Wednesday, July 18, 2018
Tuesday, July 17, 2018
Monday, July 16, 2018
- Barrie Sander, Justice as Identity: Unveiling the Mechanics of Legitimation in Domestic Atrocity Trials
- Symposium: The Intention of the Drafters - The ICC at 20
- Mark Klamberg & Göran Sluiter, Foreword
- Mark Klamberg, The Legality of Rebel Courts during Non-International Armed Conflicts
- Suzannah Linton, India and China Before, At, and After Rome
- Megan A. Fairlie, The Unlikely Prospect of Non-adversarial Trials at the International Criminal Court
- Fabricio Guariglia, ‘Admission’ v. ‘Submission’ of Evidence at the International Criminal Court: Lost in Translation?
- Silvia Fernández de Gurmendi, Enhancing the Court’s Efficiency: From the Drafting of the Procedural Provisions by States to their Revision by Judges
- Kimberly Prost, The Surprises of Part 9 of the Rome Statute on International Cooperation and Judicial Assistance
- Göran Sluiter, Enforcing Cooperation: Did the Drafters Approach It the Wrong Way?
- On the Establishment of Courts in Non-international Armed Conflict by Non-state Actors: Stockholm District Court Judgment of 16 February 2017
- Katerina I. Kappos, Current Developments at the International Criminal Court
Friday, July 13, 2018
- Anu Bradford, Stavros Gadinis, & Katerina Linos, Unintended Agency Problems: How International Bureaucracies Are Built and Empowered
- Rachel Brewster & Christine Dryden, Building Multilateral Anticorruption Enforcement: Analogies between International Trade & Anti-Bribery Law
- Ashley Deeks, Statutory International Law
- Aaron D. Simowitz, Legislating Transnational Jurisdiction
- Peter Vincent, Weathering the “Perfect Storm:” Welcoming Refugees While Protecting the United States at Home and Abroad
Thursday, July 12, 2018
International Law as an Instrument
Actors on the international stage use a variety of tools to address their concerns, from climate change to economic development; from humanitarian crises to cross-border disputes; from commercial regulation to global trade. Governments and international organizations employ diplomacy and coercion, corporations use negotiation and persuasion, and non-governmental organizations engage in fact-finding and advocacy. And all of these actors affect and are affected by international law and use the international legal system to effectuate change and solve problems.
The 2019 Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law (ASIL) will focus on the distinctive ways international law serves as an instrument that national and international actors invoke and deploy, and by which they are constrained. How does international law shape the perceptions of the interests and problems of diverse global actors and help frame solutions? Is international legal language a useful medium for the development and dissemination of globalized norms? Under what conditions is international law most effective? Are international institutions effective instruments for addressing complex global challenges?
At the 2019 Annual Meeting, ASIL invites international lawyers from all sectors of the profession, policymakers, and experts from other fields to reflect on the different ways in which international law plays a role in identifying and resolving global problems.
- Criminal Law, Human Rights, Migration
- Dispute Resolution
- Foreign Relations and National Security Law
- Global Commons
- International Business
- International Peace and Security
Call for Session Proposals
To suggest a session to the Committee, please complete the form below by no later than July 16, 2018.
- Peter Quayle & Xuan Gao, Introduction: Good Governance and Modern International Financial Institutions
- Part I: The Governance Role of the Boards of International Financial Institutions
- Stilpon Nestor, Board Effectiveness in International Financial Institutions: A Comparative Perspective on the Effectiveness Drivers in Constituency Boards
- Marie-Anne Birken & Gian Piero Cigna, Gender Diversity on Boards: A Cause for Multilateral Organizations
- Whitney Debevoise, International Financial Institution Governance: The Role of Shareholders
- Part II: The Governance Basis of International Financial Institutions
- Yan Liu, The Rule of Law in the International Monetary Fund: Past, Present and Future
- Natalie Lichtenstein, Governance of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in Comparative Context
- Joan S. Powers, The Evolving Jurisprudence of the International Administrative Tribunals: Convergence or Divergence?
- Part III: The Governance Vocation of International Financial Institutions
- Catherine Weaver, Open Data for Development: The World Bank, Aid Transparency, and the Good Governance of International Financial Institutions
- Yifeng Chen, The Making of Global Public Authorities: The Role of IFIs in Setting International Labor Standards
- Pascale Hélène Dubois, J. David Fielder, Robert Delonis, Frank Fariello & Kathleen Peters, The World Bank’s Sanctions System: Using Debarment to Combat Fraud and Corruption in International Development
- 2017 AIIB Law Lecture
- Miguel de Serpa Soares, The Necessity of Cooperation between International Organizations
Wednesday, July 11, 2018
- Alexander Murray, Terrorist or Armed Opposition Group Fighter? The Experience of UK Courts and the Implications for Public International Law
- Kerstin Braun, ‘Home, Sweet Home’: Managing Returning Foreign Terrorist Fighters in Germany, The United Kingdom and Australia
- Jakub Czepek, The Application of the Pilot Judgment Procedure and Other Forms of Handling Large-Scale Dysfunctions in the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights
- Cedric Ryngaert, EU Trade Agreements and Human Rights: From Extraterritorial to Territorial Obligations
Confronting recalcitrant and even hostile governments is nothing new for international human rights courts, treaty bodies, and other monitoring mechanisms. Yet there is a growing sense that the recent turn to populism in several countries poses a new type of threat that international human rights law (IHRL) institutions are ill equipped to meet. The concerns range in scope and intensity—from criticisms of specific rulings or legal doctrines, to predictions of backlash against particular courts or review bodies, to warnings that major sections of the institutional edifice of IHRL are in danger of collapse.
Part 1 of this essay identifies several facilitating conditions that have, until recently, supported IHRL institutions. Part 2 considers several distinctive challenges that populism poses to those institutions. Part 3 identifies a range of legal and political tools that might be deployed to address those challenges and explores their efficacy and potential risks. Part 4 concludes that IHRL institutions should adopt survival strategies for the age of populism and it preliminarily sketches what those strategies might look like.
- Cherie Blair, Ema Vidak-Gojkovic, & Marie-Anaïs Meudic-Role, The Medium Is the Message: Establishing a System of Business and Human Rights Through Contract Law and Arbitration
- Paul Lefebvre & Dirk De Meulemeester, The New York Convention: An Autopsy of Its Structure and Modus Operandi
- Tamás Szabados, EU Economic Sanctions in Arbitration
- Stepan Puchkov, Psycholawgy: What Dispute Resolution Practitioners Overlook?
- Michael Kotrly & Barry Mansfield, Recent Developments in International Arbitration in England and Ireland
Tuesday, July 10, 2018
Drawing on the practice-turn in constructivism and in international relations (IR) theory more generally, our interactional law framework provides a counterpoint to the largely static accounts of international law that still prevail in the interdisciplinary literature. We argue that a particular approach to managing stability and change is inherent in, and indeed characteristic of, legality and the rule of law in international as in domestic law. Therefore, to get at law’s distinctiveness, and to understand the specifically legal interplay between stability and change, one must examine law’s internal structure. Furthermore, legality must actually be practiced. For example, the conclusion of a treaty is often just the beginning of a long law-building process – the document alone ensures neither stability nor change in law. Finally, a focus on internal traits and practices of legality allows full consideration of the formal sources of international law as well as the so-called soft norms that are shaping international interaction involving an ever-wider range of actors.
Our “interactional law” framework places particular emphasis on what we call the “practice of legality.” We argue that this concept is central to understanding how law can both enable and constrain state actions, and why international law is a distinctive language of justification and contestation. In turn, the focus on stability and change is helpful because it directly confronts some of the persistent doubts and assumptions about international law, in particular in relation to international politics. Our work is animated by the intuition that the dominant views in IR and international law scholarship underestimate international law’s capacity to mediate stability and change, in part because they focus on the surface of law (treaties, statutes etc.) and external factors (interests, enforcement). They neglect the deeper structure of what makes norms law, and the distinctive practices that account for its relative stability and its capacity for change.
The concern over rising state violence, above all in Latin America, triggered an unprecedented turn to a global politics of human rights in the 1970s. Patrick William Kelly argues that Latin America played the most pivotal role in these sweeping changes, for it was both the target of human rights advocacy and the site of a series of significant developments for regional and global human rights politics. Drawing on case studies of Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, Kelly examines the crystallization of new understandings of sovereignty and social activism based on individual human rights. Activists and politicians articulated a new practice of human rights that blurred the borders of the nation-state to endow an individual with a set of rights protected by international law. Yet the rights revolution came at a cost: the Marxist critique of US imperialism and global capitalism was slowly supplanted by the minimalist plea not to be tortured.
- Vipin Narang & Caitlin Talmadge, Civil-military Pathologies and Defeat in War: Tests Using New Data
- Clayton Thyne, Jonathan Powell, Sarah Parrott, & Emily VanMeter, Even Generals Need Friends: How Domestic and International Reactions to Coups Influence Regime Survival
- Erica De Bruin, Preventing Coups d’état: How Counterbalancing Works
- Sabine Otto, The Grass Is Always Greener? Armed Group Side Switching in Civil Wars
- Arthur Silve, Asset Complementarity, Resource Shocks, and the Political Economy of Property Rights
- Darin Christensen, The Geography of Repression in Africa
- Andrew M. Linke, Frank D. W. Witmer, John O’Loughlin, J. Terrence McCabe, & Jaroslav Tir, Drought, Local Institutional Contexts, and Support for Violence in Kenya
- Francesco N. Moro & Salvatore Sberna, Transferring Violence? Mafia Killings in Nontraditional Areas: Evidence from Italy
- Thijs Etty, Veerle Heyvaert, Cinnamon Carlarne, Dan Farber, Bruce Huber, & Josephine van Zeben, Transnational Climate Law
- Yulia Yamineva & Kati Kulovesi, Keeping the Arctic White: The Legal and Governance Landscape for Reducing Short-Lived Climate Pollutants in the Arctic Region
- Kyla Tienhaara, Regulatory Chill in a Warming World: The Threat to Climate Policy Posed by Investor-State Dispute Settlement
- Benoit Mayer, International Law Obligations Arising in relation to Nationally Determined Contributions
- María Eugenia Recio, Transnational REDD+Rule Making: The Regulatory Landscape for REDD+ Implementation in Latin America
- Jonathan Verschuuren, Towards an EU Regulatory Framework for Climate-Smart Agriculture: The Example of Soil Carbon Sequestration
- Phillipa C. McCormack, Conservation Introductions for Biodiversity Adaptation under Climate Change
- Xiangbai He, Legal and Policy Pathways of Climate Change Adaptation: Comparative Analysis of the Adaptation Practices in the United States, Australia and China
- The Law and Armed Conflict
- Sharon Afek, We’re Not in Beersheba Anymore: Discussing Contemporary Challenges in the Law of Armed Conflict with 120 International Lawyers
- Yoram Dinstein, Keynote Address: The Recent Evolution of the International Law of Armed Conflict: Confusions, Constraints, and Challenges
- Knut Dormann, The Role of Nonstate Entities in Developing and Promoting International Humanitarian Law
- Michael Wood, The Evolution and Identification of the Customary International Law of Armed Conflict
- Nitsan Alon, Operational Challenges in Ground Operations in Urban Areas: An IDF Perspective
- Geoffrey S. Corn, Humanitarian Regulation of Hostilities: The Decisive Element of Context
- Michael W. Meier & James T. Hill, Targeting, the Law of War, and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
- Noam Neuman, Challenges in the Interpretation and Application of the Principle of Distinction During Ground Operations in Urban Areas
- Emanuela-Chiara Gillard, Some Reflections on the “Incidental Harm” Side of Proportionality Assessments
- Ian Henderson & Kate Reece, Proportionality under International Humanitarian Law: The “Reasonable Military Commander” Standard and Reverberating Effects
- Roni Katzir, Four Comments on the Application of Proportionality under the Law of Armed Conflict
- Michael A. Newton, Reframing the Proportionality Principle
- Gloria Gaggioli, Targeting Individuals Belonging to an Armed Group
- Charles J. Dunlap, Jr., Targeting of Persons: The Contemporary Challenges
- R. Patrick Huston, A Practical Perspective on Attacking Armed Groups
- Agnieszka Jachec-Neale, Targeting State and Political Leadership in Armed Conflicts
- Eran Shamir-Borer, Fight, Forge, and Fund: Three Select Issues on Targeting of Person
- Joseph Blocher & MItu Gulati, Puerto Rico and the Right of Accession
- Lea Brilmayer, Understanding "IMCCs": Compensation and Closure in the Formation and Function of International Mass Claims Commissions
- Kathleen Claussen, Separation of Trade Law Powers
- Yueh-Ping (Alex) Yang & Pin-Hsien (Peggy) Lee, State Capitalism, State-Owned Banks, and WTO's Subsidy Regime: Proposing an Institution Theory
- Michael Viets, Piracy in an Ocean of Stars: Proposing a Term to Identify the Practice of Unauthorized Control of Nations' Space Objects
- Lawrence M. Friedman, On Planetary Law Arthur J. Cockfield, Shaping International Tax Law and Policy in Challenging Times
- Philippe Cullet, Policy as Law: Lessons from Sanitation Interventions in Rural India
- Marta Poblet & Jonathan Kolieb, Responding to Human Rights Abuses in the Digital Era: New Tools, Old Challenges
Monday, July 9, 2018
Can fiction fan the spark of hope in Martti Koskenniemi’s critical international law writings? In the course of a critical reading of Wouter Werner, Marieke de Hoon, & Alexis Galán, The Law of International Lawyers: Reading Martti Koskenniemi (Cambridge University Press, 2017), this review article argues against the hermeneutics of suspicion and for a more reparative approach to doing international law critically. Drawing on work in Literary Studies, it identifies the limiting effects suspicion can have on critique and suggests that fiction offers a way of grounding abstract concepts and thinking about their complications and implications. It illustrates this technique by reading one of Koskenniemi’s theoretical protagonists, dubbed the “critical professional” by Sahib Singh, alongside the trope of the maverick cop in TV police procedurals, with special reference to The Wire.
- Volume 390
- A.S. Rau, The Allocation of Power between Arbitral Tribunals and State Courts
- J Ann Tickner & Jacqui True, A Century of International Relations Feminism: From World War I Women's Peace Pragmatism to the Women, Peace and Security Agenda
- Joseph MacKay & Christopher David LaRoche, Why Is There No Reactionary International Theory?
- Peter Marcus Kristensen, International Relations at the End: A Sociological Autopsy
- Joshua Tschantret, Cleansing the Caliphate: Insurgent Violence against Sexual Minorities
- Ore Koren & Anoop K Sarbahi, State Capacity, Insurgency, and Civil War: A Disaggregated Analysis
- Christopher McIntosh & Ian Storey, Between Acquisition and Use: Assessing the Likelihood of Nuclear Terrorism
- Charles Crabtree, Holger L Kern, & Steven Pfaff, Mass Media and the Diffusion of Collective Action in Authoritarian Regimes: The June 1953 East German Uprising
- Holger Albrecht & Ferdinand Eibl, How to Keep Officers in the Barracks: Causes, Agents, and Types of Military Coups
- Leonardo Baccini, Andreas Dür, & Manfred Elsig, Intra-Industry Trade, Global Value Chains, and Preferential Tariff Liberalization
- Joseph Wright & Boliang Zhu, Monopoly Rents and Foreign Direct Investment in Fixed Assets
- Elena V McLean & Mitchell T Radtke, Political Relations, Leader Stability, and Economic Coercion I
- Ziv Rubinovitz & Elai Rettig, Crude Peace: The Role of Oil Trade in the Israeli-Egyptian Peace Negotiations
- Gerasimos Tsourapas, Labor Migrants as Political Leverage: Migration Interdependence and Coercion in the Mediterranean
- Connor Huff & Robert Schub, The Intertemporal Tradeoff in Mobilizing Support for War
- Jeffrey A Friedman, Joshua D Baker, Barbara A Mellers, Philip E Tetlock, & Richard Zeckhauser, The Value of Precision in Probability Assessment: Evidence from a Large-Scale Geopolitical Forecasting Tournament
- Sarah K Dreier, Resisting Rights to Renounce Imperialism: East African Churches’ Strategic Symbolic Resistance to LGBTQ Inclusion
- Faradj Koliev & James H Lebovic, Selecting for Shame: The Monitoring of Workers’ Rights by the International Labour Organization, 1989 to 2011
- Richard A I Johnson & Spencer L Willardson, Human Rights and Democratic Arms Transfers: Rhetoric Versus Reality with Different Types of Major Weapon Systems
L'enfant - le mineur - est souvent présenté comme source de risques. Mais a-t-il des droits ? Peut-il engager sa responsabilité civile, pénale, disciplinaire ? Peut-il s'exprimer et porter plainte ? Que savons-nous du statut fait aux enfants en France et que savent-ils de leurs droits ? Ce jeu de questions-réponses entend répondre aux principales interrogations sur le statut des enfants de France.
Wittke: The Bush Doctrine Revisited: Eine Untersuchung der Auswirkungen der Bush-Doktrin auf das geltende Völkerrecht
Die Bush-Doktrin war seit ihrer Veröffentlichung als US-amerikanische Sicherheitsstrategie nach dem 11. September 2001 völkerrechtlich umstritten. Mehr als ein Jahrzehnt später geht diese Arbeit der Frage nach, ob die Bush-Doktrin zu einem Wandel des Völkerrechts geführt hat. Einzelne Elemente der Bush-Doktrin – wie ihr Anspruch auf präemptive Selbstverteidigung und neue Zurechnungskriterien bei Gewaltausübungen von privaten Akteuren – gehörten nicht zum damals geltenden Völkerrecht. Bei ihrer Untersuchung der Staatenpraxis vor und nach dem 11. September 2001 weist die Autorin auch nach, dass die Bush-Doktrin nicht als „Erfindung“ der Bush-Administration gelten kann, sondern dass auch andere US-Administrationen und weitere Staaten ähnliche Argumente verwendet haben.
The Bush Doctrine has been highly contested in international law ever since it was implemented as the US’s National Security Strategy after 11th September, 2001. More than a decade later, this book explores whether the Bush Doctrine has led to a change in international law. Certain elements of the Bush Doctrine, like its claim to both pre-emptive self-defence and self-defence against states who harbour terrorists, stretch far beyond the traditional scope of the right to self-defence. Moreover, examining state practice before and after 9/11, the author comes to the conclusion that the Bush Doctrine is not an ‘invention’ of the Bush administration, as other US administrations and states have used the same arguments.
This paper analyses the functions performed by the WTO’s Dispute Settlement Body (DSB), that is, the diplomatic body, consisting of representatives of all WTO members, which administers the dispute settlement system, including by establishing panels, adopting panel and Appellate Body reports, monitoring implementation of rulings, and authorising the suspension of concessions. Of course, because the reverse consensus rule applies to these decisions, their outcome is in practice a foregone conclusion. However, it would be wrong for this reason to treat the DSB as a formality, not worthy of further analysis. Instead, this paper suggests that having the DSB may serve a number of important functions within the wider legal and political processes of the WTO. Specifically, the paper focuses on three functions performed by the DSB. First, the paper analyses the DSB’s role as a crucial ‘voice’ mechanism which provides WTO members with a centralized forum for expressing (dis)satisfaction with the performance of adjudicators. This section draws on the framework of ‘exit, voice and loyalty’, originally developed by Hirschman as a way of conceptualizing member dissatisfaction with an organization’s performance. This section analyses the two most striking episodes of the DSB operating as a voice mechanism in the WTO’s history: the widespread member backlash over amicus curiae briefs a generation ago, and the United States’ blocking of Appellate Body (re)appointments from 2016 to present. Second, the paper considers the DSB’s compliance-monitoring function. On its face, this is a key respect in which WTO dispute settlement differs from many international courts and tribunals, where there is often no centralized mechanism for monitoring post-judgment compliance. Third, the paper analyses the DSB’s function as a mechanism for socializing members into the complex field of WTO dispute settlement, alongside other avenues for learning such as third party participation in disputes.
- Édgar E. Méndez Zamora, Panorama Actual y Futuro de la Inteligencia Artificial en el Arbitraje Internacional: Implementaciones, Obstáculos y Consideraciones Jurídicas
- Viviana Méndez & Lucía Soley, Re-Examining the Scope of the Crime of Genocide: Understanding the Meaning of the “Genus” in the Punishment of the Crime of Crimes
- Juan Felipe Wills, Lex Sportiva: ¿El Nuevo Jugador en la Cancha de Fútbol de la Sociedad Internacional?
- Ana Paola Murillo Nassar, La Evolución de la Doctrina del Control de Convencionalidad en la Jurisprudencia de la Corte Interamericana ee Derechos Humanos u su Aplicación en el Derecho Interno
- Valentina Vera Quiroz, La Interpretación Evolutiva y la Erosión de Normas del Derecho Internacional
- Entrevista a Gary B. Born
- Gerry Simpson, La Vida Sentimental del Derecho Internacional
- Hilary Charlesworth & Christine Chinkin, El Género del Jus Cogens
- Luis Eslava, Retratos de Estambul: Observando la Operación Cotidiana del Derecho Internacional
- Alonso Gurmendi, “Si Vis Pacem”: La Aplicación del Derecho Internacional Humanitario en el Ordenamiento Jurídico Peruano
- Entrevista a Yonatan Lupu
- Entrevista a Helen Duffy
Sunday, July 8, 2018
- Contemporary Practice on the Relationship between International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights Law
- S. Dewulf & K. Fortin, Introduction
- A. Clapham, Human Rights in Armed Conflict: Metaphors, Maxims, and the Move to Interoperability
- J-M. Henckaerts & E. Nohle, Concurrent Application of International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights Law Revisited
- R. Bartels, The Interplay between International Human Rights Law and International Humanitarian Law during International Criminal Trials
- D. Casalin, A Green Light Turning Red? The Potential Influence of Human Rights on Developing Customary Legal Protection Against Conflict-Driven Displacement
- P. Vedel Kessing, Soft Law Instruments Regulating Armed Conflict. Are International Human Rights Standards Reflected?
- K.L. Yip, What Does the Jurisdictional Hurdle under International Human Rights Law Mean for the Relationship between International Human Rights Law and International Humanitarian Law?
- A. Bellal & E. Heffes, ‘Yes, I Do’: Binding Armed Non-State Actors to IHL and Human Rights Norms through Their Consent
Bartels: A Fine Line between Protection and Humanisation: The Interplay between the Scope of Application of International Humanitarian Law and Jurisdiction Over Alleged War Crimes Under International Criminal Law
International humanitarian law (IHL) provides limits to the conduct of warring parties during armed conflicts. If these limits are crossed, international criminal law (ICL) can address alleged violations of IHL. When certain conduct falls outside the scope of jurisdiction over war crimes it may result in impunity. International courts and tribunals have therefore taken a very broad approach to their jurisdiction, including with regards to the concept of non-international armed conflict, which has been expanded well beyond the initial intention of States. While an expansive approach to the application of IHL may be desirable after the fact, in order to ensure that atrocities can be prosecuted as war crimes, applying IHL too broadly to situations on the ground may not result in better protection of those affected by violence. Although the protective function of IHL remains of paramount importance, States nowadays also extensively rely on the permissive aspect of IHL that allows targeting of military objectives, combatants and other persons taking a direct part in hostilities. The present chapter addresses the tension between the desire to expand the jurisdiction over war crimes and the consequential impact on IHL. It does so by specifically looking at the manner in which international courts and tribunals have pronounced on the material scope of IHL.
Wiener: The Rule of Law in Inter-National Relations: Contestation Despite Diffusion – Diffusion Through Contestation
This chapter discusses the rule of law as an example of the interplay between practices of constitution and the contestation of fundamental norms in global governance. Like most fundamental norms (or principles) the rule of law’s universal validity claim is globally well diffused, and at the same time stands highly contested locally. The ‘apparent unanimity in support of the rule of law is a feat unparalleled in history. No other single political ideal has ever achieved global endorsement’. Yet, it is also ‘“an essentially contested concept”, that is, a notion characterised by disagreement that extends to its core’. Dissensus and consensus are two aspects of the same process; they are connected through practices. Therefore, this chapter focuses on the practices of norm validation, which are presented as part of a “cycle-grid model”, so as to facilitate research that takes account of both empirical (mapping) and normative (shaping) dimensions of norms research in international relations (IR) theory and international law.
Wang: Divergence, Convergence or Crossvergence of Chinese and US Approaches to Regional Integration: Evolving Trajectories and Their Implications
Trends in Chinese and U.S. approaches to regional integration are likely to profoundly affect other states and even the future of global economic governance. Showing a possible paradigm shift, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) renegotiation reflect the latest major developments in China and the U.S. regarding regional integration. In particular, the U.S. pursues managed trade, shifts to bilateralism, and adopts an aggressive approach. This article analyses a core question: will Chinese and U.S. trade approaches converge, diverge or both, and why? For the analysis of the convergence or divergence, four aspects will be covered: the objectives of regionalism, the instruments for regionalism, the approaches to multilateralism, and the role in rulemaking. This paper argues that Chinese and U.S. trade approaches are likely to diverge and converge, leading to crossvergence (a simultaneous convergence and divergence of regulatory approaches). Divergence can be found in fundamental areas and particularly the approaches to regionalism and multilateralism. Convergence appears to occur only in selected areas (e.g. investment and intellectual property). Uncertainties exist since both the BRI and trade policies of the Trump Administration are under development. The interaction between Chinese and American approaches will affect the shaping of the international economic legal order.
This article outlines a critical approach to the emerging discourse of transnational environmental law. It highlights how transboundary activities and organisational structures increasingly shape environmental law, and how legal discourse interprets these developments. In particular, the article unpacks the manifold transnational regulatory structures and explains their interactions with state-made environmental law. It also discusses the legal quality and constitutional issues of transnational norms and analyses the added scientific value of the concept of transnational environmental law. We argue that transnational norms governing the use of public goods are generally not binding on third parties. Accordingly, they have to be ‘re-embedded’ into well-established political and legal processes. In other words, these norms and mechanisms have to be complemented, endorsed or limited by formal legal structures to become a legitimate part of environmental law.
Wittke: Law in the Twilight: International Courts and Tribunals, the Security Council and the Internationalisation of Peace Agreements between State and Non-State Parties
An informative book focusing on the internationalisation and legalisation of peace agreements to settle intra-state conflicts between state and non-state parties. Cindy Wittke focuses on two key issues: how international courts and tribunals deal with peace agreements; and what implications the United Nations Security Council's involvement in the negotiation and implementation of peace agreements has for the agreements' legal nature, the status of the non-state parties to agreements and the interpretation of peace agreements. Wittke argues that the processes of negotiating and implementing peace agreements between state and non-state parties create new spheres, spaces and forms of post-conflict law making and law enforcement. For example, contemporary peace agreements can simultaneously take the form and function of internationalised transitional constitutions and agreements governed by international law. The resulting characteristics of contemporary peace agreement lead to permanent ambiguities shaping their interpretation and enforcement.
- Helen Keller & Daniel Moeckli, Introduction
- Maya Hertig Randall, The History of the Covenants: Looking Back Half a Century and Beyond
- Gerald Neuman, Giving Meaning and Effect to Human Rights: The Contributions of Human Rights Committee Members
- Daniel Moeckli, Interpretation of the ICESCR: Between Morality and State Consent
- Patrick Mutzenberg, The Role of NGOs in the Implementation of the Covenants
- Manisuli Ssenyonjo, Influence of the ICESCR in Africa
- Basak Çali, Influence of the ICCPR in the Middle East
- Mónica Pinto & Martin Sigal, Influence of the ICESCR in the Americas
- Yogesh Tyagi, Influence of the ICCPR in Asia
- Amrei Müller, Influence of the ICESCR in Europe
- Samantha Besson, The Influence of the Two Covenants on States Parties Across Regions: Lessons for the Role of Comparative Law and of Regions in International Human Rights Law
- Stephen Humphreys, The Covenants in the Light of Anthropogenic Climate Change
- Christine Kaufmann, The Covenants and Financial Crises
- Felice Gaer, The Institutional Future of the Covenants: A World Court for Human Rights?
Thursday, July 5, 2018
- Volume 389
- H. Muir Watt, Discours sur les méthodes du droit international privé (des formes juridiques de l’inter-altérité), Cours général de droit international privé
Schader: Fiskalische Immunität internationaler Organisationen und ihres Personals in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Dieses Buch beschäftigt sich mit den Rechtsgrundlagen, der Rechtfertigung, den historischen Phänomenen und der gewohnheitsrechtlichen Verpflichtung zur Gewährung von fiskalischen Immunitäten an internationale Organisationen und ihres Personals. Darüber hinaus vergleicht die Autorin die völkervertraglich gewährten Steuerbefreiungen von internationalen Organisationen und ihres Personals mit Sitz in Deutschland und setzt sich mit den Auswirkungen der Steuerbefreiungen im Rahmen der deutschen Besteuerung auseinander. Abschließend enthält das Werk rechtspolitische Regelungsvorschläge für eine vereinheitlichende Kodifikation der fiskalischen Immunitäten aller internationalen Organisationen und ihres Personals mit Sitz in Deutschland.
- Andrea Birdsall, Drone Warfare in Counterterrorism and Normative Change: US Policy and the Politics of International Law
- Zoë Marriage, Evading Biopolitical Control: Capoeira as Total Resistance
- Benjamin Leffel & Michele Acuto, Economic Power Foundations of Cities in Global Governance
- Bill Dunn, On the Prospects of a Return to Keynes: Taking Keynes’s Political Philosophy Seriously
- Greig Charnock & Guido Starosta, Towards a “Unified Field Theory” of Uneven Development: Human Productive Subjectivity, Capital and the International
- Dena Freeman, De-Democratisation and Rising Inequality: The Underlying Cause of a Worrying Trend
- Elsa Tsioumani, Beyond access and benefit‐sharing: Lessons from the law and governance of agricultural biodiversity
- Gautam Sharma & Hemant Kumar, Intellectual property rights and informal sector innovations: Exploring grassroots innovations in India
- Ramesh B. Karky, Bioinformatics innovations and patent eligibility
- Archana Patnaik, Joost Jongerden, & Guido Ruivenkamp, Rights or ability: Access to plant genetic resources in India
- Henrique Carvalho, The beginnings of copyright law in Macau
- Gabriele Spina Alì, The 13th Round: Article 39(3) TRIPS and the struggle over “Unfair Commercial Use”
- Prashant Reddy Thikkavarapu, The overlap between the Patents Acts and the plant variety protection & Farmer's Rights Act in India: A seed of doubt
- Jessica C. Lai & Vikas Kathuria, “Restrictive Conditions” in patent law and the competition law interface
- The Duties, Rights and Powers of International Arbitrators
- José Manuel Álvarez Zárate & Gómez Katia Fach, The Duties, Rights and Powers of International Arbitrators
- Rodrigo Polanco Lazo & Valentino Desilvestro, Does an Arbitrator’s Background Influence the Outcome of an Investor-State Arbitration?
- Andrea K. Bjorklund, Are Arbitrators (Judicial) Activists?
- Kathleen Claussen, Tipping Point Challenges in International Economic Disputes
- Katia Fach Gómez, Diversity and the Principle of Independence and Impartiality in the Future Multilateral Investment Court
- Fernando Dias Simões, Hold on to Your Hat! Issue Conflicts in the Investment Court System
- Elsa Sardinha, Party-Appointed Arbitrators No More
- David L. Earnest, The Duty of Arbitrators to Delimitate between Jurisdiction and Admissibility in Investor-State Arbitration: A Developed Consensus or an Enduring Lacuna?
- Perry S. Bechky, Salini’s Nature: Arbitrators’ Duty of Jurisdictional Policing
- Joshua Karton, The International Investment Arbitrator’s Duty to Apply the Law
- Karsten Nowrot & Emily Sipiorski, Approaches to Arbitrator Intimidation in Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Impartiality, Independence, and the Challenge of Regulating Behaviour
- Catharine Titi, Investment Arbitration and the Controverted Right of the Arbitrator to Issue a Separate or Dissenting Opinion
- José Manuel Álvarez Zárate, Nineteenth Century Arbitrators’ Powers—Has There Been Any Progress to Date?
- Juan José Quintana, A Note on the Activation of the ICC’s Jurisdiction over the Crime of Aggression
- Dai Tamada, Applicability of the Excess of Power Doctrine to the ICJ and Arbitral Tribunals
- Laura Yvonne Zielinski, “You Cannot Lose What You Never Had”: The Law Applicable to Property Determinations in ICSID Arbitration
There are disputes over territory in almost every region of the world, sometimes leading to escalations and violence between States and threatening international peace and security. International law requires States to refrain from the threat or use of force and to attempt to settle their disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace, security and justice are not endangered.
In June 2018 the British Institute of International and Comparative Law (BIICL) has completed a project on the legal significance of certain acts involving the use of force in relation to territorial disputes, especially when altering the status quo in disputed territories, continental or island.
The project report provides a comprehensive analysis of the rules regulating the threat or use of force between States in international law and examines how these rules operate specifically in the context of territorial disputes. The report analyses a wide range of territorial disputes to clarify the legal obligations binding upon States involved in such disputes and the consequences flowing from a breach of these obligations.
Wednesday, July 4, 2018
Delerue: The Codification of the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations: A Matter for the ILC?
Tuesday, July 3, 2018
- James D. Fearon, Cooperation, Conflict, and the Costs of Anarchy
- Tyler Pratt, Deference and Hierarchy in International Regime Complexes
- Paul Musgrave & Daniel H. Nexon, Defending Hierarchy from the Moon to the Indian Ocean: Symbolic Capital and Political Dominance in Early Modern China and the Cold War
- Allison Carnegie & Austin Carson, The Spotlight's Harsh Glare: Rethinking Publicity and International Order
- Sarah Sunn Bush & Lauren Prather, Who's There? Election Observer Identity and the Local Credibility of Elections
- Ryan Brutger & Joshua D. Kertzer, A Dispositional Theory of Reputation Costs
- Fernando G. Nuñez-Mietz, Legalization and the Legitimation of the Use of Force: Revisiting Kosovo
Monday, July 2, 2018
Katselli Proukaki: Armed Conflict and Forcible Displacement: Individual Rights under International Law
- Elena Katselli Proukaki, The Right Not to Be Displaced by Armed Conflict under International Law
- Elena Katselli Proukaki, The Right to Return Home and the Right to Property Restitution under International Law
- Vassilis Tzevelekos, Reparation of the Rights to Property and Home of Displaced Persons Arising from Armed Conflict under the European Convention on Human Rights: Falling Short of the Exigencies of International Law and the Humanistic Purpose of Human Rights?
- Eleni Meleagrou & Costas Paraskeva, The Right to Respect of Home and Enjoyment of Property for Cypriot IDPS: The Developing Jurisprudence of the EctHR
- Nicolás Carrillo-Santarelli, Inter-American and Colombian Developments and Contributions on the Protection of Persecuted Internally Displaced Persons
- Rhona Smith, Ratana Ly & Chantevy Khourn, Forced displacement, dispossession and property: Cambodia
- Yasmine Nahlawi, Forcible Displacement as a weapon of war in the Syrian conflict: Lessons and developments
- Matthew Gillett, Collective Dislocation: crimes of displacement, property-deprivation and discrimination under international criminal law
- Matt McDonald, Climate change and security: towards ecological security?
- Meghan McConaughey, Paul Musgrave, Daniel H. Nexon, Beyond anarchy: logics of political organization, hierarchy, and international structure
- Orit Gazit, A Simmelian approach to space in world politics
- Ben Thirkell-White, Hard choices in global deliberative system reform: functional fragmentation, social integration, and cosmopolitan republicanism
The first commercial treaty concluded by the United States began as a diary entry by John Adams. Nearly two and a half centuries later, the United States and international trade law have come a long way, but the uniqueness of trade lawmaking persists. Then, as now and in the future, U.S. trade law has been and will be heavily influenced by the balance of power between Congress and the Executive. This Article argues that the carefully choreographed procedure for negotiating free trade agreements has contributed to a type of path dependence with respect to the text of those agreements to the detriment of U.S. interests. The recent failure of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement demonstrates this point: much of the agreement language copied prior agreements that were already subject to considerable criticism. Because that language tracked congressionally prescribed negotiating objectives, negotiators felt obliged to recycle it. This single modelling, driven by the bi-branch shared-power construct unique to trade, is under challenge on the eve of the NAFTA 2.0. While standardized language may have utility in certain spheres of international contract, the efficiency gains in international trade agreements do not outweigh an interest to reconsider text and standards where possible. This Article seeks to explain through traditional international relations theories the default modelling that occurs in the design of trade law instruments and proposes an under-explored explanation for further study, one that is contrary to the consensus on U.S. foreign relations law more generally: when it comes to trade agreements, Congress has assumed a role in which it may be considered to act as principal and the Executive acts as its agent.
Sunday, July 1, 2018
2018 marks the 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the seminal document which founded the international human rights law regime. Today’s context for rights, however, is markedly different. International human rights face increasing critique as a form of legal protection and language of emancipation. At this historic juncture, this workshop offers opportunity to take stock of this area of law and ask how critical engagement with ideas of temporality may lead to creative and innovative interventions in the present period. To this end, the workshop poses a number of questions: How can we think about the past, present and future of international human rights law? How can we understand and make visible the diverse temporalities that exist within this area of law? How do such temporalities differ from and relate to other temporalities, such as those of state and the global economy? Do the latter marginalise human rights internationally? Can alternative ways of understanding the connection between past, present and future offer possibilities for international human rights law to be thought anew?
Fitzgerald, Hughes, & Jewett: Reflections on Canada’s Past, Present and Future in International Law / Réflexions sur le passé, le présent et l’avenir du Canada en matière de droit international
- L. Yves Fortier, Foreword
- Oonagh E. Fitzgerald, Valerie Hughes & Mark Jewett, Introduction: Canada, International Law and the Public Good
- Part I: The History and Practice of International Law
- The Making of International Treaties and Implementation into Domestic Law
- Oonagh E. Fitzgerald, Introduction
- Gib van Ert, The Reception of International Law in Canada: Three Ways We Might Go Wrong
- Armand de Mestral & Hugo Cyr, Le rôle du Parlement dans la négociation et l’adoption des traités
- Gary Luton, A Historical Survey of Canadian International Treaty Diplomacy
- Charles-Emmanuel Côté, Le Canada et la capacité des entités infra-étatiques de conclure des traités
- Honouring International Treaties with Indigenous Peoples
- John Borrows, Introduction
- Brenda Gunn, Exploring the International Character of Treaties 1-11 and the Legal Consequences
- Joshua Nichols, Sui Generis Sovereignties: The Relationship between Treaty Interpretation and Canadian Sovereignty
- Rob Hamilton, Indigenous Legal Traditions and Histories of International and Transnational Law in the Pre-Confederation Maritime Provinces
- Ryan Beaton, The Crown Fiduciary Duty at the Supreme Court of Canada: Reaching across Nations, or Held within the Grip of the Crown?
- Part II: International Law, Governance and Innovation
- International Economic Law
- Johnathan Fried, Introduction
- Richard Ouellet, Le rôle du Canada dans l’évolution institutionnelle et substantive du système GATT/OMC
- Valerie Hughes, Canada: A Key Player in WTO Dispute Settlement
- Allison Christians, Taxing Transnationals: Canada and the World
- Brian Arnold, Canada’s International Tax System: Historical Review, Problems and Outlook for the Future
- Bernard Colas, Le Canada et le droit international privé en matière commerciale
- International Environmental Law
- Jutta Brunnée, Introduction
- Silvia Maciunas & Géraud de Lassus Saint-Geniès, The Evolution of Canada’s International and Domestic Climate Policy: From Divergence to Consistency?
- Anne Daniel, Canadian Contributions to International Environmental Law on Chemicals and Wastes
- Dean Sherratt & Marcus Davies, Going with the Flow: Sovereignty, Cooperation and Governance of US-Canada Transboundary and Boundary Waters
- Suzanne Lalonde, Canada’s Influence on the Law of the Sea
- Intellectual Property Law
- Jeremy de Beer, Introduction
- Howard Knopf, Canada’s Role in the Relationship of Trade and Intellectual Property
- Ton Zuijdwijk, The Integration of the Rules of International Intellectual Property Law into the Body of International Trade Law
- Part III: International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law
- Oonagh E. Fitzgerald, Introduction
- Stéphane Beaulac, La mise en oeuvre judiciaire des obligations internationales du Canada en matière de droits humains : Obstacles et embûches
- Adelle Blackett, “This is Hallowed Ground”: International Labour Law and Canada at 150
- Valerie Oosterveld, Canada and the Development of International Criminal Law: What Role for the Future?
- Fannie Lafontaine, Criminels de guerre au Canada? La valse-hésitation historique entre poursuites et expulsions
- René Provost, Enfants-soldats en droit international humanitaire : civils ou combattants? Expériences et réflexions canadiennes
- Part IV: New Challenges in International Law
- Oonagh E. Fitzgerald, Mark Jewett & Valerie Hughes, Conclusion: Looking Ahead
Saturday, June 30, 2018
- Dignity and end-of-life issues. Some open questions in light of the European Court of Human Rights’ recent case-law
- Introduced by Flavia Zorzi Giustiniani
- Jean Morange, Les dangers d’un droit à l’euthanasie
- Daria Sartori, End-of-life issues and the European Court of Human Rights. The value of personal autonomy within a ‘proceduralized’ review
Friday, June 29, 2018
- Concepts, doctrines, positions
- Chloé Berger, Apports et limites de l’approche girardienne des rivalités mimétiques à l’analyse des conflits
- Jean-Marc Coicaud, Le droit international et la question de la justice
- Jean-Marie Collin, L’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies ouvre la porte à un traité d’interdiction des armes nucléaires
- Manuel Eynard, La coutume internationale est-elle un mythe ?
- Hugo Meijer, Pour un renouveau des études de sécurité. L’Initiative européenne pour les études de sécurité
- Pierre Razoux, Nouveau panorama géopolitique en Afrique du Nord
- Serge Sur, Guerre et violence armée : droit en question, politique en échec
- Philippe Bou Nader, Le cadre politico-juridique des services de renseignement libanais. Doctrines, cadre juridique et agenda politique
- Rachid Chaker, La rivalité irano-saoudienne. De l’opposition théologique à l’affrontement politique
- Nabil El Khoury, Les représentations politiques de la diplomatie française dans les médias pro-iraniens au Liban, avant et après l’accord nucléaire
- Antoine Beausoleil, La Finlande sur la scène internationale. Du neutralisme en héritage au multilatéralisme en action
- Bernard Cubertafond, La crise conceptuelle de l’Union européenne
- Andrzej Szeptycki, La guerre d’information russe contre l’Occident. Le cas de l’Ukraine
- Migrants, réfugiés
- Julien Théron, Les réfugiés syriens, enjeu stratégique du conflit syrien
- Dia Jacques Gondo, La protection des réfugiés par la Constitution ivoirienne
- Gérard-François Dumont, L’immigration en Europe et en France dans les années 2010
- Volume 388
- Michael Joachim Bonell, The Law Governing International Commercial Contracts: Hard Law Versus Soft Law
- Burkhard Hess, The Private-Public Divide in International Dispute Resolution
Thursday, June 28, 2018
The accession of the People's Republic of China to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 significantly transformed the global economy both de facto and de jure. At the regional level, China's WTO accession served as an important catalyst for the establishment of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) in East Asia. This was a novel development for the region, since East Asian States had previously followed a largely informal, market-driven approach to regional economic integration. By contrast, rules-based economic integration involving East Asian States was traditionally limited to multilateral integration under the GATT/WTO framework.
This book systematically analyses and explains the development, nature and challenges of rules-based regional economic integration in East Asia with particular attention to the region's first four RTAs. While also addressing the socio-economic, historical and political factors influencing the development of RTAs in East Asia, the book focuses on the legal institutions governing economic integration in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as well as under the ASEAN–China Comprehensive Economic Co-Operation Agreement (ACFTA), the Japan–Singapore New Age Economic Partnership Agreement (JSEPA), and the Mainland China–Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA). The book provides a systematic, comparative account of the scope, depth and (hard law versus soft law) quality of rules-based economic integration achieved under these four RTAs in the areas of trade in goods and services, investment liberalisation and protection, labour movement, and dispute settlement.
- Maurice Eisenbruch, The cloak of impunity in Cambodia I: cultural foundations
- Kjersti Skarstad, Ensuring human rights for persons with intellectual disabilities? Self-determination policies and the use of force in the case of Norway
- Janine Natalya Clark, De-centring trauma: conflict-related sexual violence and the importance of resilience discourse
- Maurice Eisenbruch, The cloak of impunity in Cambodia II: justice
- Ian Cram, Protocol 15 and Articles 10 and 11 ECHR—The Partial Triumph of Political Incumbency Post-Brighton?
- Gabrielle Appleby & Alysia Blackham, The Shadow of the Court: The Growing Imperative to Reform Ethical Regulation of Former Judges
- Barrie Sander, History on Trial: Historical Narrative Pluralism Within and Beyond International Criminal Courts
- Yarik Kryvoi, Economic Crimes in International Investment Law
- Benjamin Hayward, Bruno Zeller, & Camilla Baasch Andersen, The CISG and the United Kingdom—Exploring Coherency and Private International Law
- Luke Chircop, A Due Diligence Standard of Attribution in Cyberspace
- Anton Moiseienko, The Ownership of Confiscated Proceeds of Corruption Under the UN Convention Against Corruption
- Sungyong Kang, Rethinking the Global Anti-Money Laundering Regulations to Deter Corruption
- Short Article
- Meliz Erdem & Steven Greer, Human Rights, the Cyprus Problem and the Immovable Property Commission
- Volume 387
- Yves Lequette, Les mutations du droit international privé: vers un changement de paradigme? Cours général de droit international privé
Hettche: Die Beteiligung der Legislative bei Vorbehalten zu und Kündigung von völkerrechtlichen Verträgen
Die von der Bundesrepublik Deutschland abgeschlossenen völkerrechtlichen Verträge haben sich seit Inkrafttreten des Grundgesetzes vervielfacht und betreffen viele Rechtsbereiche, die ehemals dem nationalen Gesetzgeber überlassen waren. Der Abschluss völkerrechtlicher Verträge erfolgt nach dem Grundgesetz durch die Exekutive unter Beteiligung der Legislative. Zur Beteiligung der Legislative bei der Einlegung von Vorbehalten zu und der Kündigung von völkerrechtlichen Verträgen enthält das Grundgesetz keine explizite Regelung. Juliane Hettche legt die vorhandenen Regelungen des Grundgesetzes nach Wortlaut, Historie, Systematik und Teleologie aus. Sie überträgt die Grundsätze, die das Zusammenwirken von Legislative und Exekutive im Innenverhältnis prägen, auf das Außenverhältnis. Daraus leitet sie sowohl Zustimmungs- als auch Initiativrechte der Legislative bei der Einlegung von Vorbehalten zu und der Kündigung von völkerrechtlichen Verträgen her.
Wednesday, June 27, 2018
- Special Issue: The Future of Transatlantic Economic Governance in the Age of the BRICS
- Julie A. Maupin & Marina Trunk-Fedorova, Special Issue: The Future of Transatlantic Economic Governance in the Age of the BRICS
- Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, Citizens and Transatlantic Free Trade Agreements: How to Reconcile American ‘Constitutional Nationalism’ with European ‘Multilevel Constitutionalism’?
- Maria Anna Corvaglia, TTIP Negotiations and Public Procurement: Internal Federalist Tensions and External Risks of Marginalisation
- Ilaria Espa & Kateryna Holzer, Negotiating 21st Century Rules on Energy: What Is at Stake for the European Union, the United States and the BRICS?
- Beatriz Barreiro Carril, How Can China Influence the Transatlantic Governance of Cultural Products in the Digital Age?
- Geraldo Vidigal & Beatriz Stevens, Brazil’s New Model of Dispute Settlement for Investment: Return to the Past or Alternative for the Future?
- Elisabetta Cervone, Structural Banking Reforms in the Age of the BRICS: Transatlantic Cooperation Within a Multilateral Framework
- Chien-Huei Wu, Global Economic Governance in the Wake of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank: Is China Remaking Bretton Woods?
- Aike I. Würdemann, The BRICS Contingent Reserve Arrangement: A Subversive Power Against the IMF’s Conditionality?
This book represents the first multi-disciplinary introduction to the study of war crimes trials and investigations. It introduces readers to the numerous disciplines engaged with this complex subject, including: Forensic Anthropology, Economics and Anthropometrics, Legal History, Violence Studies, International Criminal Justice, International Relations, and Moral Philosophy. The contributors are experts in their respective fields and the chapters highlight each discipline’s major trends, debates, methods and approaches to mass atrocity, genocide, and crimes against humanity, as well as their interactions with adjacent disciplines. Case studies illustrate how the respective disciplines work in practice, including examples from the Allied Hunger Blockade, WWII, the Guatemalan and Spanish Civil Wars, the Former Yugoslavia, and Uganda. Including bibliographical essays to offer readers crucial orientation when approaching the specialist literature in each case, this edited collection equips readers with what they need to know in order to navigate a complex, and until now, deeply fragmented field.
- Diego Alexandre-García Fernández, Jurisdictional Difficulties of International Arbitration Tribunals when Addressing Price Review Disputes Concerning Gas Supply Agreements
- Sara Scordo, The Arbitrability of Corporate Disputes: Latin America and Western Europe in Comparative Perspective
- Herman M. Duarte, El poder de discriminar y los derechos de las minorías LGBTI
- Mila Jazmín Cantar, El derecho a la identidad de género y su respeto en Facebook en relación con la legislación argentina
Confronting recalcitrant and even hostile governments is nothing new for international human rights courts, treaty bodies, and other monitoring mechanisms. Yet there is a growing sense that the recent turn to populism in several countries poses a new type of threat that international human rights law (IHRL) institutions are ill equipped to meet. The concerns range in scope and intensity—from criticisms of specific rulings or legal doctrines, to predictions of backlash against particular courts or review bodies, to warnings that major sections of the institutional edifice of IHRL are in danger of collapse. Part 1 of this essay identifies several facilitating conditions that have, until recently, supported IHRL institutions. Part 2 considers several distinctive challenges that populism poses to those institutions. Part 3 identifies a range of legal and political tools that might be deployed to address those challenges and explores their efficacy and potential risks. Part 4 concludes that IHRL institutions should adopt survival strategies for the age of populism and it preliminarily sketches what those strategies might look like.
Although the legitimacy of investor-state arbitration has come under fire, states have not (yet) converged on which reforms to pursue. In simplified terms, three main camps have emerged to date:
1. Incrementalists view the criticisms of the current system as overblown and argue that investor-state arbitration remains the best option available. Hence, they favor retaining the existing dispute resolution system but instituting modest reforms that would redress specific concerns.
2. Systemic reformers see merit in retaining investors’ ability to file claims directly on the international level, but view investor-state arbitration as a seriously flawed system for dealing with such claims. They champion more significant, systemic reforms, such as replacing investor-state arbitration with a multilateral investment court and appellate body.
3. Paradigm shifters dismiss the existing system as irrevocably flawed and in need of wholesale replacement. They reject the utility of investors’ making international claims against states, whether before arbitral tribunals or international courts. They embrace a variety of alternatives, such as domestic courts, ombudsmen, and state-to-state arbitration.
Against this backdrop, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) gave one of its working groups a three-staged mandate to investigate the possible reform of investor-state dispute settlement, which required it, first, to identify and consider concerns about investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS); second, to consider whether reform was desirable in light of any identified concerns; and, third, if reform was desirable, to develop relevant solutions to be recommended to the Commission.
This essay (1) conceptualizes the three main reform approaches that have been advocated to date and identifies the likely strategies of, and risks faced by, the different reform champions; and (2) analyzes UNCITRAL’s role in these reforms as both a venue and an actor navigating a complex series of relationships with other key stakeholders. Pointing to the future, I conclude by identifying the likelihood of ongoing pluralism with respect to different institutional processes for resolving investment disputes and sketching how actors might proceed to develop flexibility both among and within different reform options.