The questions presented by the petition are:
1. Whether, in light of the opposition to this litigation expressed by the Executive Branch, by South Africa, and by other nations - because plaintiffs’ suits effectively seek to overturn South Africa’s post-apartheid policy of reconciliation as well as the policies of the United States and other nations - the cases should be dismissed on grounds of case-specific deference to the political branches, political question, or international comity.
2. Whether a private defendant may be sued under the ATS for aiding and abetting a violation of international law by a foreign government in its own territory.
3. Whether a private defendant may be held directly liable under the ATS for violating international law standards codified in a ratified treaty that Congress expressly provided does not create enforceable rights.