- Chelsea Estancona, Lucia Bird, Kaisa Hinkkainen & Navin Bapat, Civilian self-defense militias in civil war
- Thomas Oatley & Robert Galantucci, The dollar and the demand for protection
- Matthew DiGiuseppe & Katja B. Kleinberg, Economics, security, and individual-level preferences for trade agreements
- Brian J. Phillips, Foreign Terrorist Organization designation, international cooperation, and terrorism
- Crystal Shelton, Erik Cleven & Aaron M. Hoffman, Deadly foreign terrorism and the rank-ordered tournament for foreign press attention: implications for counterterrorism
- Rebecca Cordell, Security-Civil Liberties Trade-offs: International Cooperation in Extraordinary Rendition
- Research Note
- Oguzhan Turkoglu & Thomas Chadefaux, Nowhere to go? Why do some civil wars generate more refugees than others?
Saturday, April 13, 2019
The last decade has witnessed an increasing focus on the relationship between climate change and human rights. Several international human rights bodies have expressed concern about the negative implications of climate change for the enjoyment of human rights, and the Paris Agreement is the first multilateral climate agreement to refer explicitly to states' human rights obligations in connection with climate change. Yet despite this, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the role of international human rights law in enhancing accountability for climate action or inaction. As the Paris Agreement has shifted the focus of the climate change regime towards voluntary action, and the humanitarian impacts of climate change are increasingly being felt around the world, accountability for climate change has become an increasingly salient issue. This book offers a timely and comprehensive analysis of the legal issues related to accountability for the human rights impact of climate change, drawing on the state responsibility regime. It explains when and where state action relating to climate change may amount to a violation of human rights, and evaluates various avenues of legal redress available to victims. The overall analysis offers a perceptive insight into the potential of innovative rights-based climate actions to shape climate and energy policies around the world.
Call for Papers: IX Seminario Permanente del Anuario Mexicano de Derecho Internacional and V Seminario RELAREDI
Friday, April 12, 2019
- Tobias Böhmelt, Abel Escribà-Folch, & Ulrich Pilster, Pitfalls of Professionalism? Military Academies and Coup Risk
- Jonathan A. Chu, A Clash of Norms? How Reciprocity and International Humanitarian Law affect American Opinion on the Treatment of POWs
- Nam Kyu Kim & Mi Hwa Hong, Politics of Pursuing Justice in the Aftermath of Civil Conflict
- Laron K. Williams, Guns Yield Butter? An Exploration of Defense Spending Preferences
- Bradley C. Smith & William Spaniel, Militarized Disputes, Uncertainty, and Leader Tenure
- Emilie M. Hafner-Burton, Layna Mosley, & Robert Galantucci, Protecting Workers Abroad and Industries at Home: Rights-based Conditionality in Trade Preference Programs
- David Hales & Bruce Edmonds, Intragenerational Cultural Evolution and Ethnocentrism
- Ryan D. Griffith &, Louis M. Wasser, Does Violent Secessionism Work?
- Karsten Donnay, Eric T. Dunford, Erin C. McGrath, David Backer, & David E. Cunningham, Integrating Conflict Event Data
This book brings a new focus to the ongoing debate on holding perpetrators of massive humanitarian and human rights violations accountable in countries in transition. It provides a clear-cut and comprehensive legal analysis of the content and nature of a state's obligations to investigate and prosecute as enshrined in the most important humanitarian and human rights treaties; it disentangles the common fallacy that these procedural obligations are naturally rooted and clearly spelled out in the general human rights treaties; and it explains the flaws in an absolutist interpretation. This analysis serves to understand whether such procedural obligations, if narrowly construed, act as impediments to countries emerging from periods of conflict or systematic repression in the face of contingent circumstances and the formidable dilemmas raised by a univocal understanding of justice as retribution.
Exploring the latest instances of interpretation and application via an analysis of state practice, the jurisprudence of treaty bodies, international courts and tribunals, soft law instruments, and doctrinal contributions, the book also addresses the complex issue of amnesty, and other transitional justice mechanisms designed to restore peace and facilitate transition traditionally included in national reconciliation programs, and criticizes the contention that amnesty is always prohibited by international law. It also considers these problems from the viewpoint of the International Criminal Court, focusing on the cases of Uganda and Colombia after the 2016 peace agreement.
Lastly, the volume offers a detailed analysis of techniques that may neutralize relevant obligations under international law, such as denunciation, derogation, limitation, and the public international law defenses of force majeure and necessity. Drawing attention to the importance of a multidisciplinary and practical approach to these unsettling questions, and endorsing a pluralistic notion of accountability, the book will appeal to legal scholars and transitional justice experts as well as practitioners, human rights advocates, and government officials.
Thursday, April 11, 2019
- Kristina Daugirdas, Reputation as a Disciplinarian of International Organizations
- Evan J. Criddle & Evan Fox-Decent, Mandatory Multilateralism
- Editorial Comment
- Harlan Grant Cohen, What Is International Trade Law For?
- International Decisions
- Alonso Gurmendi Dunkelberg, Obligation to Negotiate Access to the Pacific Ocean (Bolivia v. Chile)
- Leila Nadya Sadat, Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo
- Yahli Shereshevsky, HCJ 3003/18 Yesh Din – Volunteers for Human Rights v. Chief of General Staff, Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
- Michail Vagias, Case No. ICC-RoC46(3)-01/18
- Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law
- Jean Galbraith, Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law
- Recent Books on International Law
- Karen J. Alter, The Empire of International Law?
- Jack Goldsmith, reviewing The Trump Administration and International Law, by Harold Hongju Koh
- Harlan Grant Cohen, reviewing Not Enough: Human Rights in an Unequal World, by Samuel Moyn
- Alex Whiting, reviewing The Crime of Aggression: A Commentary, Volumes 1 and 2, edited by Claus Kress and Stefan Barriga
- Melissa J. Durkee, reviewing Global Lawmakers: International Organizations in the Crafting of World Markets, by Susan Block-Lieb and Terence C. Halliday
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
- Geneviève Bastid-Burdeau (Université Paris 1), Conférence inaugurale - Les règles internationales de compétence et la pratique contemporaine des États : stabilité ou bouleversement ?
- Rüdiger Wolfrum (Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law), General Course - Solidarity and Community Interests: Driving Forces for the Interpretation and Development of International Law
- Samantha Besson (Université de Fribourg), La due diligence en droit international
- Paulo Borba Casella (Université de São Paulo), Droit international, histoire et culture
- Mathias Forteau (Université Paris-Nanterre), Le droit applicable devant les juridictions internationales
- Karen Knop (Univ. of Toronto), Foreign Relations and International Law
- Brusil Miranda Metou (Université de Dschang), Le contrôle international des dérogations aux droits de l’homme
- Mario Oyarzabal (National Univ. of La Plata), The Influence of Public International Law upon Private International Law
The International Criminal Court’s (ICC) Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) has described the preliminary examination as one of its “three core activities,” alongside investigating and prosecuting crimes under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Rome Statute). Honing in on this once-mysterious “core activity,” this article contributes to the recently expanding literature on preliminary examinations at the ICC by providing a much needed comprehensive picture of all preliminary examinations conducted to date. The twentieth anniversary of the court’s founding treaty, the Rome Statute, provides a timely opportunity for this review as part of the broader effort to take stock of the ICC’s achievements, failures, and future. The article demonstrates that, despite not having full investigatory powers at the preliminary examination stage, the OTP is very active during this phase. It interacts with a wide range of domestic and international actors and makes decisions on important legal issues that go to the heart of the ICC’s work. Paying close attention to preliminary examinations is therefore critical to understanding the OTP’s work, to understanding which actors engage with, and seek to “use,” the ICC, and to understanding important debates about the ICC’s legitimacy.
Le Bureau du Procureur de la Cour pénale internationale (CPI) décrit l’examen préliminaire comme l’une de ses “trois activités principales,” parallèlement à l’enquête et à la poursuite des crimes en vertu du Statut de Rome de la Cour pénale internationale (Statut de Rome). Visant cette “activité principale,” jadis mystérieuse, cet article contribue à la littérature croissante sur les examens préliminaires à la CPI en fournissant une image complète, bien nécessaire, de tous les examens préliminaires menés à ce jour. Le vingtième anniversaire du traité fondateur de la CPI, le Statut de Rome, constitue une occasion opportune pour dresser ce bilan dans le cadre d’un effort plus vaste visant à faire le point sur les réalisations, les échecs et l’avenir de la CPI. L’article démontre que, même s’il ne dispose pas de pouvoirs d’enquête complets au stade de l’examen préliminaire, le Bureau du Procureur est très actif au cours de cette phase. Il interagit avec un large éventail d’acteurs nationaux et internationaux et prend des décisions sur des questions juridiques importantes qui sont au cœur des travaux de la CPI. Il est donc essentiel d’accorder une attention particulière aux examens préliminaires pour comprendre le travail du Bureau du Procureur, les acteurs qui s’engagent auprès de la Cour et cherchent à l’ “utiliser,” ainsi que des débats importants sur la légitimité de la CPI.
Tuesday, April 9, 2019
- Immi Tallgren & Thomas Skouteris, Editors' Introduction
- Martti Koskenniemi, Foreword
- Gerry Simpson, Unprecedents
- Kamari Clarke, Founding Moments and Founding Fathers: Shaping Publics Through the Sentimentalization of History Narratives
- Lawrence Douglas, From the Sentimental Story of the State to the Verbrecherstaat; Or, the Rise of the Atrocity Paradigm
- Frederic Megret, International Criminal Justice History Writing as Anachronism
- Heidi Matthews, Redeeming Rape: Berlin 1945 and the Making of Modern International Criminal Law
- Immi Tallgren, 'Voglio una donna!': Of Contributing to History of International Criminal Law with the Help of Women Who Perpetrated International Crimes
- Emily Haslam, Writing More Inclusive Histories of International Criminal Law: Lessons From the Transatlantic Slave Trade
- Christopher Gevers, The 'Africa Blue Books' at Versailles: World War I, Narrative and Unthinkable Histories of International Criminal Law
- Vasuki Nesiah, Crimes Against Humanity: Racialized Subjects and Deracialized Histories
- Franziska Exeler, Nazi Atrocities, International Criminal Law, and War Crimes Trials. The Soviet Union and the Global Moment of Post-World War II Justice
- Aleksi Peltonen, Theodor Meron and the Humanization of International Law
- Mark Drumbl, Histories of the Jewish 'Collaborator': Exile, not Guilt
The Research Handbook on Environment and Investment Law examines one of the most dynamic areas of international law: the interaction between international investment law and environmental law and policy. The Research Handbook takes a thematic approach, analysing key issues in the environment–investment nexus, such as freshwater resources, climate, biodiversity, biotechnology and sustainable development. It also includes sections which explore regional experiences and address practice and procedure, and offers innovative approaches and critical perspectives, including the interface between foreign investment and the environment with human rights, gender, indigenous peoples, and economics.
- Giorgio Gaja, Alternative ai controlimiti rispetto a norme internazionali generali e a norme dell’unione europea
- Chiara Ragni, International legal implications concerning “Foreign Terrorist Fighters"
- Simone Vezzani, Considerazioni sulla giurisdizione extraterritoriale ai sense dei trattati sui diritti umani
- Marco Longobardo, Rapporti fra strumenti di codificazione: Il progetto di articoli sulla responsabilità degli Stati e le convenzioni di diritto internazionale umanitario
- Note e Commenti
- Manlio Frigo, Approaches Taken by the Security Council to the Global Protection of Cultural Heritage: An Evolving Role in Preventing Unlawful Traffic of Cultural Property
- Elisa Ruozzi, La codificazione della funzione cautelare internazionale ad opera dell’Institut de droit international
- Marina Mancini, La fine dello stato di guerra e il ripristino della pace tra Eritrea ed Etiopia
- Claudio Di Turi, Attualità e prospettive in tema di lotta alla tratta di esseri umani: La Convenzione ASEAN contro la tratta di persone, specialmente donne e bambinni
- Anna Liguori, The externalization of Border Controls and the Responsibility of Outsourcing States under the European Convention on Human Rights
- Olivia Lopes Pegna, Giù le mani da Villa Vigoni: Quale tutela “effettiva” per les vittime di gravi crimini compiuti da Stati esteri?
On 2 October 2018, Jamal Khashoggi, a dissident Saudi journalist residing in the United States, where he was a columnist for the Washington Post, was murdered in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul. This article seeks to comprehensively analyze Khashoggi’s killing from the standpoint of the human right to life. It sets out the relevant legal framework, addressing inter alia the issue that Saudi Arabia is not a party to what would otherwise be the most relevant human rights treaty, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It examines not only the obligations of Saudi Arabia, but also those of Turkey and the United States, in protecting Khashoggi’s right to life from third parties, and ensuring respect through an effective investigation of his killing and mutual cooperation for the purpose of that investigation. It also looks at the extraterritorial scope of these various obligations.Finally, the article examines possible norm conflicts between state obligations under human rights law and their obligations under diplomatic and consular law, such as the inviolability of diplomatic and consular premises, agents, and means of transportation.
The article argues that the fundamentals of the operation of the right to life in its various aspects regarding Khashoggi are reasonably clear. First, before the killing, the positive duty to protect Khashoggi’s life was triggered if Turkey and the United States knew, or ought to have known, of a real and immediate risk to Khashoggi’s life. It seems possible, if not likely, that these two states, and potentially others as well, did in fact possess such information so that the threat to Khashoggi’s life was reasonably foreseeable to them. If such was the case, at the very minimum these states had the duty to warn Khashoggi of the threat, which they did not do.
Second, there is no doubt that Saudi Arabia was in flagrant violation of the negative obligation to refrain from arbitrary deprivations of life. As for Turkey, if it knew, or ought to have known, of the threat to Khashoggi’s life in the premises of the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, it would have been required by its obligation to protect his life to forcibly enter the consulate if that was the only way of saving his life.
Third, Khashoggi’s killing engaged the procedural positive obligation to investigate his death. The article shows that many of the decisions that Turkey had made which compromised the effectiveness of the investigation, but which Turkey claimed it had to pursue in order to respect consular privileges and immunities, were in fact not required by consular law. For example, no rule of international law required Turkey to allow the Saudi agents to leave the country, to allow the consul-general and other members of consular staff to leave the country, or to ask Saudi Arabia for consent to search the consul-general’s residence or the consulate’s vehicles.
The article concludes that regardless of whether accountability for Khashoggi’s killing is ever fully realized, this does not change the fact that his right to life was protected by international law, as was the right to life of countless other victims of authoritarian regimes worldwide. The murder was a violation of the rights Khashoggi himself had had under international law, not simply those of the Turkish state. It deserves to be discussed in those terms.
Proulx: International Civil Individual Responsibility and the Security Council: Building the Foundations of a General Regime
This Article articulates the foundations of a general regime to govern individual civil responsibility in international law, covering all manner of non-state actors. It aims to palliate the normative and enforcement gaps created by the U.S. courts’ narrowing interpretation of the Alien Tort Claims Act and the European Court of Human Rights’ recent rejection of universal civil jurisdiction. Drawing from state responsibility logic and the broader framework of international responsibility, I advocate a limited role for the UN Security Council in implementing and developing individual responsibility for non-state actors’ wrongful conduct. I critically analyze that organ’s promulgation of relevant substantive norms, primarily but not exclusively in the counter terrorism area, and its attribution of illegal conduct and responsibility to individuals and non-state entities. Indeed, invoking international responsibility’s primary-secondary mechanics provides the Council with the powerful language (and notions) of attribution, responsibility, cessation, reparation, and return to legality. Moreover, it bolsters its findings of illegality with sanctions in appropriate cases, which can become robust and complementary implementation mechanisms, should the Council’s formulated obligations of cessation and non-repetition fail to generate the desired compliance pull. The Article espouses a transnational approach geared towards better understanding international individual responsibility regimes, exploring relevant regime interaction between international human rights, humanitarian law, international criminal law, state-to-state dispute settlement, international sanctions, domestic civil liability schemes, and transnational human rights litigation. This approach highlights the networks of multi-leveled relationships of responsibility and the multi-actor processes that might serve as incubators for actuating individual responsibility in international law.
On average, one person is displaced each second by a disaster-related hazard. Most people move within their own countries, but some are forced across international borders. This article outlines the scope of existing international legal frameworks to assist people displaced in the context of disasters and climate change, and suggests a variety of different tools that are required to address the phenomenon. Legal, policy, technical and scientific interventions, including disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and mitigation, development, and migration opportunities, will determine whether, and for how long, people can remain in their homes, and whether doing so enables them to lead dignified lives or exposes them to risks and increased vulnerability. Identifying the need for a broad, complementary set of policy strategies necessarily affects how international law should be progressively developed in this area.
- Xavier Boucobza & Yves-Marie Serinet, La régulation des groupes internationaux de sociétés : universalité de la compliance versus contrôles nationaux
- Guillaume Kessler, La consécration par la CJUE du droit de séjour du conjoint de même sexe du citoyen européen : un pas supplementaire vers la libre circulation des situations familiales au sein de l´Union européenne
- Vincent Tomkiewicz, Les réparations collectives devant la Cour pénale internationale
- Charles Leben, Proper Weil: un positiviste de stricte obédience (1926-2018)
- Pascal de Vareilles-Sommières, Sur l´ordre public standard de contròle d´une sentence étrangère tranchant un contentieux entre une personne publique française et un cocontractant privé étranger
- Dossier : La Russie et le droit international
- Pierre-François Laval, La conception de la souveraineté dans les opinions séparées des juges russes au sein des Cours internationales
- Maria Filatova, Droit constitutionnel russe et droit international
- Xavier Souvignet, La Russie et l’ingérence
- Nicolas Haupais, La Russie face aux questions séparatistes
- Francesco Martucci, Existe-t-il une “politique russe” de l’Union européenne?
- Antonios Tzanakopoulos, La Russie et le Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies: les trois époques de la pratique
- Hugo Flavier, L’Union économique eurasiatique : in varietate concordia?
- Claire Crepet Daigremont, La Russie dans l’OMC: aspects contentieux
- Michele de Salvia, La Russie et le Conseil de l’Europe: “clap de fin” ou redémarrage?
- Vincent Correia, Comme un air de déja-vu: la Russie, l’espace aérien et la droit international
- Niki Aloupi, Les frontières maritimes russes
- Baptiste Tranchant, Les arbitrages en matière d’investissement et la Russie
- Natalia Chaeva, La Russie et la crise syrienne
- Erik J Molenaar & Richard Caddell, International Fisheries Law: Achievements, Limitations and Challenges
- William WL Cheung, Vicky WY Lam, Yoshitaka Ota & Wilf Swartz, Modelling Future Oceans: The Present and Emerging Future of Fish Stocks and Fisheries
- Richard A Barnes, Alternative Histories and Futures of International Fisheries Law
- Olav Schram Stokke, Management Options for High Seas Fisheries: Making Regime Complexes More Effective
- James Harrison, Key Challenges Relating to the Governance of Regional Fisheries
- Erik J Molenaar, Participation in Regional Fisheries Management Organizations
- Richard Caddell, International Fisheries Law and Interactions with Global Regimes and Processes
- Karen N Scott, Bycatch Mitigation and the Protection of Associated Species
- Daniel C Dunn, Guillermo Ortuño Crespo & Richard Caddell, Area-based Fisheries Management
- Simon Marsden, Environmental Assessment and International Fisheries Law
- Rosemary Rayfuse, Addressing Climate Change Impacts in Regional Fisheries Management Organizations
- Áslaug Ásgeirsdóttir, An International Relations Perspective on Compliance and Enforcement
- Eva R van der Marel, Problems and Progress in Combating IUU Fishing
- Robin Churchill, International Trade Law Aspects of Measures to Combat IUU and Unsustainable Fishing
- Natalie Klein, Strengthening Flag State Performance in Compliance and Enforcement
- Carmino Massarella, Ensuring Compliance with Fisheries Regulations by Private Actors
- Richard Caddell, George Leloudas & Baris Soyer, Emerging Regulatory Responses to IUU Fishing
- Erik J Molenaar & Richard Caddell, Options and Pathways to Strengthen International Fisheries Law in an Era of Changing Oceans
On 25 February 2019, the International Court of Justice delivered its eagerly awaited Advisory Opinion in the case Legal Consequences of the Separation of the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritius in 1965. The two-day workshop at the Lauterpacht Centre is devoted to an in-depth discussion of the Advisory Opinion.
A first workshop was organized at the University of St. Gallen immediately after states and others had given their statements in the case of Chagos in The Hague in the fall 2018. In anticipation of the Advisory Opinion, a dozen articles has been published in the wake of this first workshop in a Questions of International Law “Zoom Out”. Now that the Opinion is out, we organize a second workshop, this time at the Lauterpacht Centre. The aim is to discuss the Advisory Opinion in depth, incl. in the perspective of our own previous work.
Day 1 of the workshop is open to the public. It begins with a keynote by Dr. Stephen Robert Allen, Queen Mary University of London, on “Self-Determination and the General Assembly after the Chagos Advisory Opinion”, followed by an academic discussion on the Advisory Opinion and the Chagossians. The aim of the discussion is to shed light on what the Advisory Opinion means for the Chagossians, an aspect that did not take center stage in the proceedings in The Hague. While this part of the event is public, there is only limited space at the Lauterpacht Centre. You may send a prior e-mail to the organizers.
During Day 2 we will have a discussion among international law experts. Structured around three round tables we will discuss the implications of the Advisory Opinion for Chagos, the Court, international law in general, and third cases. Free discussion among participants is the aim, but brief input will be provided by select experts, including Professor Zeno Crespi Reghizzi (Università degli Studi di Milano), Catherine Drummond (University of Cambridge), Dr. Johannes Fahner (University of Amsterdam) Professor Marcelo Kohen (IHEID Geneva), Dr. Peter Sand (LMU Munich) and Dr. James Summers (University of Lancaster). While Day 2 is open to anyone interested in discussion among experts, please register via e-mail with the organizers for Day 2 (space is limited; we charge no fee, but dinner is reserved to invited participants).
- Special Issue on Business, Human Rights and Security
- Mary E. Footer & Nigel D. White, Guest Editorial - Business, Human Rights and Security
- Marya Farah & Maha Abdallah, Security, Business and Human Rights in the Occupied Palestinian Territory
- Daria Davitti, The Rise of Private Military and Security Companies in European Union Migration Policies: Implications under the UNGPs
- Sorcha Macleod & Rebecca Dewinter-Schmitt, Certifying Private Security Companies: Effectively Ensuring the Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights?
- Cristina Narváez González & Katharine Valencia, Improving Human Rights in the Private Security Industry: Envisioning the Role of ICoCA in Latin America
- Núria Reguart-Segarra, Business, Indigenous Peoples’ Rights and Security in the Case Law of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights
- Developments in the Field
- William S. Dodge, Corporate Liability Under the US Alien Tort Statute: A Comment on Jesner v Arab Bank
- Catie Shavin, Unlocking the Potential of the New OECD Due Diligence Guidance on Responsible Business Conduct
- Joana Nabuco & Leticia Aleixo, Rights Holders’ Participation and Access to Remedies: Lessons Learned from the Doce River Dam Disaster
- Machiko Kanetake, The EU’s Export Control of Cyber Surveillance Technology: Human Rights Approaches
- Vivek Krishnamurthy, Are Internet Protocols the New Human Rights Protocols? Understanding ‘RFC 8280 – Research into Human Rights Protocol Considerations’
- Kinnari Bhatt, Does India’s Draft Mineral Policy Recognize and Implement Public Trust over Mineral Resources and Intergenerational Equity?
- Sera Mirzabegian, Big Tobacco v Australia: Challenges to Plain Packaging
‘Most favoured nation’ (MFN) treatment is an integral part of virtually all modern investment regimes. MFN clauses in international investment agreements signal to investors that a given state protects them from discrimination; however, in practice, enforcing such guarantees may be challenging. This book represents a comprehensive study on how ‘most favoured nation’ treatment operates as a substantive standard of international investment law. Starting with a history of the development of the concept in international law, the author provides an overview of existing state practices in negotiating MFN clauses in bilateral and international investment treaties. Finally, the work analyses the ability of MFN treatment clauses to prevent de facto discrimination and allow for the ‘import’ of third-party substantive protections in international investor state arbitration.
In Consensus-Based Interpretation of Regional Human Rights Treaties Francisco Pascual-Vives examines the central role played by the notion of consensus in the case law of the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights. As many other international courts and tribunals do, both regional human rights courts resort to this concept while undertaking an evolutive interpretation of the Rome Convention and the Pact of San José, respectively. The role exerted by the notion of consensus in this framework can be used not only to understand the evolving character of the rights and freedoms recognized by these international treaties, but also to reaffirm the international nature of these regional human rights courts.
Monday, April 8, 2019
The 2019 WTO Conference will examine the implications of recent global developments, including current challenges to multilateralism, regional and bilateral agreements and the intersection between trade and human rights. The unprecedented challenges in international trade law posed by the ongoing crisis at the WTO and by Brexit constitute an unparalleled opportunity to bring together worldwide expertise and innovative analysis.
Sunday, April 7, 2019
This chapter examines how the title of founder of the law of nations was bestowed upon Grotius and how the liberal internationalist interpretation of the existence of a Grotian tradition in international law came into being. It also reviews the extent to which both historical constructs have been challenged by new historical research and contemporary re-interpretations of Grotius’ works and figure. The chapter is divided into three parts. The first part accompanies the reception of Grotius by international lawyers from the time of the discovery of his De Jure Praedae in 1864 to the establishment of the Grotius Society in England during the First World War. The second part examines the revivals of Grotius among international lawyers in the aftermaths of both world wars and considers a number of Grotius-related historiographical developments during the Cold War period. The third part examines how, in recent decades, on the one hand Grotius has become more mainstreamed and further institutionalised as a global symbol of international law while on the other hand his reputation has suffered from him being labelled a handmaiden of European colonialism and exploitation. The concluding section reflects on the lasting fame of the ‘miracle of Holland’ among international lawyers and suggests that the history of international law as a research field should now take a break from Hugo Grotius.
UN-Women – eine erfolgreiche Reform innerhalb der Vereinten Nationen für das Anliegen Geschlechtergleichberechtigung oder eine weitere verpasste Chance? Eine erste Bilanz nach sieben Jahren zeigt, wo erste Erfolge zu verzeichnen sind und welche Hürden vielleicht unüberwindbar zum Scheitern der neuen Institution für Frauen- und Gleichstellungsfragen beitragen werden.
Um zu begreifen, welche Neuerungen durch die Gründung von UN-Women in das System der Vereinten Nationen eingeführt wurden, hilft dabei ein Blick zurück in die institutionelle und politische Geschichte der Vereinten Nationen, um die Entwicklung von Frauenrechten seit Gründung der UN zu beleuchten. Ferner wird der Status quo des Völkerrechts im Hinblick auf die Rechte und den Schutz von Frauen ausführlich auf existierende Schwächen bzw. Lücken hin analysiert. Schlussendlich gibt die Verfasserin eine konkrete Bewertung bezüglich der institutionellen, politischen und rechtlichen Fortschritte und bestehenden Mängel sowie eigene Handlungsempfehlungen ab.