstname.lastname@example.org and Claire Kelly at email@example.com by August 30, 2011. Each submission should include the author’s name, institutional affiliation, contact information and e-mail address. Selected papers will be announced by October 15, 2011. Working drafts should be submitted by November 25, 2011 to be circulated among the forum participants. Presenters will be exempted from the forum fee. A limited number of partial stipends to help cover travel costs may be available to help defray travel and accommodation costs.
Barthel: Die neue Sicherheits- und Verteidigungsarchitektur der Afrikanischen Union: Eine völkerrechtliche Untersuchung
2002 wurde mit der Gründung der Afrikanischen Union die afrikanische Sicherheits- und Verteidigungsarchitektur auf eine neue Grundlage gestellt. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die völkerrechtlichen Konsequenzen dieser Umstrukturierung. Nach einer detaillierten Analyse der organisationsrechtlichen und programmatischen Neuerungen werden die militärischen Eingriffsbefugnisse der Organisation auf ihre Rechtmäßigkeit hin überprüft und einer völkerrechtskonformen Auslegung zugeführt. Kritisch beleuchtet und an vier AU-Missionen überprüft wird ferner die Neubestimmung des Verhältnisses der Afrikanischen Union zu den Vereinten Nationen und den afrikanischen Regionalorganisationen. Nachgewiesen werden kann, dass die Afrikanische Union innovative strukturelle und programmatische Entwicklungen im Recht der Internationalen Organisationen angestoßen und sich im Mehrebenensystem konkurrierender Sicherheitsorganisationen im Einklang mit geltendem Völkerrecht neu positioniert hat.
- Colin Harvey, Taking the Next Step? Achieving another Bill of Rights
- Siobhán Mullally, Citizen Children, "Impossible Subjects" and the Limits of Migrant Family Rights in Ireland
- Atina Krajewska, The Right to Personality in (Post-)Genomic Medicine: A New Way of Thinking for the New Frontier
- Stuart Wallace, Much Ado about Nothing? The Pilot Judgment Procedure at the European Court of Human Rights
Chetail & Haggenmacher: Vattel's International Law from a XXIst Century Perspective, Le Droit International de Vattel vu du XXIe Siècle
No other scholar has so deeply influenced the development of international law or shaped the doctrinal debates as Vattel. More than 250 years after its publication, his Law of Nations has remained the most frequently quoted treatise of international law. Vattel's International Law from a XXIst Century Perspective explores the reasons behind the extraordinary authority of Vattel and analyses its continuing relevance for thinking and understanding contemporary international law. It gathers the contributions from well-known experts of international law and history for the purpose of evaluating the Law of Nations from a XXIst Century perspective. The multiple facets of Vattel’s thinking are apprehended through a wide-ranging and comprehensive analysis respectively devoted to the international system, the sources of international law, the subjects of international law, the law of peace, and the law of war.
Tuesday, July 26, 2011
- Women and International Criminal Law - Dedicated to the Honourable Patricia M. Wald
- Martha Minow, Taking up the Challenge of Gender and International Criminal Justice: In Honour of Judge Patricia Wald
- Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Remarks in Honour of Patricia M. Wald
- Kelly Askin, Tribute to Patricia Wald
- David Tolbert, Judge Wald at the ICTY: A Tribute
- Jenny S. Martinez, International Law at the Crossroads: The Role of Judge Patricia Wald
- Patricia M. Wald, Women on International Courts: Some Lessons Learned
- Doris Buss, Performing Legal Order: Some Feminist Thoughts on International Criminal Law
- Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Dina Francesca Haynes, & Naomi Cahn, Criminal Justice for Gendered Violence and Beyond
- Jennifer Leaning, Enforced Displacement of Civilian Populations in War: A Potential New Element in Crimes against Humanity
- Jaya Ramji-Nogales, Questioning Hierarchies of Harm: Women, Forced Migration, and International Criminal Law
- Beth Van Schaack, The Crime of Aggression and Humanitarian Intervention on Behalf of Women
- Katie O'Byrne, Beyond Consent: Conceptualising Sexual Assault in International Criminal Law
- Margaret M. deGuzman, Giving Priority to Sex Crime Prosecutions: The Philosophical Foundations of a Feminist Agenda
- Laurie Green, First-Class Crimes, Second-Class Justice: Cumulative Charges for Gender-Based Crimes at the International Criminal Court
- Rama Mani, Women, Art and Post-Conflict Justice
- Rachel Harris & Katharine Gelber, Defining 'De Facto' Slavery in Australia: Ownership, Consent and the Defence of Freedom
- Karima Bennoune, The Paradoxical Feminist Quest for Remedy: A Case Study of Jane Doe v. Islamic Salvation Front and Anouar Haddam
- Lucy Reed, Assessing Civil Liability for Harms to Women during Armed Conflict: The Rulings of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission
- Diane Marie Amann, Cecelia Goetz, Woman at Nuremberg
- David Luban, Hannah Arendt as a Theorist of International Criminal Law
- Nienke Grossman, Sex Representation on the Bench and the Legitimacy of International Criminal Courts
- Leila Nadya Sadat, Avoiding the Creation of a Gender Ghetto in International Criminal Law
The aim of this new collection of essays is to engage in analysis beyond the familiar victor’s justice critiques. The editors have drawn on authors from across the world — including Australia, Japan, China, France, Korea, New Zealand and the United Kingdom — with expertise in the fields of international humanitarian law, international criminal law, Japanese studies, modern Japanese history, and the use of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. The diverse backgrounds of the individual authors allow the editors to present essays which provide detailed and original analyses of the Tokyo Trial from legal, philosophical and historical perspectives.
Several of the essays in the collection are based on the authors’ extensive archival research in Japan, Australia, the United States and New Zealand, providing rich insights into Japanese societal attitudes towards the Trial, biological experimentation by the Japanese Army in China, as well as the trial of Korean prison guards and prosecutions for rape and sexual assault in the post-war period. Some of the essays deal with particular participants in the Trial, examining the role of individual judges, and the selection of defendants and the decision not to prosecute the Emperor. Other essays analyse the Trial from a legal perspective, and address its impact on concepts such as command responsibility, conspiracy and war crimes. The majority of the essays seek to identify and address some of the ‘forgotten crimes’ in the Tokyo Trial. These include crimes committed in China and Korea (particularly the activities of the infamous Unit 731), crimes committed against comfort women, and crimes associated with the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the conventional firebombing of other Japanese cities and the illicit drug trade in China. Finally, the collection includes a number of essays which consider the importance of studying the Tokyo Trial and its contemporary relevance. These issues include an examination of the way in which academics have ‘written’ the Trial over the last 60 years, and an analysis of some of the lessons that can be drawn for international trials in the future.
Ziel der Untersuchung ist die Erarbeitung eines Gesamtkonzepts der beteiligungsrechtlichen Zurechnung von Systemunrecht. Dies erfordert sowohl eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit den verschiedenen Beteiligungsformen als auch die Entwicklung eines übergeordneten Rasters als Bezugsrahmen für den jeweiligen Verantwortungsumfang. Geschuldet ist die Notwendigkeit eines solchen Bezugsrahmens dem typischerweise systemisch-kollektiven Zuschnitt vieler Völkerrechtsverbrechen. Bei den Exekutoren der Ausführungsebene und den höchsten Führungstätern steht dieser Rahmen spätestens bei der Frage der Strafzumessung ohnehin unausgesprochen im Hintergrund. Während die eigenhändig Ausführenden der untersten Rangstufe konkrete Einzeltaten begehen, beziehen sich die Spitzenentscheidungen auf die Gesamttat als Gesamtheit aller begangenen Verbrechen. Schwieriger ist die entsprechende kontextuelle Verortung auf der mittleren Hierarchieebene, die von den für die Implementierung der Verbrechen unentbehrlichen Planern und Organisatoren besetzt wird.
de Jonge: Transnational Corporations and International Law: Accountability in the Global Business Environment
Transnational Corporations and International Law provides a comprehensive overview of existing laws and principles aimed at regulating the international behaviour of transnational corporations (TNCs).
Alice de Jonge highlights the inadequacies and possibilities inherent in the current regulatory network and also outlines a theoretical framework for bringing TNCs more comprehensively under the coverage of internationally-agreed standards of behaviour. The book then explores institutional avenues for bringing TNCs to account when such standards are breached. The author also provides a unique perspective on the role of TNCs in the evolution of international environmental law. She concludes by highlighting the need for what the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises has called ‘principled pragmatism’, in developing both the theory and practice of international law as applied to global corporations.
This well-documented work will appeal to corporate leaders interested in understanding the related practicalities of international corporate liability as well as post-graduate students in international business and international policy studies. Policymakers, academics and researchers interested in a unique perspective on the future of the global corporation as an internationally responsible global citizen will find much to interest them in this book.
- Christian Reus-Smit, Struggles for Individual Rights and the Expansion of the International System
- Brian C. Rathbun, Before Hegemony: Generalized Trust and the Creation and Design of International Security Organizations
- David B. Carter & H. E. Goemans, The Making of the Territorial Order: New Borders and the Emergence of Interstate Conflict
- Thomas Oatley, The Reductionist Gamble: Open Economy Politics in the Global Economy
- Dustin H. Tingley & Barbara F. Walter, The Effect of Repeated Play on Reputation Building: An Experimental Approach
- Orfeo Fioretos, Historical Institutionalism in International Relations
Monday, July 25, 2011
- Nicola Jägers, UN guiding principles on Business and Human Rights: making headway towards real corporate accountability?
- Eva Lievens, The Use of Alternative Regulatory Instruments to Protect Minors in the Digital era: Applying Freedom of expression safeguards
- Stef Vandeginste, Bypassing the Prohibition of Amnesty for Human Rights Crimes under International Law: Lessons Learned from the Burundi Peace Process
- Schill, Stephan W. (ed.), "International Investment Law and Comparative Public Law" - Reviewer: Kulick, Andreas
- Jones, Bruce D; Forman, Shepard, "Cooperating For Peace and Security" - Reviewer: Chainoglou, Kalliopi
- Chesterman, Simon; Fisher, Angelina (eds), "Private Security, Public Order. The Outsourcing of Public Services and its Limits" - Reviewer: Afsah, Ebrahim
- Murray, Rachel, "The Role of National Human Rights Institutions at the International and Regional Levels: The Experience of Africa" - Reviewer: Knott, Lukas
- Combs, Nancy, "Fact-Finding Without Facts - The Uncertain Evidentiary Foundations of International Criminal Convictions" - Reviewer: Stephen, Christopher
- Lord Bingham of Cornhill, The Human Rights Act: A View from the Bench
- Jack Straw, The Human Rights Act: Ten Years On
- Conor Gearty, The Human Rights Act: An Academic Sceptic Changes his Mind but not his Heart
- Rabinder Singh, The Human Rights Act and the Courts: A Practitioner's Perspective
- James Welch & Shami Chakrabarti, The War on Terror Without the Human Rights Act: What Difference has it Made?
- Murray Hunt, The Impact of the Human Rights Act on the Legislature: A Diminution of Democracy or a New Voice for Parliament?
- Jane Gordon, A Developing Human Rights Culture in the UK? Case Studies of Policing
- Francesca Klug & Helen Wildbore, Follow or Lead? The Human Rights Act and the European Court of Human Rights
Fidler & Gostin: WHO’s Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework: A Milestone in Global Governance for Health
In May 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework for the Sharing of Influenza Viruses and Access to Vaccines and Other Benefits (PIP Framework). The PIP Framework’s adoption ended years of difficult negotiations, which began after Indonesia refused to share samples of avian influenza A (H5N1) with WHO in late 2006. Indonesia justified its actions on the need to create more equitable access for developing countries to benefits, such as vaccines and antivirals, derived from research and development on shared influenza virus samples. The global health community feared that failure to share influenza virus samples would jeopardize surveillance and response efforts against the threat of pandemic influenza.
The PIP Framework seeks to improve pandemic influenza preparedness by addressing virus and benefit sharing on an equal footing and establishing mechanisms to achieve more equitable access to benefits. To facilitate virus sharing, the PIP Framework encourages WHO member states to share influenza virus specimens. It also creates a virus tracking mechanism that features two standard material transfer agreements to increase transparency concerning the use of shared viruses. This mechanism represents the Framework’s most significant contribution to strengthening pandemic influenza surveillance and response.
The Framework’s benefit-sharing system contains many components, but its most notable accomplishment for increasing equitable access to benefits is the pharmaceutical industry’s agreement to provide monetary and in-kind contributions. The PIP Framework is a landmark for global governance for health because it is the first international agreement facilitating influenza virus and benefit sharing. However, the Framework is not legally binding, avoids intellectual property issues that complicated the negotiations, does not include commitments from developed countries to donate portions of influenza vaccines they purchase, and faces implementation challenges in an increasingly difficult global health environment.
- Christina Binder, Non Performance of Treaty Obligations in Cases of Necessity : from "Necessity knows no Law" via the "Law(s) of Necessity" to Interfaces between different "Laws of Necessity"
- Finnur Magnússon, Targeted Sanctions and Accountability of the United Nations Security Council
- Matthew Parish, International Officials
- Luca Schicho, The Security Council and the International Criminal Court : an Awkward Partnership?
- L. Alan Winters, Preferential trading agreements: friend or foe?
- James H. Mathis, The legalization of GATT Article XXIV – can foes become friends?
- Caroline Freund, Third country effects of regional trade agreements
- Thomas J. Prusa & Robert Teh, Contingent protection rules in regional trade agreements
- David A. Gantz, Commentary on Prusa/Teh, contingent protection rules in regional trade agreements
- Joel Trachtman, The limits of PTAs: WTO legal restrictions on the use of WTO-plus standards regulation in PTAs
- Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis & André Sapir, Beyond the WTO? an anatomy of EU and US preferential trade agreements
- Gary N. Horlick, Straightening the spaghetti bowl
- Nuno Limão, Comments on 'Beyond the WTO? Coverage and legal inflation in EU and US preferential trade agreements' by Horn, Mavroidis and Sapir
- Jeff Kenner, Labour clauses in EU preferential trade agreements – an analysis of the Cotonou Partnership agreement
- Juan A. Marchetti, Do PTAs actually increase parties' services trade?
- William J. Davey, A model Article XXIV: are there realistic possibilities to improve it?
- T. N. Srinivasan, Comments on 'A model Article XXIV: are there realistic possibilities to improve it?' by William Davey
Sunday, July 24, 2011
- Stephan Hobe, New Trends of International Law in the Era of Globalization
- Ole Lando, Tradition versus Harmonization in the Recent Reforms of Contract Law
- Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, Constitutional Functions and Constitutional Problems of International Economic Law in the 21st Century
- Malcolm N. Shaw, International Law: A System of Relationships
- Patricia Wouters, The International Law of Watercourses: New Dimensions