Saturday, March 14, 2020

Hunt & Orchard: Constructing the Responsibility to Protect: Contestation and Consolidation

Charles T. Hunt (RMIT Univ.) & Phil Orchard (Univ. of Wollongong) have published Constructing the Responsibility to Protect: Contestation and Consolidation (Routledge 2020). The table of contents is here. Here's the abstract:
This volume examines the ongoing construction of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine, elaborating on areas of both consolidation and contestation. The book focuses on how the R2P doctrine has been both consolidated and contested along three dimensions, regarding its meaning, status and application. The first focuses on how the R2P should be understood in a theoretical sense, exploring it through the lens of the International Relations constructivist approach and through different toolkits available to conventional and critical constructivists. The second focuses on how the R2P interacts with other normative frameworks, and how this interaction can lead to a range of effects from mutual reinforcement and co-evolution through to unanticipated feedback that can undermine consensus and flexibility. The third focuses on how key state actors – including the United States, China and Russia – understand, use and contest the R2P. Together, the book’s chapters demonstrate that broad aspects of the R2P are consolidated in the sense that they are accepted by states even while other, specific aspects, remain subject to contestation in practice and in policy.

Fernandez & de Frouville: L’hirondelle et la tortue : Quatrièmes journées de la justice pénale internationale

Julian Fernandez & Olivier de Frouville have published L’hirondelle et la tortue : Quatrièmes journées de la justice pénale internationale (Pedone 2020). The table of contents is here. Here's the abstract:

Cet ouvrage reprend les actes des quatrièmes journées de la justice pénale internationale, tenues à l’Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris 2) début 2019. Les troisièmes journées avaient été l’occasion d’un regard rétrospectif sur un phénomène contemporain, multidimensionnel et incertain pour mettre en lumière les mutations de la justice pénale internationale, au terme du mandat du Tribunal pour l’ex-Yougoslavie et vingt ans après l’adoption du Statut de Rome.

Le programme de l’édition 2019 a été élaboré avec la conscience lucide des défis auxquels la justice pénale internationale fait face, après une année riche en rebondissements. Si la CPI a pu décevoir, les solutions « hybrides » montrent aussi leurs limites. Les organisateurs ont donc voulu insister dans cette édition sur les potentialités – sans doute encore insuffisamment exploitées – de l’exercice national de la justice pénale internationale, autrement dit le recours aux tribunaux nationaux. Comme tous les ans, les journées sont aussi l’occasion pour les universitaires et les praticiens de croiser leurs regards sur l’actualité du droit international pénal durant l’année écoulée.

Friday, March 13, 2020

New Addition to the UN Audiovisual Library of International Law

The Codification Division of the UN Office of Legal Affairs recently added a lecture to the UN Audiovisual Library of International Law. It was given by Gérardine Goh Escolar on “Introduction to The Hague Conference on Private International Law and Its Work” and is available in English, French, and Spanish.

Leriche: L’impact normatif de la Déclaration des Nations Unies sur les droits des peuples autochtones : De l'effectivité d'une déclaration en droit international

Luc Leriche has published L’impact normatif de la Déclaration des Nations Unies sur les droits des peuples autochtones : De l'effectivité d'une déclaration en droit international (Pedone 2020). Here's the abstract:

L’année 2019 a marqué le douzième anniversaire de l’adoption, au sein de la résolution 61/295 de l’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies, de la Déclaration des Nations Unies sur les droits des peuples autochtones. Cet instrument, accueilli à l’époque comme un triomphe pour la justice et la dignité humaine, constitue l’aboutissement de l’intégration des revendications autochtones au processus international d’établissement de la reconnaissance, de la protection et de la promotion des droits de l’homme. La Déclaration entend présenter une liste détaillée de droits et libertés constituant les normes minimales nécessaires à la survie, àla dignité et au bien-être des peuples autochtones qui doivent être respectés dans l’ordre juridique international. Elle leur reconnait notamment des droits spécifiques tout en précisant les droits de l’homme fondamentaux d’application universelle qu’elle place dans le contexte culturel, historique, social et économique de ces peuples.

Sa nature non contraignante place la Déclaration dans la catégorie des instruments de « droit mou » ou soft law qui est généralement caractérisé comme un droit abstrait dans l’incapacité d’avoir des effets tangibles en droit international. Dans cette perspective, la résolution 61/295 ne serait qu’un instrument politique de persuasion visant à encourager la protection des droits des peuples autochtones en droit international.

L’étude de la pratique des États et des institutions internationales concernés par la question autochtone contredit cette vision conservatrice du droit international où seul le « droit dur », de par les perspectives de sanctions qui l’accompagnent, serait en mesure d’imposer des normes de comportement aux acteurs internationaux. En effet, l’analyse de la mise en œuvre de cette Magna Carta des droits des peuples autochtones constitue l’une des illustrations contemporaines de la pratique du droit international qui ne présume plus désormais du caractère recommandatoire d’un instrument international son ineffectivité juridique. Au contraire, l’auteur montre que cette marque de « droit souple » assignée à la Déclaration a plus souvent facilité son application effective que son rejet par les acteurs internationaux.

Au-delà d’une étude portant sur le contenu et les répercussions juridiques de la Déclaration dans le domaine de la protection internationale des droits des peuples autochtones, cet ouvrage entend mettre l’accent sur les potentialités d’application effective d’un instrument de soft law en droit international.

New Issue: International Legal Materials

The latest issue of International Legal Materials (Vol. 59, no. 1, February 2020) is out. Contents include:
  • Animal Science Products, Inc. v. Hebei Welcome Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (U.S. Sup. Ct.), with introductory note by Christopher A. Whytock
  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 2474, with introductory note by Claire Clement
  • Qatar v. United Arab Emirates: Order on Provisional Measures (I.C.J.), with introductory note by Priya Pillai
  • Recommendation of the Council on Artificial Intelligence (OECD), with introductory note by Karen Yeung
  • Mammadov v. Azerbaijan (Eur. Ct. H.R.), with introductory note by Kanstantsin Dzehtsiarou
  • Opinion 1/17 (C.J.E.U), with introductory note by Jonathan Lim
  • Serin Alheto v. Zamestnik-Predsedatel Na Darzhavna Agentsia Za Bezhantsite (C.J.E.U.), with introductory note by Niovi Vavoula
  • Trial Chamber Case 002/02 Against Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan (Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia), with introductory note by Suhong Yang

New Issue: International Studies Quarterly

The latest issue of the International Studies Quarterly (Vol. 64, no. 1, March 2020) is out. Contents include:
  • Carolina Moehlecke, The Chilling Effect of International Investment Disputes: Limited Challenges to State Sovereignty
  • Anastassia V Obydenkova & Vinícius G Rodrigues Vieira, The Limits of Collective Financial Statecraft: Regional Development Banks and Voting Alignment with the United States at the United Nations General Assembly
  • Lauge N Skovgaard Poulsen, Beyond Credible Commitments: (Investment) Treaties as Focal Points
  • Celeste Beesley, Foreign Policy Preferences in Ukraine: Trade and Ethnolinguistic Identity
  • Megan MacKenzie, Eda Gunaydin, & Umeya Chaudhuri, Illicit Military Behavior as Exceptional and Inevitable: Media Coverage of Military Sexual Violence and the “Bad Apples” Paradox
  • Luis L Schenoni, Gary Goertz, Andrew P Owsiak, & Paul F Diehl, Settling Resistant Territorial Disputes: The Territorial Boundary Peace in Latin America
  • Michael R Kenwick, Self-Reinforcing Civilian Control: A Measurement-Based Analysis of Civil-Military Relations
  • Kristin M Bakke, Neil J Mitchell, & Hannah M Smidt, When States Crack Down on Human Rights Defenders
  • James C Franklin, Human Rights on the March: Repression, Oppression, and Protest in Latin America
  • Michelle Giacobbe Allendoerfer, Amanda Murdie, & Ryan M Welch, The Path of the Boomerang: Human Rights Campaigns, Third-Party Pressure, and Human Rights
  • Kristopher Velasco, A Growing Queer Divide: The Divergence between Transnational Advocacy Networks and Foreign Aid in Diffusing LGBT Policies
  • Lauren Prather, Transnational Ties and Support for Foreign Aid
  • Andrew Delatolla, Sexuality as a Standard of Civilization: Historicizing (Homo)Colonial Intersections of Race, Gender, and Class
  • Nina Hall, Hans Peter Schmitz, & J Michael Dedmon, Transnational Advocacy and NGOs in the Digital Era: New Forms of Networked Power
  • Alexander De Juan, Heterogeneous Effects of Development Aid on Violent Unrest in Postwar Countries: Village-Level Evidence from Nepal
  • Jessica Maves Braithwaite & Kathleen Gallagher Cunningham, When Organizations Rebel: Introducing the Foundations of Rebel Group Emergence (FORGE) Dataset
  • Jeffrey B Arnold, J Tyson Chatagnier, & Gary E Hollibaugh, Jr, Allegiance, Ability, and Achievement in the American Civil War: Commander Traits and Battlefield Military Effectiveness
  • Sarah von Billerbeck, “Mirror, Mirror On the Wall:” Self-Legitimation by International Organizations
  • Lauren Peritz, When are International Institutions Effective? The Impact of Domestic Veto Players on Compliance with WTO Rulings
  • Cale Horne, Kellan Robinson, & Megan Lloyd, The Relationship between Contributors’ Domestic Abuses and Peacekeeper Misconduct in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations
  • Arthur A Goldsmith, Out of Africa? Elections and Capital Flight Revisited
  • Erica Frantz, Elections and Capital Flight: A Response to Goldsmith

New Issue: Journal of International Arbitration

The latest issue of the Journal of International Arbitration (Vol. 37, no. 1, 2020) is out. Contents include:
  • Markus Petsche, Restrictive Interpretation of Investment Treaties: A Critical Analysis of Arbitral Case Law
  • Kabir A.N. Duggal & Rekha Rangachari, A Challenger Approaches: An Assessment of the Prague Rules on the Efficient Conduct of Proceedings in International Arbitration
  • Jose F. Sanchez, Applying the Model Law’s Standard for Interim Measures in International Arbitration
  • Alireza Salehifar, Rethinking the Role of Arbitration in International Tax Treaties
  • Lars Markert & Raeesa Rawal, Emergency Arbitration in Investment and Construction Disputes: An Uneasy Fit?
  • Kayihura Muganga Didas, John Mwemezi Rutta, & Claire Umwali Munyentwari, Striking a Balance Between Assistance and Interventionism: The Role of Courts in Rwanda-Seated Arbitrations

Vogt et al.: The Right to Strike in International Law

Jeffrey Vogt, Janice Bellace, Lance Compa, K D Ewing, John Hendy, Klaus Lörcher, & Tonia Novitz have published The Right to Strike in International Law (Hart Publishing 2020). Here's the abstract:

This monograph was originally developed as a direct response to the claim made by members of the 'Employers Group' at the 2012 International Labour Conference, namely that the right to strike is not protected in international law, and in particular by ILO Convention 87 on the right to freedom of association.

The group's apparent aim was to sow sufficient doubt as to the existence of an internationally protected right so that governments might seek to limit or prohibit the right to strike at the national level while still claiming compliance with their international obligations. In consequence, some governments have seized on the employers' arguments to justify new limitations on that right.

The Right to Strike in International Law not merely refutes this claim but is the only complete and exhaustive analysis on this subject. Based on deep legal research, it finds that there is simply no credible basis for the claim that the right to strike does not enjoy the protection of international law; indeed, the authors demonstrate that it has attained the status of customary international law.

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Taylor: Catholic Cosmopolitanism and Human Rights

Leonard Francis Taylor (National Univ. of Ireland, Galway) has published Catholic Cosmopolitanism and Human Rights (Cambridge Univ. Press 2020). Here's the abstract:
It is because Catholicism played such a formative role in the construction of Western legal culture that it is the focal point of this enquiry. The account of international law from its origin in the treaties of Westphalia, and located in the writing of the Grotian tradition, had lost contact with another cosmopolitan history of international law that reappeared with the growth of the early twentieth century human rights movement. The beginnings of the human rights movement, grounded in democratic sovereign power, returned to that moral vocabulary to promote the further growth of international order in the twentieth century. In recognising this technique of periodically returning to Western cosmopolitan legal culture, this book endeavours to provide a more complete account of the human rights project that factors in the contribution that cosmopolitan Catholicism made to a general theory of sovereignty, international law and human rights.

Akande, Kuosmanen, McDermott, & Roser: Human Rights and 21st Century Challenges: Poverty, Conflict, and the Environment

Dapo Akande (Univ. of Oxford), Jaakko Kuosmanen (Demos Helsinki), Helen McDermott (Univ. of Oxford), & Dominic Roser (Univ. of Fribourg) have published Human Rights and 21st Century Challenges: Poverty, Conflict, and the Environment (Oxford Univ. Press 2020). The table of contents is here. Here's the abstract:

The world is faced with significant and interrelated challenges in the 21st century which threaten human rights in a number of ways. This book examines three of the largest issues of the century - armed conflict, environment, and poverty - and examines how these may be addressed using a human rights framework. It considers how these challenges threaten human rights and reassesses our understanding of human rights in the light of these issues.

This multidisciplinary text considers both foundational and applied questions such as the relationship between morality and the laws of war, as well as the application of the International Human Rights Framework in cyber space.

Alongside analyses from some of the most prominent lawyers, philosophers, and political theorists in the debate, each section includes contributions by those who have served as Special Rapporteurs within the United Nations Human Rights System on the challenges facing international human rights laws today.

New Issue: International Studies Review

The latest issue of International Studies Review (Vol. 22, no. 1, March 2020) is out. Contents include:
  • Jonas Schneider, The Study of Leaders in Nuclear Proliferation and How to Reinvigorate It
  • Adam Kochanski, The “Local Turn” in Transitional Justice: Curb the Enthusiasm
  • Nicole Deitelhoff & Lisbeth Zimmermann, Things We Lost in the Fire: How Different Types of Contestation Affect the Robustness of International Norms
  • Seanon S Wong, Mapping the Repertoire of Emotions and Their Communicative Functions in Face-to-face Diplomacy
  • Nicolás Terradas, The Quest for Order in Anarchical Societies: Anthropological Investigations
  • Dustin N Sharp, Positive Peace, Paradox, and Contested Liberalisms
  • Lin Alexandra Mortensgaard, Contesting Frames and (De)Securitizing Schemas: Bridging the Copenhagen School's Framework and Framing Theory

New Issue: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics

The latest issue of International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics (Vol. 20, no. 1, March 2020) is out. Contents include:
  • Oran R. Young & Olav Schram Stokke, Why is it hard to solve environmental problems? The perils of institutional reductionism and institutional overload
  • Brian Pentz & Nicole Klenk, Understanding the limitations of current RFMO climate change adaptation strategies: the case of the IATTC and the Eastern Pacific Ocean
  • Paula Castro, Past and future of burden sharing in the climate regime: positions and ambition from a top-down to a bottom-up governance system
  • James Hollway, Jean-Frédéric Morin & Joost Pauwelyn, Structural conditions for novelty: the introduction of new environmental clauses to the trade regime complex
  • Tao Huang & Qingyue Yue, How the game changer was generated? An analysis on the legal rules and development of China’s green bond market
  • Ahmet Conker & Hussam Hussein, Hydropolitics and issue-linkage along the Orontes River Basin: an analysis of the Lebanon–Syria and Syria–Turkey hydropolitical relations
  • Taedong Lee & Wooyeal Paik, Asymmetric barriers in atmospheric politics of transboundary air pollution: a case of particulate matter (PM) cooperation between China and South Korea
  • George Atisa, Policy adoption, legislative developments, and implementation: the resulting global differences among countries in the management of biological resources
  • Francisco J. Alcaraz-Quiles, Andrés Navarro-Galera & David Ortiz-Rodríguez, The contribution of the right to information laws in Europe to local government transparency on sustainability
  • Xuyu Hu, The doctrine of liability fixation of state responsibility in the convention on transboundary pollution damage

New Issue: International Peacekeeping

The latest issue of International Peacekeeping (Vol. 27, no. 2, 2020) is out. Contents include:
  • Sabine Lee & Susan Bartels, ‘They Put a Few Coins in Your Hand to Drop a Baby in You’: A Study of Peacekeeper-fathered Children in Haiti
  • Ralph Sundberg, UN Peacekeeping and Forced Displacement in South Sudan
  • Manuela Nilsson & Lucía González Marín, Violent Peace: Local Perceptions of Threat and Insecurity in Post-Conflict Colombia
  • Lou Pingeot, International Peacebuilding as a Case of Structural Injustice
  • A. Walter Dorn, Stewart Webb & Sylvain Pâquet, From Wargaming to Peacegaming: Digital Simulations with Peacekeeper Roles Needed
  • Anup Phayal & Brandon C. Prins, Deploying to Protect: The Effect of Military Peacekeeping Deployments on Violence Against Civilians

New Issue: Global Society

The latest issue of Global Society (Vol. 34, no. 2, 2020) is out. Contents include:
  • Ciaran Gillespie, Virtual Humanity—Access, Empathy and Objectivity in VR Film Making
  • Ihnji Jon, Scales of Political Action in the Anthropocene: Gaia, Networks, and Cities as Frontiers of Doing Earthly Politics
  • Carolijn van Noort, Strategic Narratives of the Past: An Analysis of China’s New Silk Road Communication
  • Evgeny Troitskiy, Dead-Letter Regimes in the Post-Soviet Space: Strategies and Communication
  • Ari Jerrems, “An Opening Toward the Possible”: Assembly Politics and Henri Lefebvre's Theory of the Event
  • Mabruk Derbesh, The Impact of Political Change on the State of Academia Including Academic Freedom in the Arab World: Libya as a Case Study
  • Jenny Barrett, Counter-conduct and its Intra-modern Limits

New Issue: International Community Law Review

The latest issue of the International Community Law Review (Vol. 22, no. 1, 2020) is out. Contents include:
  • Special Issue: Subsequent Agreement and Practice in Treaty Interpretation
    • Georg Nolte, Introductory Note to the Special Issue of ICLR on the Outcome of the ILC Work on “Subsequent Agreements and Subsequent Practice in Relation to the Interpretation of Treaties”
    • Malgosia Fitzmaurice, Subsequent Agreement and Subsequent Practice: Some Reflections on the International Law Commission’s Draft Conclusions
    • Danae Azaria, The Legal Significance of Expert Treaty Bodies Pronouncements for the Purpose of the Interpretation of Treaties
    • Yukiya Hamamoto, Possible Limitations to the Role of Subsequent Agreements and Subsequent Practice – Viewed from Some State Practices
    • Mika Hayashi, Non-Proliferation Treaty and Nuclear Disarmament: Article VI of the NPT in Light of the ILC Draft Conclusions on Subsequent Agreements and Practice
    • Dai Tamada, The Japan-South Korea Claims Agreement: Identification of Subsequent Agreement and Practice

Kassoti: Between Sollen and Sein: The CJEU’s reliance on international law in the interpretation of economic agreements covering occupied territories

Eva Kassoti (T.M.C. Asser Instituut - Centre for the Law of European External Relations) has posted Between Sollen and Sein: The CJEU’s reliance on international law in the interpretation of economic agreements covering occupied territories (Leiden Journal of International Law, forthcoming). Here's the abstract:
This contribution focuses on the Court of Justice of the European Union (Court or CJEU) reliance on international law in cases involving economic agreements covering occupied territories. In its earlier case law, the Court adopted a formalistic approach by ignoring the broader international legal framework of the dispute in an effort to achieve conformity with international law, while at the same time avoiding being drawn into political storms. The article continues by identifying an even more worrisome trend in the Court’s latest judgments in the Front Polisario and Western Sahara Campaign UK cases. In these two cases the Court showed its willingness to stretch the international rules of treaty interpretation to a breaking point in order to avoid pronouncing on the politically sensitive question of the de facto application of the EU’s agreements with Morocco in the territory of Western Sahara. The article concludes by asserting that the Court’s line of argumentation brings another dimension to the Völkerrechtsfreundlichkeit debate. The classical, binary understanding of the Court’s approach as ‘open/hostile’ to international law only provides us with a partial picture of how international law was actually used in these cases. The Court’s apparent willingness to rely on international law as a heuristic device to reinforce an outcome that radically departs from the logic and structure of international law and international legal argumentation requires a more in-depth engagement with both the content of the international law rules invoked in those judgments and with the Court’s use of such rules.

Call for Submissions and Young Practitioners and Scholars Essay Competition: European Investment Law and Arbitration Review

The European Investment Law and Arbitration Review has issued a call for submissions for its 2020 issue. The call is here. EILAR also invites submissions for its Young Practitioners and Scholars Essay Competition. Details regarding the essay competition are here.

New Issue: International Affairs

The latest issue of International Affairs (Vol. 96, no. 2, March 2020) is out. Contents include:
  • Engaging Religions and Religious Studies in International Affairs
    • Katherine E Brown, Introduction: engaging religions and religious studies in international affairs
    • Katherine E Brown, Religious violence, gender and post-secular counterterrorism
    • Oula Kadhum, Unpacking the role of religion in political transnationalism: the case of the Shi'a Iraqi diaspora since 2003
    • Emma Tomalin, Global aid and faith actors: the case for an actor-orientated approach to the ‘turn to religion’
    • Jeremy Kidwell, Mapping the field of religious environmental politics
    • Caron E Gentry, The politics of hope: privilege, despair and political theology
  • Articles
    • Daniel W Drezner, Immature leadership: Donald Trump and the American presidency
    • Olivier Schmitt, Wartime paradigms and the future of western military power
    • Xiangfeng Yang, The great Chinese surprise: the rupture with the United States is real and is happening
    • Camile Oliveira & Erin Baines, Children ‘born of war’: a role for fathers?
    • Anne-Kathrin Kreft, Civil society perspectives on sexual violence in conflict: patriarchy and war strategy in Colombia
    • Paul D Williams, The Security Council's peacekeeping trilemma
    • Lee-Anne Sim, Influencing the social impact of financial systems: alternative strategies

Call for Submissions: The African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA)

Transnational Dispute Management has issued a call for submissions for a special issue on "The African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA)." The call is here.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Chehtman: Asymmetrical Warfare

Alejandro Chehtman (Universidad Torcuato Di Tella - Law) has posted Asymmetrical Warfare (in The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Peace and Conflict Studies, O. Richmond & G. Visoka eds., forthcoming). Here's the abstract:
Although asymmetrical warfare has been part non-conventional warfare for much of human history, it has become a prevailing form of warfare in recent times. This entry argues that this form of warfare is characterized, first and foremost, by significant material asymmetries between belligerents, both in terms of number of troops and, most significantly in terms of the vast technological differences between belligerents. Yet this type of conflict is also characterized by four additional, albeit related asymmetries, namely, asymmetrical strategies, asymmetrical status, asymmetrical moral standing, and asymmetrical weapons systems. These features have further entailed that this type of conflict blurs the traditional borders separating war from peacetime, as well as combatants from civilians, and even traditional geographical borders. Finally, this entry maps many of the deep legal, ethical and strategic challenges that asymmetrical warfare creates.

Call for Papers: The Reality of International Legal Theory – Reality in International Legal Theory

A call for papers has been issued for a conference on "The Reality of International Legal Theory – Reality in International Legal Theory." The conference is organised by iCourts, the Danish National Research Foundation's Centre of Excellence for International Courts at the University of Copenhagen, in conjunction with the European Society of International Law’s Interest Group on International Legal Theory and Philosophy. It will be held at the University of Copenhagen on October 23-24, 2020. The call is here.

Perrone: International Investment Law as Transnational Law

Nicolás M. Perrone (Universidad Andrés Bello) has posted International Investment Law as Transnational Law (in The Oxford Handbook of Transnational Law, Peer Zumbansen ed., forthcoming). Here's the abstract:
In the last twenty years, the international investment regime has attracted wide attention. Academics, policymakers and civil society have studied this regime using different analytical and normative frameworks, defending as much as criticizing international investment treaties and arbitration. Interestingly, however, there is not much literature analyzing international investment law through the lenses of transnational law. This limited interest is surprising given the transnational law origin of the regime – as shown by Sornarajah and Anghie – and the relevance of transnational law to understand the relationship between public and private law and international and domestic law in global economic relations. This chapter relies on a transnational law framework to show that these legal categories are contingent and only explain certain aspects of the international investment regime. A transnational law framework provides a valuable vantage point to assess the political economy of this regime, in particular, how it affects the relationship between states, foreign investors and local communities. The analysis begins from arbitrators’ ability to interpret the law or, as Michaels suggests, to dream of delocalized law.