How investment arbitral tribunals use preparatory materials varies significantly. In particular, they have differed in defining the rationale for referring to travaux; when to have recourse to travaux; how to use these materials; and even more fundamentally, what materials to classify as travaux. This article examines each of these issues to consider the opportunities and risks associated with the growing transparency of investment treaty negotiations for arbitral interpretations of investment treaties. Section I illustrates three practical challenges associated with the use of travaux in investment treaty disputes to highlight the potential advantages and pitfalls associated with using travaux. Section II considers what may constitute ‘travaux’. Based on an extensive review of arbitral practice, Section II argues in favour of a sliding scale approach to travaux, whereby a treaty interpreter casts a wide net but differentiates the weight given to materials depending on their propensity to shed light on the joint intention of the States parties. Section III considers how arbitral tribunals have used – and should use – travaux by reference to the interpretive framework established by the VCLT. Section IV considers how investment tribunals have regulated access to and use of travaux through their powers to order document production. Section V concludes.
Sunday, March 29, 2020
Shirlow & Waibel: The Impact of Transparent Treaty Negotiations on the Scope and Use of Travaux in Investment Treaty Arbitration
Saturday, March 28, 2020
- Shorena Nikoleishvili, Waiting for Abkhazia: Secession and Borders as International Legal Instruments in Contested Sovereignty
- Tero Lundstedt, Inherited National Questions: The Soviet Legacy in Russia’s International Law Doctrine on Self-determination
- Miriam Bak McKenna, Contesting Self-determination in the Wake of Empire: Sovereignty, Human Rights and Economic Justice
- Inger Österdahl, Deployment of Armed Forces: Swedish Constitutional Considerations
- Amanda Bills, The Relationship between Third-party Countermeasures and the Security Council’s Chapter VII Powers: Enforcing Obligations erga omnes in International Law
Friday, March 27, 2020
Peters, Gless, Thomale, & Weller: Business and Human Rights: Making the Legally Binding Instrument Work in Public, Private and Criminal Law
The paper’s starting point is the United Nations Human Rights Council working group’s revised draft of a Legally Binding Instrument to Regulate, in International Human Rights Law, the Activities of Transnational Corporations and other Business Enterprises of July 2019. The paper examines the draft treaty’s potential to activate and operationalize public law, private law, and criminal law for enforcing human rights. It conceptualizes a complementary approach of these three branches of law in which private and criminal legal enforcement mechanisms stand in the foreground. It argues for linking civil (tort) and criminal liability for harm caused by hands-off corporate policies, complemented by the obligation to interpret managerial duties in conformity with the human rights standards of public international law. The combination of public, private, and criminal law allows effective enforcement of human rights vis-à-vis global corporations.
von Bogdandy & Villarreal: International Law on Pandemic Response: A First Stocktaking in Light of the Coronavirus Crisis
The coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is currently raging throughout the world. The ensuing crisis has acquired a multidimensional nature, affecting all levels of society. Measures adopted by domestic authorities have included a broad spectrum of restrictions: from general alerts to mandatory quarantines and isolations of individuals, to blanket travel bans and cordoning-off of cities and, in some cases, countries. Many governments have declared states of emergency, thereby assuming exceptional powers. This dire crisis leads to our core questions: What are the relevant obligations, powers and procedures under public international law? Have they been complied with? What role, if any, has international law, via its institutions, played so far?
The World Health Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations, is the international institution with a core mandate in issues of global health. Moreover, the International Health Regulations (IHR) is the main legally binding instrument laying down rules for the cross-border spread of disease. Against this backdrop, in order to address the core questions, this paper provides an overview of the IHR in light of current issues and disputes. The paper then evaluates those issues and disputes under other regimes of international law, such as human rights, trade law, peace and security law, and the law of development finance. Lastly, the paper offers conclusions by way of answers to the research questions.
What does it mean to say that international humanitarian law (IHL) strikes a realistic and meaningful balance between military necessity and humanity, and that the law therefore 'accounts for' military necessity? To what consequences does the law 'accounting for' military necessity give rise? Through real-life examples and careful analysis, this book challenges received wisdom on the subject by devising a new theory that not only reaffirms Kriegsräson's fallacy but also explains why IHL has no reason to restrict or prohibit militarily unnecessary conduct on that ground alone. Additionally, the theory hypothesises greater normative significance for humanitarian and chivalrous imperatives when they conflict with IHL rules. By combining international law, jurisprudence, military history, strategic studies, and moral philosophy, this book reveals how rational fighting relates to ethical fighting, how IHL incorporates contrasting values that shape its rules, and how law and theory adapt themselves to war's evolutions.
Wednesday, March 25, 2020
- Luke Glanville, Hypocritical Inhospitality: The Global Refugee Crisis in the Light of History
- Mathias Risse, On American Values, Unalienable Rights, and Human Rights: Some Reflections on the Pompeo Commission
- Julia Gray, Life, Death, Inertia, Change: The Hidden Lives of International Organizations
- Roundtable: World Peace (And How We Can Achieve It)
- Alex J. Bellamy, Introduction: Taking World Peace Seriously
- Alex J. Bellamy, Thinking about World Peace
- Pamina Firchow, World Peace Is Local Peace
- Nils Petter Gleditsch, Toward a Social-Democratic Peace?
- A. C. Grayling, Toward Peace
- Jacqui True, Continuums of Violence and Peace: A Feminist Perspective
- Review Essay
- Adam Henschke, Why Would I Be a Whistleblower?
- Alexandre Skander Galand, The Nature of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (and its Amended Jurisdictional Scheme)
- Rosemary Grey, Jonathan O’Donohue, Indira Rosenthal, Lisa Davis & Dorine Llanta, Gender-based Persecution as a Crime Against Humanity: The Road Ahead
- Thijs B. Bouwknegt, Beyond ‘African Solutions to African Problems’ at the Extraordinary African Chambers and ‘Distant Justice’ at the International Criminal Court
- Sarah Nimigan, The Malabo Protocol, the ICC, and the Idea of ‘Regional Complementarity’
- Cheah W.L., Culture-specific Evidence before Internationalized Criminal Courts: Lessons from Asian Jurisdictions
- Cases Before International Courts and Tribunals
- Naomi Roht-Arriaza & Santiago Martínez, Grand Corruption and the International Criminal Court in the ‘Venezuela Situation’
- Caroline Sweeney, Accountability for Syria: Is the International Criminal Court Now a Realistic Option?
- National Prosecution of International Crimes: Legislation and Cases
- Linde Bryk & Miriam Saage-Maa, Individual Criminal Liability for Arms Exports under the ICC Statute: A Case Study of Arms Exports from Europe to Saudi-led Coalition Members Used in the War in Yemen
Tuesday, March 24, 2020
- Special Issue: Polluter Pays Principle and Climate Law
- Suzanne Kingston, The Polluter Pays Principle in EU Climate Law: an Effective Tool before the Courts?
- Nicolas de Sadeleer, Consistency between the Granting of State Aid and the Polluter-Pays Principle: Aid Aimed at Mitigating Climate Change
- Paul A. Barresi, The Polluter Pays Principle as an Instrument of Municipal and Global Environmental Governance in Climate Change Mitigation Law: Lessons from China, India, and the United States
- Dirk Heine, Michael G. Faure & Goran Dominioni, The Polluter-Pays Principle in Climate Change Law: an Economic Appraisal
One of the mechanisms by which international law can shape domestic politics is through its effects on public opinion. However, a growing number of national leaders have begun to advocate policies that ignore or even deny international law constraints. This article investigates whether international law messages can still shift public opinion even in the face of countervailing elite cues. It reports results from survey experiments conducted in three countries, the United States, Australia and India, which examined attitudes on a highly salient domestic political issue: restrictions on refugee admissions. In each experimental vignette, respondents were asked about their opinion on a proposed or ongoing restrictive refugee policy that was endorsed by the government but also likely contravened international refugee law. Respondents were randomly exposed to messages highlighting the policy’s illegality and/or the elite endorsement. The results show that, on average, the international law messages had a small but significant persuasive effect in reducing support for the restrictive policy – at most 10 percentage points. Surprisingly, there was no evidence that the countervailing elite endorsement was a significant moderator of this effect. However, in the case of the United States and among Republican co-partisans of the President, the elite endorsement independently increased respondents’ beliefs that the restriction was legal under international law while having no effect on support for the policy. The results suggest that cues from domestic elites do not strictly trump those from international sources and that despite cues about national leaders’ policy advocacy, international law can affect the attitudes of some voters even on an issue as heavily politicized as refugee policy.
- Anna Great & Julia Dehm, Frames and contestations: environment, climate change and the construction of in/justice
- M Joel Voss, Contesting human rights and climate change at the UN Human Rights Council
- Gavin Byrne, Climate change denial as far-right politics: How abandonment of scientific method paved the way for Trump
- Sabina Cardenas & Esteban Angulo, Human rights vs. Eco-justice: conflicts and other futures in urban open spaces in Cali, Colombia
- Sumudu Atapattu, Climate change and displacement: protecting 'climate refugees' within a framework of justice and human rights
- Matilda Arvidsson, The swarm that we already are: artificially intelligent (AI) swarming 'insect drones', targeting and international humanitarian law in a posthuman ecology
The book explains why and how the UN Security Council authorizes international criminal investigations into mass atrocities. In doing so, it tackles head-on the obvious double standards of global justice, where few atrocities get investigated and most slip below the headlines. The book argues that the Council’s decision-making procedure is central to understanding the Council’s decisions. This procedure is broken into three distinct steps, namely the role of diplomats at the Council, the Council’s reliance on third parties and the Council’s resort to precedent. The volume documents that the Council authorized international criminal investigations only into the handful of mass atrocities for which the Council’s deliberations successfully completed each of these three steps.
Written for both scholars and practitioners, the book combines insights from the fields of international relations, international law and human rights. Through archival research and interviews with UNSC diplomats who took part in deliberations on atrocities, the volume presents evidence that supports its argument across cases and across time. In doing so, the book avoids the yes/no (or 0 vs 1) tendency of many social science projects, thereby acknowledging that there is no silver bullet to explain the work of the Council’s five permanent and ten elected members.
Monday, March 23, 2020
- Alvaro Paúl, El Relato de los contextos históricos, sociales y políticos en las sentencias de la Corte Interamericana
- Shirley Vanessa Méndez Romero & Norberto Hernández Jiménez, Justicia restaurativa y Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos
- Andres Téllez Núñez, Aproximación multidimensional al régimen de responsabilidad internacional y al principio de no intervención. El problema hermenéutico
- Laura Movilla Pateiro & Francesco Sindico, El valor jurídico y práctico del proyecto de artículos de la CDI sobre el derecho de los acuíferos transfronterizos
- Juan Felipe Solórzano Quintero, La garantía de los DESCA a través del dialogo judicial y arbitral
- Rodrigo Corredor Castellanos, The Pacific Alliance Towards a Strategy on Digital Economy?
- Wendolyne Nava González, Los mecanismos extrajudiciales de resolución de conflictos en línea: su problemática en el derecho internacional privado
- María Mayela Celis, El papel controversial del TEDH en la interpretación del Convenio de La Haya del 25 de octubre de 1980 sobre los Aspectos Civiles de la Sustracción Internacional de Menores: Especial referencia a los casos Neulinger y Shuruk c. Suiza y X c. Letonia
- Angélica María Anichiarico González & Cástulo Cisneros Trujillo, Las garantías procesales de las víctimas en la normatividad de la Unión Europea
Sunday, March 22, 2020
This is the first book that critically examines the reform of the Appellate Body (AB) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in light of the current crisis resulting from the U.S. blocking of the appointment of its members. The reform of the AB is critical, as the appointment crisis could lead to the demise of “the jewel in the crown,” which may even cause the dismantling of the WTO as a whole. This book covers various aspects of the crisis and its reform. Specifically, as the crisis cannot be fully understood without reviewing the role of the AB from the broader perspectives of the other functions of the WTO, the book examines the reform of the AB from the broader perspectives of the WTO governance. Additional focus is on the reform of the AB in relation to its specific functions. Available options are provided to address the AB crisis, as well as discussion of wider implications beyond the WTO. Contributed by world-renowned academics, experts, and practitioners in the field of international economic law, this volume provides a comprehensive analysis of the AB crisis and its solutions.
Young, Berkman, & Vylegzhanin: Governing Arctic Seas: Regional Lessons from the Bering Strait and Barents Sea Volume 1
Governing Arctic Seas introduces the concept of ecopolitical regions, using in-depth analyses of the Bering Strait and Barents Sea Regions to demonstrate how integrating the natural sciences, social sciences and Indigenous knowledge can reveal patterns, trends and processes as the basis for informed decisionmaking. This book draws on international, interdisciplinary and inclusive (holistic) perspectives to analyze governance mechanisms, built infrastructure and their coupling to achieve sustainability in biophysical regions subject to shared authority. Governing Arctic Seas is the first volume in a series of books on Informed Decisionmaking for Sustainability that apply, train and refine science diplomacy to address transboundary issues at scales ranging from local to global. For nations and peoples as well as those dealing with global concerns, this holistic process operates across a ‘continuum of urgencies’ from security time scales (mitigating risks of political, economic and cultural instabilities that are immediate) to sustainability time scales (balancing economic prosperity, environmental protection and societal well-being across generations). Informed decisionmaking is the apex goal, starting with questions that generate data as stages of research, integrating decisionmaking institutions to employ evidence to reveal options (without advocacy) that contribute to informed decisions. The first volumes in the series focus on the Arctic, revealing legal, economic, environmental and societal lessons with accelerating knowledge co-production to achieve progress with sustainability in this globally-relevant region that is undergoing an environmental state change in the sea and on land. Across all volumes, there is triangulation to integrate research, education and leadership as well as science, technology and innovation to elaborate the theory, methods and skills of informed decisionmaking to build common interests for the benefit of all on Earth.
Mantilla Blanco & Pehl: National Security Exceptions in International Trade and Investment Agreements: Justiciability and Standards of Review
This book provides a comprehensive analysis of national security exceptions in international trade and investment agreements. The subject has gained particular relevance in the past few years, as both the United States and the Russian Federation have invoked national security as justification for trade-restrictive measures in the context of WTO dispute settlement proceedings. The book describes the evolution of security exceptions in international economic law, from the GATT 1947 to the most recent economic treaties, such as the 2017 Buenos Aires Protocol for Intra-Mercosur Investment and the 2018 USMCA. Further, it presents an overview of the rich array of adjudicatory practices addressing national security clauses, covering the decisions of WTO dispute settlement bodies, the ICJ, and numerous investment arbitral tribunals. To this end, the book addresses the debates surrounding the alleged self-judging character of security exceptions and the standards of review applicable where the exception is considered to be justiciable.
For decades, the right to a healthy environment has been the missing human right, never recognized by the United Nations despite its approval by most countries at the national and regional levels. In the absence of UN recognition, human rights bodies have "greened" other human rights, such as the rights to life and health, by explaining how states have duties to protect them from environmental harm. The importance of this growing body of law was illustrated recently by the decision of the Dutch Supreme Court in the Urgenda case, which held that the Netherlands had to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions in order to comply with its obligations under the European Convention of Human Rights.
In recent years, there have been renewed calls for the UN General Assembly to finally recognize the right to a healthy environment. Has the evolution of environmental human rights law obviated the need for UN recognition? If not, what would such recognition add? This review of recent scholarship describes the evolution of environmental human rights law and assesses possible effects of UN recognition of the right to a healthy environment, both on environmental protection and on human rights law itself.
Bhatt: Concessionaires, Financiers and Communities: Implementing Indigenous Peoples' Rights to Land in Transnational Development Projects
Unrelenting demands for energy, infrastructure and natural resources, and the need for developing states to augment income and signal an 'enterprise-ready' attitude mean that transnational development projects remain a common tool for economic development. Yet little is known about the fragmented legal framework of private financial mechanisms, contractual clauses and discretionary behaviours that shape modern development projects. How do gaps and biases in formal laws cope with the might of concessionaires and financiers and their algorithmic contractual and policy technicalities negotiated in private offices? What impacts do private legal devices have for the visibility and implementation of Indigenous peoples' rights to land? This original perspective on transnational development projects explains how the patterns of poor rights recognition and implementation, power(lessness), vulnerability and, ultimately, conflict routinely seen in development projects will only be fully appreciated by acknowledging and remedying the pivotal role and priority enjoyed by private mechanisms, documentation and expertise.
Saturday, March 21, 2020
This book analyzes China’s attitude to international law based on historical experiences and documents, and provides an explanation of China’s approaches to international legal issues. It also establishes several elements for a possible framework of Chinese theory on international law.
- Akbar Rasulov, Introduction: The Discipline of International Economic Law at a Crossroads
- Ntina Tzouvala, The Ordo-Liberal Origins of Modern International Investment Law: Constructing Competition on a Global Scale
- Michael Fakhri, A History of Food Security and Agriculture in International Trade Law, 1945–2017
- Athene Richford, The Authority of Language in International Law: From Sovereignty to Economic Certainty
- Nicolás M. Perrone, Taking Local Expectations Seriously: A Fresh Start for Foreign Investment Governance?
- Mavluda Sattorova, Mustafa Erkan, & Ohiocheoya Omiunu, How Do Host States Respond to Investment Treaty Law? Some Empirical Observations
- Alexandre Belle, Mamatas and Others v. Greece: How the European Court of Human Rights Could Change Sovereign Debt Restructuration
- John D. Haskell, Doing Things with Political Economy (as a Public International Law Academic)
- Maria Tzanakopoulou, Social Consensus in the EMU: The Constitutional Tenets of a Currency Union
Jeßberger & Geneuss: Why Punish Perpetrators of Mass Atrocities? Purposes of Punishment in International Criminal Law
This edited volume provides, for the first time, a comprehensive account of theoretical approaches to international punishment. Its main objective is to contribute to the development of a consistent and robust theory of international criminal punishment. For this purpose, the authors - renowned scholars in the fields of criminal law, international criminal law, and philosophy of law, as well as practitioners working at different international criminal courts and tribunals - address the question of meaning and purpose of punishment in international law from various perspectives. The volume fleshes out the predominant dimensions of a theory of international punishment and highlights the differences between 'ordinary' (domestic) crime and international crimes and their respective enforcement. At the same time, throughout the volume a major focus is on the practical consequences of the different theoretical approaches, in particular for the activities of the International Criminal Court.
This book is motivated by a question: when should international courts intervene in domestic affairs? To answer this question thoroughly, the book is broken down into a series of separate inquiries: when is intervention legitimate? When can international courts identify good legal solutions? When will intervention initiate useful processes? When will it lead to good outcomes? These inquiries are answered based on reviewing judgments of international courts, strategic analysis, and empirical findings. The book outlines under which conditions intervention by international courts is recommended and evaluates the implications that international courts have on society.
- Scholarly Articles
- Kristian Høyer Toft, Climate Change as a Business and Human Rights Issue: A Proposal for a Moral Typology
- Judith Schrempf-Stirling & Harry J. Van Buren, Business and Human Rights Scholarship in Social Issues in Management: An Analytical Review
- Andrés Felipe López Latorre, In Defence of Direct Obligations for Businesses Under International Human Rights Law
- Alexander Kriebitz & Christoph Lütge, Artificial Intelligence and Human Rights: A Business Ethical Assessment
- Markus Krajewski, A Nightmare or a Noble Dream? Establishing Investor Obligations Through Treaty-Making and Treaty-Application
- Developments in the Field
- Marilyn Croser, Martyn Day, Mariëtte Van Huijstee, & Channa Samkalden, Vedanta v Lungowe and Kiobel v Shell: The Implications for Parent Company Accountability
- Karyn Keenan, Canada’s New Corporate Responsibility Ombudsperson Falls Far Short of its Promise
- Maddalena Neglia, Striking the Right(s) Balance: Conflicts between Human Rights and Freedom to Conduct a Business in the ILVA Case in Italy
- Claire Methven O’Brien, Confronting the Constraints of the Medium: The Fifth Session of the UN Intergovernmental Working Group on a Business and Human Rights Treaty
- Rajiv Maher, De-contextualized Corporate Human Rights Benchmarks: Whose Perspective Counts? See Disclaimer
- Amy Sinclair & Justine Nolan, Modern Slavery Laws in Australia: Steps in the Right Direction?
Friday, March 20, 2020
The Editorial Board of the Cambridge International Law Journal (CILJ) is pleased to invite submissions for Volume 9(2), to be published in December 2020. The Board welcomes long articles that engage with the timely theme of the Ninth Annual Cambridge International Law Conference, ‘International Law and Global Risks: Current Challenges in Theory and Practice’. Further information about the theme is available here. All submissions are subject to double-blind peer review by the Journal's Editorial Board. In addition, long articles are sent to the Academic Review Board, which consists of distinguished international law scholars and practitioners. Articles must be submitted by 11:59 pm on 11 May 2020 (BST).
For full submission instructions, please visit this link.
Long articles for Volume 9(2) can be submitted here.
Blog articles can be submitted here.
Further information can be obtained from the Editors-in-Chief at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Jamil Ddamulira Mujuzi, The Prosecution in Seychelles of Piracy Committed on the High Seas and the Right to a Fair Trial
- Tommaso Trinchera, Confiscation And Asset Recovery: Better Tools To Fight Bribery And Corruption Crime
- ’Mampolokeng ’Mathuso Mary-Elizabeth Monyakane, The Danger for an Underestimation of Necessary Precautions for the Admissibility of Admissions in Section 219A of the South African Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977
Thursday, March 19, 2020
This Handbook aims to provide practical guidance on good treaty practice. It presents a range of examples from the practice of several States and international organisations and explains the actions that need to be taken to create a new treaty, bring it into force, operate it, amend it and wind it up, on both the international and the domestic plane. It also explores what constitutes good treaty practice, and develops generic principles or criteria against which to evaluate these examples. It provides a useful analytical tool to enable each government and international organisation to identify and develop the best treaty practice for their circumstances, recognising that one size does not necessarily fit all. It will be of interest to those working with treaties and treaty procedures in governments, international organisations and legal practice, as well as legal academics and students wishing to gain insight into the realities of treaty practice.
This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the international law applicable to cyber operations, including a systematic examination of attribution, lawfulness and remedies. It demonstrates the importance of countermeasures as a form of remedies and also shows the limits of international law, highlighting its limits in resolving issues related to cyber operations. There are several situations in which international law leaves the victim State of cyber operations helpless. Two main streams of limits are identified. First, in the case of cyber operations conducted by non-state actors on the behalf of a State, new technologies offer various ways to coordinate cyber operations without a high level of organization. Second, the law of State responsibility offers a range of solutions to respond to cyber operations and seek reparation, but it does not provide an answer in every case and it cannot solve the problem related to technical capabilities of the victim.
Taschenbrecker: Die völkerrechtliche Bewertung der NATO-Einsätze seit dem Ende der Sowjetunion aus dem Blickwinkel des NATO-Vertrages
Bosnien-Herzegowina, Kosovo, Afghanistan und Libyen sind der Öffentlichkeit maßgeblich als (Bürger-)Kriegsländer in Erinnerung. Untrennbar verbunden sind damit aber auch jene militärischen Interventionen des Nordatlantikbündnisses, die für eine Entwicklung der NATO vom Verteidigungsbündnis hin zur transatlantischen Interventionsstreitmacht stehen. Gleichermaßen markieren sie prototypisch die Fortentwicklung eines völkerrechtlichen Vertrages in seiner Handhabung fernab des Vertragstextes. Losgelöst vom Gründungsvertrag ist die NATO neuen Zwecken dienstbar gemacht worden, ohne dass sich diese »Umwidmung« in einer förmlichen Vertragsänderung niedergeschlagen hätte. Ausgehend von diesem Befund widmet sich die Arbeit der zentralen Fragestellung, in welchem Rahmen und unter welchen Voraussetzungen militärische Maßnahmen eines Verteidigungsbündnisses wie der NATO als rechtmäßig i.S.d. Völkerrechts anzusehen sind und wie weit der NATO-Vertrag als ein völkerrechtlicher Vertrag ausgelegt bzw. »fortgebildet« werden darf.
The question of 'humanitarian intervention' has been a staple of international law for around 200 years, with a renewed interest in the history of the subject emerging in the last twenty years. This book provides a chronological account of the evolution of the discussion and uncovers the fictional narrative provided by international lawyers to support their conclusions on the subject, from justifications and arguments for 'humanitarian intervention', the misrepresentation of great power involvement in the Greek War of Independence in 1827, to the 'humanitarian intervention that never was', India's war with Pakistan in 1971. Relying on a variety of sources, some of them made available in English for the first time, the book provides an undogmatic, alternative history of the fight for the protection of human rights in international law.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Borlini: When the Leviathan goes to the market: A critical evaluation of the rules governing state-owned enterprises in trade agreements
State-owned enterprises (SOEs) have long constituted, and are likely to remain, an important instrument in any government’s toolbox for a variety of economic and societal goals. However, the significant extent of state ownership among the world’s top companies, and the quantitative and qualitative transformation and hybrid nature of SOEs, raises the issue of their impact on international trade flows and the competitive process. This article addresses the question of how international trade agreements regulate SOEs, with a view to furthering the international contestability of markets, while, at the same time, allowing governments to provide support to SOEs as a means of dealing with market failures and the pursuit of public goals. After a brief introduction to contemporary state capitalism, the argument is developed in three main parts. The first part situates SOEs within the GATT and WTO frameworks and elaborates on the findings of previous literature with a view to highlighting the main shortcomings of such discipline. The second part re-examines the notion of ‘competitive neutrality’ by locating contemporary trade agreements within the larger contextual relationships between the state, the market, and the social, and thus reconstructs the normative rationales and general policy implications of the disciplines under examination. Against this background, the third part critically assesses the new disciplines on SOEs in recent preferential trading areas (PTAs). The main conclusion is that the search for binding rules has not led to balanced regimes and, despite the wider scope of the new rules, notable problems that have emerged within the WTO context remain unsolved.
- Ross Brown, Conflict on the Final Frontier: Deficiencies in the Law of Space Conflict Below Armed Attack, and How to Remedy Them
- Jason Rotstein, Before Ending the Case: Disassembling Jurisdiction and Admissibility in BG v. Argentina
- Shin-Shin Hua, Machine Learning Weapons and International Humanitarian Law: Rethinking Meaningful Human Control
- Michael F. Maniates, Individualization: Plant a Tree, Buy a Bike, Save the World?
- Paul Wapner, Horizontal Politics: Transnational Environmental Activism and Global Cultural Change
- Robert Falkner, Private Environmental Governance and International Relations: Exploring the Links
- Karin Bäckstrand, Civic Science for Sustainability: Reframing the Role of Experts, Policy-Makers and Citizens in Environmental Governance
- Emily McAteer & Simone Pulver, The Corporate Boomerang: Shareholder Transnational Advocacy Networks Targeting Oil Companies in the Ecuadorian Amazon
- Liliana B. Andonova, Michele M. Betsill, & Harriet Bulkeley, Transnational Climate Governance
- Andrew K. Jorgenson, Brett Clark, & Jeffrey Kentor, Militarization and the Environment: A Panel Study of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Ecological Footprints of Nations, 1970–2000
- Kemi Fuentes-George, Neoliberalism, Environmental Justice, and the Convention on Biological Diversity: How Problematizing the Commodification of Nature Affects Regime Effectiveness
- Craig M. Kauffman & Pamela L. Martin, Constructing Rights of Nature Norms in the US, Ecuador, and New Zealand
- Cristina Yumie Aoki Inoue, Worlding the Study of Global Environmental Politics in the Anthropocene: Indigenous Voices from the Amazon
- Petra Gümplová, Sovereignty over natural resources – A normative reinterpretation
- Ruth Houghton, Aoife O’Donoghue, ‘Ourworld’: A feminist approach to global constitutionalism
- Lucrecia García Iommi, Norm internalisation revisited: Norm contestation and the life of norms at the extreme of the norm cascade
- Lucas Brang, Carl Schmitt and the evolution of Chinese constitutional theory: Conceptual transfer and the unexpected paths of legal globalisation
- Agora on Silviya Lechner and Mervyn Frost’s Practice Theory and International Relations
- Gunther Hellmann, Theorising praxis and practice(s). Notes on Silviya Lechner’s and Mervyn Frost’s Practice Theory and International Relations
- Maren Hofius, Towards a ‘theory of the gap’: Addressing the relationship between practice and theory
- Nora Stappert, The art of aiming at a moving target: A critique of Lechner and Frost’s Practice Theory and International Relations
- Jorg Kustermans, On the ethical significance of social practices
- Amy Skonieczny, Stepping out of the social world: A lonely call for more philosophy in the practice turn
- Silviya Lechner & Mervyn Frost, Practice Theory and International Relations: A reply to our critics
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
What should be the role of law in response to the spread of artificial intelligence in war? Fuelled by both public and private investment, military technology is accelerating towards increasingly autonomous weapons, as well as the merging of humans and machines. Contrary to much of the contemporary debate, this is not a paradigm change; it is the intensification of a central feature in the relationship between technology and war: double elevation, above one’s enemy and above oneself. Elevation above one’s enemy aspires to spatial, moral, and civilizational distance. Elevation above oneself reflects a belief in rational improvement that sees humanity as the cause of inhumanity and de-humanization as our best chance for humanization. The distance of double elevation is served by the mechanization of judgement. To the extent that judgement is seen as reducible to algorithm, law becomes the handmaiden of mechanization. In response, neither a focus on questions of compatibility nor a call for a ‘ban on killer robots’ help in articulating a meaningful role for law. Instead, I argue that we should turn to a long-standing philosophical critique of artificial intelligence, which highlights not the threat of omniscience, but that of impoverished intelligence. Therefore, if there is to be a meaningful role for law in resisting double elevation, it should be law encompassing subjectivity, emotion and imagination, law irreducible to algorithm, a law of war that appreciates situated judgement in the wielding of violence for the collective.
Monday, March 16, 2020
- Special Issue: Creative Approaches to Transitional Justice: Contributions of Arts and Culture
- Editorial Note
- Cynthia E Cohen, Reimagining Transitional Justice
- Catherine Renshaw, Poetry, Irrevocable Time and Myanmar’s Political Transition
- Freddy A Guerrero & Liza López Aristizabal, Images and Memory: Religiosity and Sacrifice – The Cases of Tierralta, Trujillo and Arenillo in Colombia
- Angela Santamaría, Dunen Muelas, Paula Caceres, Wendi Kuetguaje, & Julian Villegas, Decolonial Sketches and Intercultural Approaches to Truth: Corporeal Experiences and Testimonies of Indigenous Women in Colombia
- Virginie Ladisch & Christalla Yakinthou, Cultivated Collaboration in Transitional Justice Practice and Research: Reflections on Tunisia’s Voices of Memory Project
- Robyn Gill-Leslie, The Body Inside the Art and the Law of Marikana: A Case for Corporeality
- Anne Dirnstorfer & Nar Bahadur Saud, A Stage for the Unknown? Reconciling Postwar Communities through Theatre-Facilitated Dialogue
- Tiffany Fairey & Rachel Kerr, What Works? Creative Approaches to Transitional Justice in Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Robin Adèle Greeley, Michael R Orwicz, José Luis Falconi, Ana María Reyes, & Fernando J Rosenberg, Repairing Symbolic Reparations: Assessing the Effectiveness of Memorialization in the Inter-American System of Human Rights
- Notes from the Field
- Claudia Bernardi, The Disappeared Are Appearing: Murals that Recover Communal Memory
- Toni Shapiro-Phim, Embodying the Pain and Cruelty of Others
- Luis Carlos Sotelo Castro, Not Being Able to Speak Is Torture: Performing Listening to Painful Narratives
- Salomón Lerner Febres, Memory of Violence and Drama in Peru: The Experience of the Truth Commission and Grupo Cultural Yuyachkani – Violence and Dehumanization
- Review Essay
- Clara Ramírez-Barat, The Path to Social Reconstruction: Between Culture and Transitional Justice
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Special Section: What's in a Name? The Psagot Judgment and Questions of Labelling of Settlement Products
- Eva Kassoti & Stefano Saluzzo, The CJEU’s Judgment in Organisation juive européenne and Vignoble Psagot: Some Introductory Remarks
- Olia Kanevskaia, Misinterpreting Mislabelling: The Psagot Ruling
- Sandra Hummelbrunner, Contextualisation of Psagot in Light of Other CJEU Case Law on Occupied Territories
- Cedric Ryngaert, Indications of Settlement Provenance and the Duty of Non-recognition Under International Law
Akinkugbe: Reverse Contributors? African State Parties, ICSID and the Development of International Investment Law
International investment disputes involving African States before the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) have generated significant critical inquiry. Yet, not enough academic literature has been devoted to accounting for the implications that arise from the disputes involving African States to the development of the ICSID case law and international investment law in general. This article addresses this gap by conceptualizing African States parties before ICSID tribunals as reverse contributors. While the article acknowledges the critiques of ICSID vis-à-vis African State parties, it contends that, over time, the involvement of African States in ICSID disputes has generated opportunities for the clarification, confirmation and development of ICSID jurisprudence. Although the article is not a case for African exceptionalism, it contributes to the dearth of materials that revisit the participation of African States before ICSID, while simultaneously acknowledging the need for reforms.
Saturday, March 14, 2020
This volume examines the ongoing construction of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine, elaborating on areas of both consolidation and contestation. The book focuses on how the R2P doctrine has been both consolidated and contested along three dimensions, regarding its meaning, status and application. The first focuses on how the R2P should be understood in a theoretical sense, exploring it through the lens of the International Relations constructivist approach and through different toolkits available to conventional and critical constructivists. The second focuses on how the R2P interacts with other normative frameworks, and how this interaction can lead to a range of effects from mutual reinforcement and co-evolution through to unanticipated feedback that can undermine consensus and flexibility. The third focuses on how key state actors – including the United States, China and Russia – understand, use and contest the R2P. Together, the book’s chapters demonstrate that broad aspects of the R2P are consolidated in the sense that they are accepted by states even while other, specific aspects, remain subject to contestation in practice and in policy.
Fernandez & de Frouville: L’hirondelle et la tortue : Quatrièmes journées de la justice pénale internationale
Cet ouvrage reprend les actes des quatrièmes journées de la justice pénale internationale, tenues à l’Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris 2) début 2019. Les troisièmes journées avaient été l’occasion d’un regard rétrospectif sur un phénomène contemporain, multidimensionnel et incertain pour mettre en lumière les mutations de la justice pénale internationale, au terme du mandat du Tribunal pour l’ex-Yougoslavie et vingt ans après l’adoption du Statut de Rome.
Le programme de l’édition 2019 a été élaboré avec la conscience lucide des défis auxquels la justice pénale internationale fait face, après une année riche en rebondissements. Si la CPI a pu décevoir, les solutions « hybrides » montrent aussi leurs limites. Les organisateurs ont donc voulu insister dans cette édition sur les potentialités – sans doute encore insuffisamment exploitées – de l’exercice national de la justice pénale internationale, autrement dit le recours aux tribunaux nationaux. Comme tous les ans, les journées sont aussi l’occasion pour les universitaires et les praticiens de croiser leurs regards sur l’actualité du droit international pénal durant l’année écoulée.
Friday, March 13, 2020
Leriche: L’impact normatif de la Déclaration des Nations Unies sur les droits des peuples autochtones : De l'effectivité d'une déclaration en droit international
L’année 2019 a marqué le douzième anniversaire de l’adoption, au sein de la résolution 61/295 de l’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies, de la Déclaration des Nations Unies sur les droits des peuples autochtones. Cet instrument, accueilli à l’époque comme un triomphe pour la justice et la dignité humaine, constitue l’aboutissement de l’intégration des revendications autochtones au processus international d’établissement de la reconnaissance, de la protection et de la promotion des droits de l’homme. La Déclaration entend présenter une liste détaillée de droits et libertés constituant les normes minimales nécessaires à la survie, àla dignité et au bien-être des peuples autochtones qui doivent être respectés dans l’ordre juridique international. Elle leur reconnait notamment des droits spécifiques tout en précisant les droits de l’homme fondamentaux d’application universelle qu’elle place dans le contexte culturel, historique, social et économique de ces peuples.
Sa nature non contraignante place la Déclaration dans la catégorie des instruments de « droit mou » ou soft law qui est généralement caractérisé comme un droit abstrait dans l’incapacité d’avoir des effets tangibles en droit international. Dans cette perspective, la résolution 61/295 ne serait qu’un instrument politique de persuasion visant à encourager la protection des droits des peuples autochtones en droit international.
L’étude de la pratique des États et des institutions internationales concernés par la question autochtone contredit cette vision conservatrice du droit international où seul le « droit dur », de par les perspectives de sanctions qui l’accompagnent, serait en mesure d’imposer des normes de comportement aux acteurs internationaux. En effet, l’analyse de la mise en œuvre de cette Magna Carta des droits des peuples autochtones constitue l’une des illustrations contemporaines de la pratique du droit international qui ne présume plus désormais du caractère recommandatoire d’un instrument international son ineffectivité juridique. Au contraire, l’auteur montre que cette marque de « droit souple » assignée à la Déclaration a plus souvent facilité son application effective que son rejet par les acteurs internationaux.
Au-delà d’une étude portant sur le contenu et les répercussions juridiques de la Déclaration dans le domaine de la protection internationale des droits des peuples autochtones, cet ouvrage entend mettre l’accent sur les potentialités d’application effective d’un instrument de soft law en droit international.
- Animal Science Products, Inc. v. Hebei Welcome Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (U.S. Sup. Ct.), with introductory note by Christopher A. Whytock
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 2474, with introductory note by Claire Clement
- Qatar v. United Arab Emirates: Order on Provisional Measures (I.C.J.), with introductory note by Priya Pillai
- Recommendation of the Council on Artificial Intelligence (OECD), with introductory note by Karen Yeung
- Mammadov v. Azerbaijan (Eur. Ct. H.R.), with introductory note by Kanstantsin Dzehtsiarou
- Opinion 1/17 (C.J.E.U), with introductory note by Jonathan Lim
- Serin Alheto v. Zamestnik-Predsedatel Na Darzhavna Agentsia Za Bezhantsite (C.J.E.U.), with introductory note by Niovi Vavoula
- Trial Chamber Case 002/02 Against Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan (Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia), with introductory note by Suhong Yang
- Carolina Moehlecke, The Chilling Effect of International Investment Disputes: Limited Challenges to State Sovereignty
- Anastassia V Obydenkova & Vinícius G Rodrigues Vieira, The Limits of Collective Financial Statecraft: Regional Development Banks and Voting Alignment with the United States at the United Nations General Assembly
- Lauge N Skovgaard Poulsen, Beyond Credible Commitments: (Investment) Treaties as Focal Points
- Celeste Beesley, Foreign Policy Preferences in Ukraine: Trade and Ethnolinguistic Identity
- Megan MacKenzie, Eda Gunaydin, & Umeya Chaudhuri, Illicit Military Behavior as Exceptional and Inevitable: Media Coverage of Military Sexual Violence and the “Bad Apples” Paradox
- Luis L Schenoni, Gary Goertz, Andrew P Owsiak, & Paul F Diehl, Settling Resistant Territorial Disputes: The Territorial Boundary Peace in Latin America
- Michael R Kenwick, Self-Reinforcing Civilian Control: A Measurement-Based Analysis of Civil-Military Relations
- Kristin M Bakke, Neil J Mitchell, & Hannah M Smidt, When States Crack Down on Human Rights Defenders
- James C Franklin, Human Rights on the March: Repression, Oppression, and Protest in Latin America
- Michelle Giacobbe Allendoerfer, Amanda Murdie, & Ryan M Welch, The Path of the Boomerang: Human Rights Campaigns, Third-Party Pressure, and Human Rights
- Kristopher Velasco, A Growing Queer Divide: The Divergence between Transnational Advocacy Networks and Foreign Aid in Diffusing LGBT Policies
- Lauren Prather, Transnational Ties and Support for Foreign Aid
- Andrew Delatolla, Sexuality as a Standard of Civilization: Historicizing (Homo)Colonial Intersections of Race, Gender, and Class
- Nina Hall, Hans Peter Schmitz, & J Michael Dedmon, Transnational Advocacy and NGOs in the Digital Era: New Forms of Networked Power
- Alexander De Juan, Heterogeneous Effects of Development Aid on Violent Unrest in Postwar Countries: Village-Level Evidence from Nepal
- Jessica Maves Braithwaite & Kathleen Gallagher Cunningham, When Organizations Rebel: Introducing the Foundations of Rebel Group Emergence (FORGE) Dataset
- Jeffrey B Arnold, J Tyson Chatagnier, & Gary E Hollibaugh, Jr, Allegiance, Ability, and Achievement in the American Civil War: Commander Traits and Battlefield Military Effectiveness
- Sarah von Billerbeck, “Mirror, Mirror On the Wall:” Self-Legitimation by International Organizations
- Lauren Peritz, When are International Institutions Effective? The Impact of Domestic Veto Players on Compliance with WTO Rulings
- Cale Horne, Kellan Robinson, & Megan Lloyd, The Relationship between Contributors’ Domestic Abuses and Peacekeeper Misconduct in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations
- Arthur A Goldsmith, Out of Africa? Elections and Capital Flight Revisited
- Erica Frantz, Elections and Capital Flight: A Response to Goldsmith
- Markus Petsche, Restrictive Interpretation of Investment Treaties: A Critical Analysis of Arbitral Case Law
- Kabir A.N. Duggal & Rekha Rangachari, A Challenger Approaches: An Assessment of the Prague Rules on the Efficient Conduct of Proceedings in International Arbitration
- Jose F. Sanchez, Applying the Model Law’s Standard for Interim Measures in International Arbitration
- Alireza Salehifar, Rethinking the Role of Arbitration in International Tax Treaties
- Lars Markert & Raeesa Rawal, Emergency Arbitration in Investment and Construction Disputes: An Uneasy Fit?
- Kayihura Muganga Didas, John Mwemezi Rutta, & Claire Umwali Munyentwari, Striking a Balance Between Assistance and Interventionism: The Role of Courts in Rwanda-Seated Arbitrations
This monograph was originally developed as a direct response to the claim made by members of the 'Employers Group' at the 2012 International Labour Conference, namely that the right to strike is not protected in international law, and in particular by ILO Convention 87 on the right to freedom of association.
The group's apparent aim was to sow sufficient doubt as to the existence of an internationally protected right so that governments might seek to limit or prohibit the right to strike at the national level while still claiming compliance with their international obligations. In consequence, some governments have seized on the employers' arguments to justify new limitations on that right.
The Right to Strike in International Law not merely refutes this claim but is the only complete and exhaustive analysis on this subject. Based on deep legal research, it finds that there is simply no credible basis for the claim that the right to strike does not enjoy the protection of international law; indeed, the authors demonstrate that it has attained the status of customary international law.
Thursday, March 12, 2020
It is because Catholicism played such a formative role in the construction of Western legal culture that it is the focal point of this enquiry. The account of international law from its origin in the treaties of Westphalia, and located in the writing of the Grotian tradition, had lost contact with another cosmopolitan history of international law that reappeared with the growth of the early twentieth century human rights movement. The beginnings of the human rights movement, grounded in democratic sovereign power, returned to that moral vocabulary to promote the further growth of international order in the twentieth century. In recognising this technique of periodically returning to Western cosmopolitan legal culture, this book endeavours to provide a more complete account of the human rights project that factors in the contribution that cosmopolitan Catholicism made to a general theory of sovereignty, international law and human rights.
Akande, Kuosmanen, McDermott, & Roser: Human Rights and 21st Century Challenges: Poverty, Conflict, and the Environment
The world is faced with significant and interrelated challenges in the 21st century which threaten human rights in a number of ways. This book examines three of the largest issues of the century - armed conflict, environment, and poverty - and examines how these may be addressed using a human rights framework. It considers how these challenges threaten human rights and reassesses our understanding of human rights in the light of these issues.
This multidisciplinary text considers both foundational and applied questions such as the relationship between morality and the laws of war, as well as the application of the International Human Rights Framework in cyber space.
Alongside analyses from some of the most prominent lawyers, philosophers, and political theorists in the debate, each section includes contributions by those who have served as Special Rapporteurs within the United Nations Human Rights System on the challenges facing international human rights laws today.
- Jonas Schneider, The Study of Leaders in Nuclear Proliferation and How to Reinvigorate It
- Adam Kochanski, The “Local Turn” in Transitional Justice: Curb the Enthusiasm
- Nicole Deitelhoff & Lisbeth Zimmermann, Things We Lost in the Fire: How Different Types of Contestation Affect the Robustness of International Norms
- Seanon S Wong, Mapping the Repertoire of Emotions and Their Communicative Functions in Face-to-face Diplomacy
- Nicolás Terradas, The Quest for Order in Anarchical Societies: Anthropological Investigations
- Dustin N Sharp, Positive Peace, Paradox, and Contested Liberalisms
- Lin Alexandra Mortensgaard, Contesting Frames and (De)Securitizing Schemas: Bridging the Copenhagen School's Framework and Framing Theory
- Oran R. Young & Olav Schram Stokke, Why is it hard to solve environmental problems? The perils of institutional reductionism and institutional overload
- Brian Pentz & Nicole Klenk, Understanding the limitations of current RFMO climate change adaptation strategies: the case of the IATTC and the Eastern Pacific Ocean
- Paula Castro, Past and future of burden sharing in the climate regime: positions and ambition from a top-down to a bottom-up governance system
- James Hollway, Jean-Frédéric Morin & Joost Pauwelyn, Structural conditions for novelty: the introduction of new environmental clauses to the trade regime complex
- Tao Huang & Qingyue Yue, How the game changer was generated? An analysis on the legal rules and development of China’s green bond market
- Ahmet Conker & Hussam Hussein, Hydropolitics and issue-linkage along the Orontes River Basin: an analysis of the Lebanon–Syria and Syria–Turkey hydropolitical relations
- Taedong Lee & Wooyeal Paik, Asymmetric barriers in atmospheric politics of transboundary air pollution: a case of particulate matter (PM) cooperation between China and South Korea
- George Atisa, Policy adoption, legislative developments, and implementation: the resulting global differences among countries in the management of biological resources
- Francisco J. Alcaraz-Quiles, Andrés Navarro-Galera & David Ortiz-Rodríguez, The contribution of the right to information laws in Europe to local government transparency on sustainability
- Xuyu Hu, The doctrine of liability fixation of state responsibility in the convention on transboundary pollution damage
- Sabine Lee & Susan Bartels, ‘They Put a Few Coins in Your Hand to Drop a Baby in You’: A Study of Peacekeeper-fathered Children in Haiti
- Ralph Sundberg, UN Peacekeeping and Forced Displacement in South Sudan
- Manuela Nilsson & Lucía González Marín, Violent Peace: Local Perceptions of Threat and Insecurity in Post-Conflict Colombia
- Lou Pingeot, International Peacebuilding as a Case of Structural Injustice
- A. Walter Dorn, Stewart Webb & Sylvain Pâquet, From Wargaming to Peacegaming: Digital Simulations with Peacekeeper Roles Needed
- Anup Phayal & Brandon C. Prins, Deploying to Protect: The Effect of Military Peacekeeping Deployments on Violence Against Civilians
- Ciaran Gillespie, Virtual Humanity—Access, Empathy and Objectivity in VR Film Making
- Ihnji Jon, Scales of Political Action in the Anthropocene: Gaia, Networks, and Cities as Frontiers of Doing Earthly Politics
- Carolijn van Noort, Strategic Narratives of the Past: An Analysis of China’s New Silk Road Communication
- Evgeny Troitskiy, Dead-Letter Regimes in the Post-Soviet Space: Strategies and Communication
- Ari Jerrems, “An Opening Toward the Possible”: Assembly Politics and Henri Lefebvre's Theory of the Event
- Mabruk Derbesh, The Impact of Political Change on the State of Academia Including Academic Freedom in the Arab World: Libya as a Case Study
- Jenny Barrett, Counter-conduct and its Intra-modern Limits
- Special Issue: Subsequent Agreement and Practice in Treaty Interpretation
- Georg Nolte, Introductory Note to the Special Issue of ICLR on the Outcome of the ILC Work on “Subsequent Agreements and Subsequent Practice in Relation to the Interpretation of Treaties”
- Malgosia Fitzmaurice, Subsequent Agreement and Subsequent Practice: Some Reflections on the International Law Commission’s Draft Conclusions
- Danae Azaria, The Legal Significance of Expert Treaty Bodies Pronouncements for the Purpose of the Interpretation of Treaties
- Yukiya Hamamoto, Possible Limitations to the Role of Subsequent Agreements and Subsequent Practice – Viewed from Some State Practices
- Mika Hayashi, Non-Proliferation Treaty and Nuclear Disarmament: Article VI of the NPT in Light of the ILC Draft Conclusions on Subsequent Agreements and Practice
- Dai Tamada, The Japan-South Korea Claims Agreement: Identification of Subsequent Agreement and Practice
Kassoti: Between Sollen and Sein: The CJEU’s reliance on international law in the interpretation of economic agreements covering occupied territories
This contribution focuses on the Court of Justice of the European Union (Court or CJEU) reliance on international law in cases involving economic agreements covering occupied territories. In its earlier case law, the Court adopted a formalistic approach by ignoring the broader international legal framework of the dispute in an effort to achieve conformity with international law, while at the same time avoiding being drawn into political storms. The article continues by identifying an even more worrisome trend in the Court’s latest judgments in the Front Polisario and Western Sahara Campaign UK cases. In these two cases the Court showed its willingness to stretch the international rules of treaty interpretation to a breaking point in order to avoid pronouncing on the politically sensitive question of the de facto application of the EU’s agreements with Morocco in the territory of Western Sahara. The article concludes by asserting that the Court’s line of argumentation brings another dimension to the Völkerrechtsfreundlichkeit debate. The classical, binary understanding of the Court’s approach as ‘open/hostile’ to international law only provides us with a partial picture of how international law was actually used in these cases. The Court’s apparent willingness to rely on international law as a heuristic device to reinforce an outcome that radically departs from the logic and structure of international law and international legal argumentation requires a more in-depth engagement with both the content of the international law rules invoked in those judgments and with the Court’s use of such rules.
Call for Submissions and Young Practitioners and Scholars Essay Competition: European Investment Law and Arbitration Review
- Engaging Religions and Religious Studies in International Affairs
- Katherine E Brown, Introduction: engaging religions and religious studies in international affairs
- Katherine E Brown, Religious violence, gender and post-secular counterterrorism
- Oula Kadhum, Unpacking the role of religion in political transnationalism: the case of the Shi'a Iraqi diaspora since 2003
- Emma Tomalin, Global aid and faith actors: the case for an actor-orientated approach to the ‘turn to religion’
- Jeremy Kidwell, Mapping the field of religious environmental politics
- Caron E Gentry, The politics of hope: privilege, despair and political theology
- Daniel W Drezner, Immature leadership: Donald Trump and the American presidency
- Olivier Schmitt, Wartime paradigms and the future of western military power
- Xiangfeng Yang, The great Chinese surprise: the rupture with the United States is real and is happening
- Camile Oliveira & Erin Baines, Children ‘born of war’: a role for fathers?
- Anne-Kathrin Kreft, Civil society perspectives on sexual violence in conflict: patriarchy and war strategy in Colombia
- Paul D Williams, The Security Council's peacekeeping trilemma
- Lee-Anne Sim, Influencing the social impact of financial systems: alternative strategies